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Osazuwa Clinton Ekhator, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle, Sorbari Igbiri, Rose Ngozi Asomugha, Chiara Frazzoli, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of well-known toxicants with carcinogenic potential and other health effects including on the immune system. The high health risks of non-communicable diseases and relevant comorbidities in Africa, particularly in contaminated areas like e-waste and crude oil and gas exploration areas and for high consumers of food commodity groupings which are most critical for PAH exposure, are exacerbated by dietary exposure due to unsafe practices in commonly consumed foods, like those street vended...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chase S Brewster, Virender K Sharma, Leslie Cizmas, Thomas J McDonald
The Lower Fox River is a 39 mile section which supports approximately 270,000 rural inhabitants across 18 counties, 303,000 metropolitan residents in Green Bay and Appleton, Wisconsin, and several large industrial complexes such as paper mills and power plants. This paper presents the distribution and concentrations of aliphatic (n-alkanes) and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) in the Lower Fox River to identify the sources of hydrocarbon contamination...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yun-Chun Li, Jia-Qian Qiu, Man Shu, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Jun-Ji Cao, Ge-Hui Wang, Xian-Xiang Wang, Xiao-Qing Zhao
Nineteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 emitted from five different cooking activities were characterized, and their influencing factors were determined. The total quantified particle-bounded PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) in the airs from the cooking activities were 4.2-36.5-fold higher than those in corresponding backgrounds. The highest ΣPAHs were seen in cafeteria frying (783 ± 499 ng/m3), followed by meat roasting (420 ± 191 ng/m3), fish roasting (210 ± 105 ng/m3), snack-street boiling (202 ± 230 ng/m3), and cafeteria boiling (150 ± 65 ng/m3)...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nathalie Grova, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Emilie M Hardy, Fabrice Monteau, Karine Pouponneau, Bruno Le Bizec, Brice M R Appenzeller
The present study addresses the hypothesis that the concentration of tetrahydroxylated Polycylic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (tetra-OH-PAHs) in hair might be a useful biomarker of human exposure to PAHs, providing quantitative assessment of the internal dose, as well as information on the associated toxicity in relation to individual's specific metabolism. By means of animal models, this work aimed at identifying new tetra-OH-PAHs which can be released from the hydrolysis of DNA-adducts and can also be directly detected in biological matrices usually used in the field of biomonitoring such as hair and urine...
December 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Maira D Carabajal, Juan A Arancibia, Graciela M Escandar
For the first time, third-order liquid chromatography with excitation-emission fluorescence matrix detection (LC-EEFM) data were generated on-line and chemometrically processed for the simultaneous quantitation of the heavy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. The applied experimental strategy is very simple, and is based on the reduction of the linear flow rate by fitting a larger diameter connecting-tube between the column outlet and the fluorimetric detector...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Edward S Chen, Edward C M Chen
RATIONALE: The anion mass spectral lifetimes for several aromatic hydrocarbons reported in the subject article were related to significantly different electron affinities. The different values are rationalized using negative ion mass spectral data. METHODS: Electron affinities for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are reported from the temperature dependence of unpublished electron capture detector data. These are compared with published values and the largest values are assigned to the ground state...
October 29, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Yuan-Wan Sun, Kun-Ming Chen, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Anna C Salzberg, Timothy K Cooper, Carla Caruso, Cesar Aliaga, Junjia Zhu, Krishne Gowda, Shantu Amin, Karam El-Bayoumy
Genetic and epigenetic alterations observed at end stage OSCC formation could be considered as a consequence of cancer development and thus changes in normal or premalignant tissues which had been exposed to oral carcinogens such as Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBP) may better serve as predictive biomarkers of disease development. Many types of DNA damage can induce epigenetic changes which can occur early and in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore we used ERRBS to generate genome-scale, single-base resolution DNA methylomes from histologically normal oral tissues of mice treated with DBP under experimental conditions known to induce maximum DNA damage which is essential for the development of OSCC induced by DBP in mice...
2017: PloS One
Jiaying Zhao, Xiaomin Li, Xiaohua Lu, Qinghe Zhang, Weibing Zhang
A method for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in olive oil by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed. The olive oil samples were diluted with isopropanol and cleaned-up by a solid phase extraction cartridge with π-π specificity. Critical isomers were separated by gradient elution with water-acetonitrile on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse PAH column (100 mm×2...
July 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Xiaotao Zhang, Li Zhang, Yibin Ruan, Weiwei Wang, Houwei Ji, Qiang Wan, Fucheng Lin, Jian Liu
A method for the simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter was developed by isotope internal standard combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cigarette filters were extracted with dichloromethane, and the extract was filtered with 0.22 μm organic phase membrane. The samples were isolated by DB-5MS column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring mode of electron impact source under positive ion mode. The linearities of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, ben[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) were good, and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranged from 0...
October 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Biljana D Škrbić, Kiwao Kadokami, Igor Antić, Grigorije Jovanović
This is the first comprehensive study on the occurrence of 940 semi-volatile organic compounds including sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, plasticizers, and other emerging compounds in 10 river and canal sediments collected in northern Serbia. For quantification of investigated compounds GC-MS-MS (selected reaction monitoring) and GC-MS (using both selected ion monitoring and total ion monitoring) methods were used. The number of detected compounds was in the range of 85-117, while the sum of the concentrations varied from 959 μg/kg dry-wt to 84,445 μg/kg dry-wt...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rongguang Shi, Mengmeng Xu, Aifeng Liu, Yong Tian, Zongshan Zhao
Rainfall runoff can remove certain amounts of pollutants from contaminated farmland soil and result in a decline in water quality. However, the leaching behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with rainfall have been rarely reported due to wide variations in the soil compositions, rainfall conditions, and sources of soil PAHs in complex farmland ecosystems. In this paper, the levels, spatial distributions, and composition profiles of PAHs in 30 farmland soil samples and 49 rainfall-runoff samples from the Tianjin region in 2012 were studied to investigate their leaching behaviors caused by rainfall runoff...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Fabrice Gritti, Sebastien Besner, Sylvain Cormier, Martin Gilar
A twin-column recycling separation process (TCRSP) is assembled and used to generate higher speed and/or higher resolution levels than those of the usual non-recycling process at the same back pressure. It enables the users to solve very challenging separation problems caused by too small selectivity factors and/or too low column efficiencies. The relative gain in speed-resolution performance increases with increasing the number of cycles in the TCRSP, decreasing the maximum allowable pressure imposed by the LC system, decreasing the column permeability, and with reducing the separation speed...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Baltasar Lucendo-Villarin, Panagiotis Filis, Madeleine J Swortwood, Marilyn A Huestis, Jose Meseguer-Ripolles, Kate Cameron, John P Iredale, Peter J O'Shaughnessy, Paul A Fowler, David C Hay
During manuscript proofing, the following sentence was not deleted in the section "Results" at the end of the paragraph: "Both male and female hepatocytes responded in a similar fashion to cotinine, whereas male hepatocyte function was more sensitive to chrysene, fluorene and naphthalene than female hepatocytes".
October 3, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Xian-Sheng Ke, Yongseok Hong, Peiyu Tu, Qing He, Vincent M Lynch, Dongho Kim, Jonathan L Sessler
Bis-dicarbacorrole (bis-H3) with two adj-CCNN subunits was synthesized by incorporating a dibenzo[g,p]chrysene moiety into the macrocyclic structure. The two trianionic cores in bis-H3 can stabilize two Cu(III) ions (bis-Cu) or concurrently a Cu(III) cation and a Pd(II) ion in the form of a hetero bis-metal complex (mix-Cu/Pd). As prepared, mix-Cu/Pd displays organic π radical character, as confirmed by various techniques, including electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, femtosecond transient absorption measurements, and DFT calculations...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xinyi Niu, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Kin Fai Ho, Yu Huang, Jian Sun, Qiyuan Wang, Yaqing Zhou, Zhuzi Zhao, Junji Cao
The chemical composition of PM2.5 and cellular effects from exposure to fine aerosol extracts were studied for samples collected in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, and Hengshui, China in winter 2015. Effects of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives (OPAHs) in PM2.5 on cell cultures were a major focus of the study. Total quantified PAHs and OPAHs at Shijiazhuang and Hengshui were higher than at Beijing and Tianjin, and benz(a)anthracene, chrysene and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were the most abundant species...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
Uma Shanker, Vidhisha Jassal, Manviri Rani
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) the ubiquitous, persistent and carcinogenic environmental contaminants have raised concern worldwide. Recently, their removal methodologies are advanced after exploring nanomaterials. Therefore, degradation of selected toxic PAHs (3-5 rings) using potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate (KZnHCF) nanocubes was studied. Highly crystalline and sharp KZnHCF nanocubes (∼100 nm) were obtained by green route using sapindus mukorossi. In both water and soil, anthracene and phenanthrene were degraded to maximum extent (80-93%), whereas, the degradation of fluorene, chrysene and benzo (a) pyrene were ∼70-80%...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
A S Semenikhin, A S Savchenkova, I V Chechet, S G Matveev, Z Liu, M Frenklach, A M Mebel
Density functional B3LYP/6-31G(d) and ab initio G3(MP2,CC) calculations have been carried out to determine thermal rate constants of direct H abstraction reactions from four- and five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene by various radicals abundant in combustion flames, such as H, CH3, C3H3, and OH, using transition state theory. The results show that the H abstraction reactions with OH have the lowest barriers of ∼4 kcal mol(-1), followed by those with H and CH3 with barriers of 16-17 kcal mol(-1), and then with propargyl radicals with barriers of 24-26 kcal mol(-1)...
September 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Maryam M Fallatah, Shengquan Liu, Mary B Sevigny, Hongye Zou, Maggie C Louie
SL-1-18 (1-(chrysen-6-yl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)thiourea) is new flexible heteroarotinoid (Flex-Het) analog derived from the parent compound, SHetA2, and our previous study showed comparable activity to SHetA2 in terms of inhibiting ER+ breast cancer cell growth. This current study aims to determine the molecular mechanism underlying SL-1-18's effect on breast cancer cell growth. Our results indicate that SL-1-18 inhibits cell proliferation of ER+ breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and T-47D) by preventing cell cycle progression...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
Monika M Lam, Magnus Engwall, Michael S Denison, Maria Larsson
In the present study 42 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were investigated for their estrogenic potential using the VM7Luc4E2 transactivation assay. Relative potencies were determined for mass-balance analysis. In addition, compounds were tested in combination with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182,780 (ICI) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist/CYP1A1 inhibitor α-naphthoflavone. Luciferase induction and CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured to assess whether the estrogenic activity was elicited by the compound itself and/or by its metabolites...
August 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Maria Giulia Gatti, Petra Bechtold, Laura Campo, Giovanna Barbieri, Giulia Quattrini, Andrea Ranzi, Sabrina Sucato, Luca Olgiati, Elisa Polledri, Michael Romolo, Laura Iacuzio, Giuliano Carrozzi, Paolo Lauriola, Carlo A Goldoni, Silvia Fustinoni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A cross-sectional biomonitoring study was carried out to investigate exposure to incinerator emission in relation to the body burden of selected biomarkers in the population living around the plant. METHODS: Approximately 500 people, aged 18-69 yrs, living within 4 km from the incinerator were randomly selected form the population register. Exposure was measured through fall-out maps of particulate matter (PM), used as tracer for incinerator emissions...
November 2017: Chemosphere
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