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Maria Giulia Gatti, Petra Bechtold, Laura Campo, Giovanna Barbieri, Giulia Quattrini, Andrea Ranzi, Sabrina Sucato, Luca Olgiati, Elisa Polledri, Michael Romolo, Laura Iacuzio, Giuliano Carrozzi, Paolo Lauriola, Carlo A Goldoni, Silvia Fustinoni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A cross-sectional biomonitoring study was carried out to investigate exposure to incinerator emission in relation to the body burden of selected biomarkers in the population living around the plant. METHODS: Approximately 500 people, aged 18-69 yrs, living within 4 km from the incinerator were randomly selected form the population register. Exposure was measured through fall-out maps of particulate matter (PM), used as tracer for incinerator emissions...
August 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Joanna Poluszyńska, Elżbieta Jarosz-Krzemińska, Edeltrauda Helios-Rybicka
The research comprised of studying the effect composting sewage sludge with sawdust and vermicomposting with earthworm Eisenia fetida has on the degradation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Raw rural sewage sludge prior composting was more contaminated with PAHs than urban sewage sludge, in both cases exceeding EU cutoff limits of 6 mg/kg established for land application. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBahAnt), acenaphtylene (Acy) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr) were predominant in rural sewage sludge, whilst the urban sewage sludge contained the highest concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFl), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkFl) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr)...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Sangwoo Lee, Seongjin Hong, Xiaoshan Liu, Cheolmin Kim, Dawoon Jung, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, Jong Seong Khim, John P Giesy, Kyungho Choi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs are known to be major toxic contaminants in spills of petroleum hydrocarbons (oil). Spilled oil undergoes weathering and over time, PAHs go through a series of compositional changes. PAHs can disrupt endocrine functions, and the type of functions affected and associated potencies vary with the type and alkylation status of PAH. In this study, the potential of five major PAHs of crude oil, i.e., naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, and chrysene, and their alkylated analogues (n = 25), to disrupt endocrine functions was evaluated by use of MVLN-luc and H295R cell lines...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Navid Kargar, Golnar Matin, Amir Abbas Matin, Hasan Baha Buyukisik
In this study, to identify and quantify the sources of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we gathered honeybee, pine tree leaf, and propolis samples to serve as bioindicators from five stations in the village of "Bozkoy" in the Aliaga industrial district of Izmir (Turkey) during April-May 2014. The PAH concentrations which measured by gas chromatography (GC) varied from 261.18 to 553.33 μg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) in honeybee samples, 138.57-853.67 μg kg(-1) dw in pine leaf samples, and 798...
July 28, 2017: Chemosphere
Zoltán Nyiri, Márton Novák, Zsolt Bodai, Noémi Petrovics, Zsuzsanna Eke
An analytical method has been developed for the quantitative determination of the 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infant formula. Prior to analysis infant formula is subjected to sample preparation including the extraction of PAHs from the sample, transesterification of the triglyceride content of the extract to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and solid state urea clathrate formation to remove the FAMEs. Measurements were carried out with gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
Dharmendra Kumar Singh, Kimitaka Kawamura, Ayako Yanase, Leonard A Barrie
The distributions, correlations, and source apportionment of aromatic acids, aromatic ketones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace metals were studied in Canadian high Arctic aerosols. Nineteen PAHs including minor sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAH (dibenzothiophene) and major 6 carcinogenic PAHs were detected with a high proportion of fluoranthene followed by benzo[k]fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. However, in the sunlit period of spring, their concentrations significantly declined likely due to photochemical decomposition...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Trevor J Fish, Abby D Benninghoff
Data in this article depict patterns of methylation in lung tissues obtained from the offspring of B6129SF1/J dams and 129S1/SvImJ sires exposed in utero to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) as compared to non-exposed offspring. Genome-wide methylation of lung tumors in adult offspring was determined using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) with the NimbleGen mouse DNA methylation CpG island array. This data article refers to the research article "DNA methylation in lung tissues of mouse offspring exposed in utero to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," [1] in which comprehensive data interpretation and analysis are provided...
August 2017: Data in Brief
Zahir Qamar, Sardar Khan, Anwarzeb Khan, Muhammad Aamir, Javed Nawab, Muhammad Waqas
Vehicle-wash wastewater (VWW) contains elevated concentrations of different petrochemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a carcinogenic group of organic compounds. This study investigates the discharge of PAHs present in the untreated wastewater of vehicle-wash stations (VWS) located in district Peshawar, Pakistan. The data obtained was being novel with the detection of 16 USEPA PAHs (both individuals and total) and compared with earlier studies and international standards. The ∑16PAHs in wastewater from light vehicle-wash stations (LVWS) and heavy vehicle-wash stations (HVWS) ranged from 245-429μg/l and 957-1582μg/l, respectively...
June 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Víctor Alonso García Londoño, Cora Marcela Reynoso, Silvia Resnik
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurrence in forty-four samples of milk powder, marketed in Uruguay was determined. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was applied with fluorescence detector (FLD) and UV-VIS diodes array detector (DAD). Milk powder was fortified with PAHs at three levels producing average recovery higher than 78.6% for all levels. The highest concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was 2.85 μg kg(-1) in milk powder. Contamination of samples expressed as the sum of 16 analysed PAHs varied between 5...
June 29, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Siti Khalijah Mahmad Rozi, Hamid Rashidi Nodeh, Muhammad Afzal Kamboh, Ninie Suhana Abdul Manan, Sharifah Mohamad
A novel adsorbent, palm fatty acid coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP-FA) was successfully synthesized with immobilization of the palm fatty acid onto the surface of MNPs. The successful synthesis of MNP-FA was further confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses and water contact angle (WCA) measurement. This newly synthesized MNP-FA was applied as magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent for the enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), namely fluoranthene (FLT), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Cry) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from environmental samples prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography- Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Fabrice Gritti, Mike Leal, Thomas McDonald, Martin Gilar
The full baseline separation of two compounds (selectivity factors α<1.03) is either impractical (too long analysis times) or even impossible when using a single column of any length given the pressure limitations of current LC instruments. The maximum efficiency is that of an infinitely long column operated at infinitely small flow rates. It is determined by the maximum allowable system pressure, the column permeability (particle size), the viscosity of the eluent, and the intensity of the effective diffusivity of the analytes along the column...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Graciel Diamante, Gabrielle do Amaral E Silva Müller, Norma Menjivar-Cervantes, Elvis Genbo Xu, David C Volz, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy, Daniel Schlenk
One of the primary sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine environments is oil. Photochemical oxidation and microbial transformation of PAH-containing oils can result in the formation of oxygenated products. Among the PAHs in crude oil, chrysene is one of the most persistent within the water column and may be transformed to 2- and 6-hydroxychrysene (OHCHR). Both of these compounds have been shown to activate (2-OHCHR) and antagonize (6-OHCHR) the estrogen receptor (ER). Previous studies in our lab have shown that estrogen can significantly alter zebrafish development...
June 3, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Ke-Jing An, Yu-Lan Liu, Hai-Lan Liu
Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively...
June 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Shunpei Nobusue, Kazuya Fujita, Yoshito Tobe
Treatment of a twisted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon containing cyclooctatetraene fused by two 9,9'-bifluorenylidene units under the Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl3 or 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone and scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate) led to stepwise skeletal rearrangements to afford initially a hydrocarbon with a seven-membered ring and then tetrabenzo[a,d,j,m]coronene with all six-membered rings. The course of the rearrangement was interpreted in terms of the acid-catalyzed isomerization of 9,9'-bifluorenylidene into dibenzo[g,p]chrysene moieties on the basis of theoretical investigations...
June 6, 2017: Organic Letters
Xiao Qian, Baocui Liang, Xuan Liu, Xinhui Liu, Juan Wang, Fei Liu, Baoshan Cui
The distribution, sources, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in surface sediments from the Haihe River. Total PAH concentrations varied from 171.4 to 9511.2 ng g(-1) with an average of 2125.4 ng g(-1), suggesting serious pollution of the Haihe River in comparison with other reported rivers worldwide. PAH contaminants differed significantly among 17 sampling locations with high values occurring in industrial areas and densely populated areas. The composition of PAHs was characterized by high abundance of 4-ring and 5-ring PAHs, and benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene were the predominant components...
July 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pil-Gon Kim, Ji-Yeon Roh, Yongseok Hong, Jung-Hwan Kwon
Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (Ksampler/soil) and the uptake rate constant (ku) at various soil water saturations...
October 2017: Chemosphere
N Grova, F Faÿs, E M Hardy, B M R Appenzeller
A gas chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method dedicated to the analysis of 50 metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) was applied to urine specimens collected from female Long Evans rats under controlled exposure to a mixture of PAHs (at 7 doses ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 mg/kg, by gavage, 3 times per week for 90 days). On four occasions (day 1, 28, 60 and 90), urine samples were collected over a 24 h period. Among these 50 OH-PAHs, 41 were detected in urine samples. Seven additional OH-PAHs were identified for the first time: 1 corresponding to metabolite of pyrene and 3 of anthracene...
September 2017: Environmental Pollution
Karianne Skogland Enerstvedt, Magne O Sydnes, Daniela M Pampanin
Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the marine environment represents a risk to marine life and humans. In this study, plasma samples from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were analysed by shotgun mass spectrometry to investigate the plasma proteome in response to exposure to single PAHs (naphthalene or chrysene) and their corresponding metabolites (dihydrodiols). In total, 369 proteins were identified and ranked according to their relative abundance. The levels of 12 proteins were found significantly altered in PAH exposed fish and are proposed as new biomarker candidates...
May 19, 2017: Chemosphere
K Olof Johansson, Matthew F Campbell, Paolo Elvati, Paul E Schrader, Judit Zádor, Nicole K Richards-Henderson, Kevin R Wilson, Angela Violi, Hope A Michelsen
We have measured photoionization-efficiency curves for pyrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, perylene, and coronene in the photon energy range of 7.5-10.2 eV and derived their photoionization cross-section curves in this energy range. All measurements were performed using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation generated at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The VUV radiation was used for photoionization, and detection was performed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Carmela Lestingi, Tamara Tavoloni, Valentina Bardeggia, Monia Perugini, Arianna Piersanti
A gas-chromatographic single-quadrupole analytical method for the analysis of the 16 priority European Union (EU) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food is presented. The method fulfils the request of Regulation EU 836/2011 for an analytical procedure to be used for official control of PAHs in food in EU member states. The sample preparation involves a pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with an in-cell clean-up step followed by a lipid removal using solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a styrene divinylbenzene stationary phase (SDVB) and a final gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) step...
July 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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