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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909104/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#1
J A Heinsbroek, D N Neuhofer, W C Griffin, G S Siegel, A-C Bobadilla, Y M Kupchik, P W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, while activity in D2-MSNs inhibits motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906434/effect-and-mechanism-of-par-2-on-the-proliferation-of-esophageal-cancer-cells
#2
D Quanjun, Z Qingyu, Z Qiliang, X Liqun, C Jinmei, L Ziquan, H Shike
OBJECTIVE: Esophageal Cancer (EC) is a common malignant tumor occurred in the digestive tract. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Protease Activated Receptor 2 (PAR-2) on the proliferation of esophageal cancer cell. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transfected esophageal cancer (EC) cell (PAR-2shRNA EC109) was established with low stable PAR-2 expression. EC109 cell was treated with PAR-2 agonist, PAR-2 anti-agonist and MAPK inhibitor respectively; Untreated EC109 cell (blank control) and PAR-2shRNA EC109 cell were used for analysis also...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906181/stat6-deficiency-ameliorates-graves-disease-severity-by-suppressing-thyroid-epithelial-cell-hyperplasia
#3
Xuechao Jiang, Bingbing Zha, Xiaoming Liu, Ronghua Liu, Jun Liu, Enyu Huang, Tingting Qian, Jiajing Liu, Zhiming Wang, Dan Zhang, Luman Wang, Yiwei Chu
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is involved in epithelial cell growth. However, little is known regarding the STAT6 phosphorylation status in Graves' disease (GD) and its role in thyroid epithelial cells (TECs). In this study, we found that STAT6 phosphorylation (p-STAT6) was significantly increased in TECs from both GD patients and experimental autoimmune Graves' disease mice and that STAT6 deficiency ameliorated GD symptoms. Autocrine IL-4 signalling in TECs activated the phosphorylation of STAT6 via IL-4 R engagement, and the downstream targets of STAT6 were Bcl-xL and cyclin D1...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896839/dopamine-elevates-and-lowers-astroglial-ca-2-through-distinct-pathways-depending-on-local-synaptic-circuitry
#4
Alistair Jennings, Olga Tyurikova, Lucie Bard, Kaiyu Zheng, Alexey Semyanov, Christian Henneberger, Dmitri A Rusakov
Whilst astrocytes in culture invariably respond to dopamine with cytosolic Ca(2+) rises, the dopamine sensitivity of astroglia in situ and its physiological roles remain unknown. To minimize effects of experimental manipulations on astroglial physiology, here we monitored Ca(2+) in cells connected via gap junctions to astrocytes loaded whole-cell with cytosolic indicators in area CA1 of acute hippocampal slices. Aiming at high sensitivity of [Ca(2+) ] measurements, we also employed life-time imaging of the Ca(2+) indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1...
November 29, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894877/relief-learning-requires-a-coincident-activation-of-dopamine-d1-and-nmda-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens
#5
Jorge R Bergado Acosta, Evelyn Kahl, Georgios Kogias, Taygun C Uzuneser, Markus Fendt
Relief learning is the association of a stimulus with the offset of an aversive event. Later, the now conditioned relief stimulus induces appetitive-like behavioral changes. We previously demonstrated that the NMDA receptors within the nucleus accumbens (NAC) are involved in relief learning. The NAC is also important for reward learning and it has been shown that reward learning is mediated by an interaction of accumbal dopamine and NMDA glutamate receptors. Since conditioned relief has reward-like properties, we hypothesized that (a) acquisition of relief learning requires the activation of dopamine D1 receptors in the NAC, and (b) if D1 receptors are involved in this process as expected, a concurrent dopamine D1 and NMDA receptor activation may mediate this learning...
November 25, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894215/the-molecular-pathogenesis-of-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#6
Niklas Vogt, Beiying Dai, Tabea Erdmann, Wolfgang E Berdel, Georg Lenz
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by the translocation t(11;14) leading to constitutive cyclin D1 overexpression. However, overexpression of cyclin D1 alone is insufficient to cause malignant transformation. Secondary genetic alterations and deregulated signaling pathways involved in DNA damage response, cell proliferation, and apoptosis are indispensable for MCL lymphomagenesis. Recent studies investigating the biology of MCL have revealed crucial importance of B-cell receptor (BCR), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and BCL2 signaling for the molecular pathogenesis of MCL...
November 28, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891077/presynaptic-g-protein-coupled-receptors-gatekeepers-of-addiction
#7
REVIEW
Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Drug abuse and addiction cause widespread social and public health problems, and the neurobiology underlying drug actions and drug use and abuse is an area of intensive research. Drugs of abuse alter synaptic transmission, and these actions contribute to acute intoxication as well as the chronic effects of abused substances. Transmission at most mammalian synapses involves neurotransmitter activation of two receptor subtypes, ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic responses and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have slower neuromodulatory actions...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881235/elucidating-the-role-of-the-foxo3a-transcription-factor-in-the-igf-1-induced-migration-and-invasion-of-uveal-melanoma-cancer-cells
#8
Fengxia Yan, Rifang Liao, Mohd Farhan, Tinghuai Wang, Jiashu Chen, Zhong Wang, Peter J Little, Wenhua Zheng
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor of adults. It has high mortality rate due to liver metastasis. However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of liver metastasis in UM are not elucidated and there is no effective therapy available for preventing the development of this disease. IGF-1 is a growth factor involved in cell proliferation, malignant transformation and inhibition of apoptosis. In previous report, IGF-1 receptor was found to be highly expressed in UM and this was related to tumor prognosis...
November 20, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879454/molecular-mechanisms-of-androstenediol-in-the-regulation-of-the-proliferative-process-of-human-endometrial-cells
#9
Francisca Plaza-Parrochia, Lorena Oróstica, Paula García, Carolina Vera, Carmen Romero, Luis Valladares, Margarita Vega
Proliferation in endometria of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is increased, similar to the biosynthesis of androstenediol (estrogenic metabolite). As previously shown, in human endometrial cells, androstenediol increases CYCLIN D1 levels and KI67 and decreases P27 content. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the mechanisms by which androstenediol promotes endometrial cell-cycle progression. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) activation and changes in CYCLIN D1 and P27 levels were evaluated by Western blot in T-HESC and St-T1b endometrial cell lines, using receptor antagonists; activation of PI3K-protein kinase B (AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinases-extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK-ERK)1/2 pathways was evaluated using PI3K, MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2, and RNA-polymerase II inhibitors...
November 21, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878235/accelerated-cell-cycle-progression-of-human-regulatory-t%C3%A2-cell-like-cell-line-caused-by-continuous-exposure-to-asbestos-fibers
#10
Suni Lee, Hidenori Matsuzaki, Megumi Maeda, Shoko Yamamoto, Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Tamayo Hatayama, Miho Ikeda, Kei Yoshitome, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Takemi Otsuki
Asbestos exposure causes malignant tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Based on our hypothesis in which continuous exposure to asbestos of immune cells cause reduction of antitumor immunity, the decrease of natural killer cell killing activity with reduction of NKp46 activating receptor expression, inhibition of cytotoxic T cell clonal expansion, reduced CXCR3 chemokine receptor expression and production of interferon-γ production in CD4+ T cells were reported using cell line models, freshly isolated peripheral blood immune cells from health donors as well as asbestos exposed patients such as pleural plaque and mesothelioma...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878233/benzoquinone-from-fusarium-pigment-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-estrogen-receptor-positive-mcf-7-cells-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-via-estrogen-receptor-signaling
#11
Lixiang Zheng, Yujian Cai, Li Zhou, Ping Huang, Xiaoying Ren, Airen Zuo, Xianming Meng, Minjuan Xu, Xiangru Liao
Natural pigments are known for possessing a wide range of pharmacological and health-promoting properties. The pigments, produced by a new strain Fusarium (Fusarium sp. JN158) previously identified in our laboratory, were found to have 6 peaks (representing 6 compounds) by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) separation. The 6th peak compound (compound VI) is a benzoquinone compound. In this study, we examined the effects of compound VI on the proliferation of breast cancer cells and aimed to elucidate the underlying mechamisms...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872488/pld1-regulates-adipogenic-differentiation-through-mtor-irs-1-phosphorylation-at-serine-636-639
#12
Hae-In Song, Mee-Sup Yoon
Phospholipase D1 (PLD1) plays a known role in several differentiation processes, but its role in adipogenic differentiation remains unknown. In the present study, we identified PLD1 as a negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation. We showed that PLD activity was downregulated by both 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and insulin upon induction of differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipogenic cells. In line with this observation, PLD activity decreased in both high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and ob/ob mice. We also found that differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was enhanced by the depletion of PLD1 levels or inhibition of PLD1 activity by VU0155069, a PLD1-specific inhibitor...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871668/emerging-role-for-nucleus-accumbens-medium-spiny-neuron-subtypes-in-depression
#13
REVIEW
T Chase Francis, Mary Kay Lobo
The ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) and its role in mood, reward, and motivation has been the focus of significant research. Despite this interest, little work has addressed cell type-specific distinctions in medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the main projection neurons in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum, and their function in relation to stress and depression. Previous work has shown opposing roles for D1 and D2 receptor MSN subtypes in depression-like outcomes to stress, particularly in regard to repeated neuronal stimulation and excitatory transmission...
September 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868125/coumestrol-modulates-akt-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-during-the-attenuation-of-adipogenesis
#14
Young Jin Jang, Hyo Jeong Son, Jiyun Ahn, Chang Hwa Jung, Taeyoul Ha
Coumestrol is a natural phytochemical present in plants such as red clover and soy, and has been reported to stimulate the estrogen receptor as a major phytoestrogen. While the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-adipogenic effects of phytoestrogens such as genistein and daidzein have been previously investigated, the effects of coumestrol on adipogenesis remain to be elucidated. We observed that coumestrol dose-dependently attenuates MDI (mixture of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin)-induced lipid accumulation, consistent with an earlier study, while significantly inhibiting MDI-induced adipogenesis in the first 48 hours of differentiation, a critical time window for anti-adipogenic effects...
November 21, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865867/d1-like-dopamine-receptor-dysfunction-in-the-lateral-habenula-nucleus-increased-anxiety-like-behavior-in-rat
#15
Jiangping Chan, Yiling Ni, Pengyue Zhang, Yanmei Chen, Jichuan Zhang
Lateral habenula (LHb) is important for emotional processing. It is a link node between forebrain and midbrain. LHb is reciprocally connected with ventral tegmental area, acting as a regulatory center for the dopaminergic system. However, the role of dopamine receptors in the LHb in emotional processing is less clear. In the present study, the expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in LHb was testified by western blot. In addition, D1- or D2-like receptor agonist or antagonist was bilaterally administered into the LHb, anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors were tested 15min later in rats...
November 16, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863473/anln-is-a-prognostic-biomarker-independent-of-ki-67-and-essential-for-cell-cycle-progression-in-primary-breast-cancer
#16
Kristina Magnusson, Gabriela Gremel, Lisa Rydén, Victor Pontén, Mathias Uhlén, Anna Dimberg, Karin Jirström, Fredrik Pontén
BACKGROUND: Anillin (ANLN), an actin-binding protein required for cytokinesis, has recently been presented as part of a prognostic marker panel in breast cancer. The objective of the current study was to further explore the prognostic and functional value of ANLN as a single biomarker in breast cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical assessment of ANLN protein expression was performed in two well characterized breast cancer cohorts (n = 484) with long-term clinical follow-up data and the results were further validated at the mRNA level in a publicly available transcriptomics dataset...
November 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862183/the-antiviral-cytokine-interferon-gamma-restricts-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-proliferation-through-activation-of-stat1-and-modulation-of-retinoblastoma-protein-phosphorylation
#17
Apurva Kulkarni, Taylor J Scully, Lauren A O'Donnell
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPSCs) express receptors for many inflammatory cytokines, with varying effects on differentiation and proliferation depending on the stage of development and the milieu of inflammatory mediators. In primary neurons and astrocytes, we recently showed that interferon gamma (IFNγ), a potent antiviral cytokine that is required for the control and clearance of many central nervous system (CNS) infections, could differentially affect cell survival and cell cycle progression depending upon the cell type and the profile of activated intracellular signaling molecules...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856625/longitudinal-micropet-imaging-of-the-zq175-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease-shows-in-vivo-changes-of-molecular-targets-in-the-striatum-and-the-cerebral-cortex
#18
Jenny Häggkvist, Miklós Tóth, Lenke Tari, Katarina Varnäs, Marie Svedberg, Anton Forsberg, Sangram Nag, Celia Dominguez, Ignacio Munoz-Sanjuan, Jonathan Bard, John Wityak, Andrea Varrone, Christer Halldin, Ladislav Mrzljak
RATIONALE: Since the discovery of the HTT gene in 1993, numerous animal models have been developed to study the progression of Huntington's disease, as well as to evaluate potential new therapeutics. In the present study we used small animal positron emission tomography (PET) to characterize the expression of molecular targets in the recently reported HD animal model, the zQ175 mouse model. METHODS: Male heterozygous zQ175 (Htttm1Mfc/190JChdi, CHDI-81003003) and wild type (WT, C57BL/6J) animals were imaged with the dopamine D2-receptor radioligand [(11)C]raclopride, the PDE10A radioligand [(18)F]MNI-659, the dopamine D1-receptor radioligand [(11)C]NNC 112 and the 5-HT2A radioligand [(11)C]MDL 100907 at 6 and 9 months of age...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853928/d1-and-d2-specific-dopamine-antagonist-modulate-the-caudate-nucleus-neuronal-responses-to-chronic-methylphenidate-exposure
#19
Sidish Venkataraman, Catherine Claussen, Nachum Dafny
The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPD), is the first line treatment as a pharmacotherapy to treat behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPD is commonly misused in non-ADHD (normal) youth and young adults both as a recreational drug and for cognitive enhancing effects to improve their grades. MPD is known to act on the reward circuit; including the caudate nucleus (CN). The CN is comprised of medium spiny neurons containing largely dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853917/benzene-and-2-ethyl-phthalate-induce-proliferation-in-normal-rat-pituitary-cells
#20
Laura Tapella, Antonella Sesta, Maria Francesca Cassarino, Valentina Zunino, Maria Graziella Catalano, Francesca Pecori Giraldi
PURPOSE: Endocrine disruptors are known to modulate a variety of endocrine functions and increase the risk for neoplasia. Epidemiological data reported increased prevalence of pituitary tumors in high industrial areas while genotyping studies showed that mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) interacting protein (AIP)-chaperone to the dioxin ligand AhR-gene are linked to predisposition to pituitary tumor development. Aim of the present study was to establish whether endocrine pollutants can induce cell proliferation in normal rat pituitary cells...
November 16, 2016: Pituitary
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