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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329712/toxicity-of-effluents-from-gasoline-stations-oil-water-separators-to-early-life-stages-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Romulo Nepomuceno Alves, Célio Freire Mariz, Driele Ventura de Paulo, Paulo S M Carvalho
Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318300/bacteria-from-wheat-and-cucurbit-plant-roots-metabolize-pahs-and-aromatic-root-exudates-implications-for-rhizodegradation
#2
Cairn S Ely, Barth F Smets
The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria which degrade PAHs have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits, however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in PAH-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278036/emission-factors-of-particulate-matter-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-levoglucosan-from-wood-combustion-in-south-central-chile
#3
Jorge Jimenez, Oscar Farias, Roberto Quiroz, Jorge Yañez
In south central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (nothofagus oblique) and mimosa (acacia dealbata) were burned in a single chamber slow combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted in each experiment while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and levoglucosan analyses...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265879/pinus-sylvestris-as-a-bio-indicator-of-territory-pollution-from-aluminum-smelter-emissions
#4
Olga Vladimirovna Kalugina, Tatiana Alekseevna Mikhailova, Olga Vladimirovna Shergina
The study demonstrates the efficiency of using Pinus sylvestris L. as a bio-indicator of polluting substances that enter the environment with the emission of a large aluminum smelter. Recent research has demonstrated that pollution from aluminum smelter emissions covers a vast territory. The highest content of polluting elements is registered at a distance of 3 km from the smelter, with maximum concentrations found in the industrial zone (0.5 km from the smelter). The farther from the aluminum smelter, the lower the amount of polluting elements in the needles, although the F level still exceeds the background values at a distance of about 60 km from the source, the levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd up to 50 km, S up to 40 km, and Fe and Cu up to 35 km mostly in north-eastern and south-eastern directions correlating with prevailing atmospheric transfer of the emissions...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241412/removal-capacities-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-by-a-newly-isolated-strain-from-oilfield-produced-water
#5
Yi-Bin Qi, Chen-Yu Wang, Cheng-Yuan Lv, Zeng-Min Lun, Cheng-Gang Zheng
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM) and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236708/comparative-study-on-the-occurrence-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-breast-milk-and-infant-formula-and-risk-assessment
#6
Serena Santonicola, Alessandra De Felice, Luigi Cobellis, Nicola Passariello, Angela Peluso, Nicoletta Murru, Maria Carmela Ferrante, Raffaelina Mercogliano
The study compared the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) profile of human milk collected from Italian mothers and different brands of infant formula available on Italian market. Levels of 14 PAHs most frequently occurred in food, PAH markers listed by Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, and carcinogenic PAHs classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. The average concentrations of total PAHs were 114...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221959/efficacy-of-ozonation-treatments-of-smoked-fish-for-reducing-its-benzo-a-pyrene-concentration-and-toxicity
#7
Irina Rozentale, Janis Ancans, Elena Bartkiene, Arturs Viksna, Vadims Bartkevics
Ozone is widely used in food processing, for example, to decompose mycotoxins or pesticide residues, to extend the shelf life of products, and for sanitation. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of expanding the application of ozone for oxidative degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The evaluation was conducted by ozonation of a benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) standard solution and smoked fish (sprats) contaminated with PAHs. The effect of ozonation was immediate in the BaP solution; 89% of this toxic compound was decomposed after only 1 min of treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190686/role-of-snow-in-the-fate-of-gaseous-and-particulate-exhaust-pollutants-from-gasoline-powered-vehicles
#8
Yevgen Nazarenko, Sébastien Fournier, Uday Kurien, Rodrigo Benjamin Rangel-Alvarado, Oleg Nepotchatykh, Patrice Seers, Parisa A Ariya
Little is known about pollution in urban snow and how aerosol and gaseous air pollutants interact with the urban snowpack. Here we investigate interactions of exhaust pollution with snow at low ambient temperature using fresh snow in a temperature-controlled chamber. A gasoline-powered engine from a modern light duty vehicle generated the exhaust and was operated in homogeneous and stratified engine regimes. We determined that, within a timescale of 30 min, snow takes up from the exhaust a large mass of organic pollutants and aerosol particles, which were observed by electron microscopy, mass spectrometry and aerosol sizers...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181364/a-naphtho-fused-double-7-helicene-from-a-maleate-bridged-chrysene-trimer
#9
Marli Ferreira, Guillaume Naulet, Hugo Gallardo, Pierre Dechambenoit, Harald Bock, Fabien Durola
Perkin condensation of chrysenyl-6-acetic acid with chrysenylene-6,12-diglyoxylic acid followed by in situ esterification gives a bismaleate, whose conjugated stilbene moieties are efficiently shielded against intermolecular condensations and undergo iodine-catalyzed oxidative photocyclization in toluene without the need for high dilution. The concentration is limited by the low solubility of the flexible bismaleate at room temperature. The so-obtained double [7]helicene crystallizes in a nonchiral meso form...
March 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148980/simultaneous-biodegradation-of-polyaromatic-hydrocarbons-by-a-stenotrophomonas-sp-characterization-of-nid-genes-and-effect-of-surfactants-on-degradation
#10
Smita Kumari, Raj Kumar Regar, Abhay Bajaj, Ratnasekhar Ch, Gubbala Naga Venkata Satyanarayana, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Natesan Manickam
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacterium was isolated from a petroleum contaminated site and designated as Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87. It was found to utilize pyrene, phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene as sole carbon source, but not anthracene, chrysene and fluoranthene. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis resulted in identification of pyrene metabolites namely monohydroxypyrene, 4-oxa-pyrene-5-one, dimethoxypyrene and monohydroxyphenanthrene. Southern hybridization using naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nidA) as probe against the DNA of strain IITR87 revealed the presence of nidA gene...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119020/in-vitro-metabolism-of-benzo-a-pyrene-7-8-dihydrodiol-and-dibenzo-def-p-chrysene-11-12-diol-in-rodent-and-human-hepatic-microsomes
#11
Jordan N Smith, Denis Mehinagic, Subhasree Nag, Susan R Crowell, Richard A Corley
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion...
March 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117860/an-atom-and-pot-economical-consecutive-multi-step-reaction-approach-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs
#12
Chada Raji Reddy, Uredi Dilipkumar, Ravula Shravya
A novel one-pot benzannulation reaction has been developed for the synthesis of substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the direct coupling of propargylic aldehydes/alcohols with 1,1-diarylethanol through an atom-economical uninterrupted three/four-step reaction sequence under mild and metal-free reaction conditions. The strategy involves an acid-catalyzed dehydration and carbon-carbon bond formation followed by DBU-promoted cycloisomerization. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were obtained via mono-benzannulation, and chrysene, picene and benzopicene were obtained involving consecutive di-benzannulation reactions in good yields starting from easily accessible starting materials...
January 24, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104439/up-regulation-of-cyp1a1-and-phase-ii-enzymes-by-5-ring-isomeric-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-precision-cut-rat-hepatic-slices-importance-of-molecular-shape
#13
Daphnee Pushparajah, Dfv Lewis, Costas Ioannides
The objectives of the present study were two-fold: (a) to evaluate the role of molecular shape on the interaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the Ah receptor and CYP1A1 upregulation, and (b) to evaluate the potential of PAHs to induce epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase, two major enzymes involved in their metabolism. In order to achieve these objectives, precision-cut rat liver slices were incubated with a range of concentrations of seven 5-ring isomeric PAHs, namely benzo[c]chrysene, benzo[b]chrysene, benzo[g]chrysene, dibenzo[a,j]anthracene, dibenzo[a,c]anthracene, picene and pentacene, for 24h...
January 16, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100150/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-levels-and-risk-assessment-for-food-from-service-facilities-in-korea
#14
Shin-Woong Park, Jun-Hyun Jeong, Jae-Young Her, Mina K Kim, Kwang-Geun Lee
In this study, levels of benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene in 412 food items collected from food service facilities in Korea were analysed. The concentrations of the eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged 0.13-0.48 μg/kg. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in all food samples were <1 μg/kg, which is the lowest maximum limit in foods regulated by European Union legislation...
February 2, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058760/fluorescence-based-logic-gate-for-sensing-of-ca-2-and-f-ions-using-pvp-crowned-chrysene-nanoparticles-in-aqueous-medium
#15
Prasad G Mahajan, G B Kolekar, Shivajirao R Patil
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) crowned chrysene nanoparticles (CHYNPs) were prepared by using a reprecipitation method. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies indicate that the monodispersed spherical nanoparticles bear a negative charge on their surfaces. The bathochromic spectral shift in the UV-visible and fluorescence spectrum of CHYNPs from chrysene (CHY) in acetone solution supports the J- type aggregation of nanoparticles. The aggregation-induced enhanced emission of CHYNPs at 486 and 522 nm decreases by increasing the concentration of the Ca(2)(+) ion solution...
January 5, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979277/optimization-and-validation-of-a-method-using-uhplc-fluorescence-for-the-analysis-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-cold-pressed-vegetable-oils
#16
Simone Alves da Silva, Geni Rodrigues Sampaio, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva Torres
Among the different food categories, the oils and fats are important sources of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of organic chemical contaminants. The use of a validated method is essential to obtain reliable analytical results since the legislation establishes maximum limits in different foods. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate a method for the quantification of four PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene] in vegetable oils...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865658/characterization-of-particulate-phase-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-emitted-from-incense-burning-and-their-bioreactivity-in-raw264-7-macrophage
#17
Tzu-Ting Yang, Su-Chen Ho, Lu-Te Chuang, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Ya-Ting Li, Jyun-Jie Wu
This study investigated the effects of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced from burning three incense types on and their bioreactivity in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the levels of 16 identified PAHs. Macrophages were exposed to incense particle extracts at concentrations of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL for 24 h. After exposure, cell viability and nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory mediator [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] production of the cells were examined...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864777/bioaccumulation-and-cancer-risk-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-leafy-vegetables-grown-in-soils-within-automobile-repair-complex-and-environ-in-uyo-nigeria
#18
Edu Inam, Felicia Ibanga, Joseph Essien
Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and an incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) assessment model, the bioaccumulation and cancer risk of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in leafy vegetables (Vernonia amygdalina and Lasianthera africanum) grown in soils within an automobile repair complex environment in Uyo, Nigeria was studied. The total PAHs concentrations recorded for soils ranged from 0.02 to 1.77 mg/kg. The highest level of 1.77 mg/kg was recorded for soils from the main automobile repair complex (site 1)...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859494/how-reliable-is-dft-in-predicting-relative-energies-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-isomers-comparison-of-functionals-from-different-rungs-of-jacob-s-ladder
#19
Amir Karton
Density functional theory (DFT) is the only quantum-chemical avenue for calculating thermochemical/kinetic properties of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as graphene nanoflakes. Using CCSD(T)/CBS PAH isomerization energies, we find that all generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and meta GGA DFT functionals have severe difficulties in describing isomerization energies in PAHs. The poor performance of these functionals is demonstrated by the following root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) obtained for a database of C14 H10 and C18 H12 isomerization energies...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782400/regioselectivity-in-the-controversial-scholl-reaction-of-1-benzoylpyrene-formation-of-a-five-member-ring-is-not-unexpected
#20
Yaacov Netanel Oded, Sergey Pogodin, Israel Agranat
Intramolecular Scholl reaction of 1-benzoylpyrene (1) gave 8H-dibenzo[def,qr]chrysen-8-one (2) and 11H-indeno[2,1-a]pyren-11-one (3) in a 1:2 ratio. The structures of 2 and 3 were determined, using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and IR spectroscopies. A DFT B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) study of the reaction's arenium-cation mechanism of (E)-1 and (Z)-1 giving 2 and 3, respectively, indicated the reaction's regioselectivity and kinetic control. The analogous reaction of 1-(1'-naphthoyl)pyrene gave exclusively 13H-benz[4,5]indeno[2,1-a]pyren-13-one...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
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