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Aylin W Sahin, Claudia Axel, Emanuele Zannini, Elke K Arendt
Burger buns are a source of added sugar, containing 7-12%, in order to ensure their unique texture and taste. Hence, suitable sugar substitutes for burger buns are urgently needed. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of three different polyols on dough and product quality of burger buns. Xylitol, mannitol and maltitol were incorporated individually in a burger bun system, by replacing added sucrose by 30%, 50% and 100%. Wheat starch was used to compare the impact of polyols with another non-sweet bulking agent...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
K Geirhos, P Lunkenheimer, A Loidl
Experimental evidence for the Gardner transition, theoretically predicted to arise deep in the glassy state of matter, is scarce. At this transition, the energy landscape sensed by the particles forming the glass is expected to become more complex. In the present Letter, we report the dielectric response of two typical glass formers with well-pronounced Johari-Goldstein β relaxation, following this response down to unprecedented low temperatures, far below the glass transition. As the Johari-Goldstein process is believed to arise from the local structure of the energy landscape, its investigation seems an ideal tool to seek evidence for the Gardner transition...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Chandran Sathesh-Prabu, Sung Kuk Lee
The production of α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) by whole-cell biocatalysis is often limited by cofactor regeneration. Here, ω-oxidation pathway genes (monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase) were co-expressed with a xylose reductase (XR) gene to regenerate cofactors in an engineered Escherichia coli strain that co-metabolizes glucose and xylose. The resulting strain exhibited a 180% increase in DCA production compared with the control strain without XR, and produced xylitol in the presence of xylose...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Edit Páyer, Judit Szabó-Papp, Lídia Ambrus, Attila Gábor Szöllősi, Mónika Andrási, Shabtay Dikstein, Lajos Kemény, István Juhász, Andrea Szegedi, Tamás Bíró, Attila Oláh
Polyols (e.g. glycerol, xylitol) are implicated as moisturizers of the skin and other epithelial tissues. However, we lack information about their exact cellular mechanisms and their effects on the gene expression profiles. Therefore, in this study, we aimed at investigating the effects of glycerol and xylitol on human epidermal keratinocytes. The polyols (identical osmolarities; xylitol: 0.0045%-0.45%; glycerol: 0.0027%-0.27%) did not alter cellular viability or intracellular calcium concentration. However, they exerted differential effects on the expression of certain genes and signalling pathways...
March 2018: Experimental Dermatology
E Arat Maden, C Altun, G Guven Polat, F Basak
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride, Xylitol, Probiotic, and Whitening toothpastes on the permanent teeth enamel roughness and microhardness. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups, each group having 60 samples. G1: The group in which enamel roughness was examined (n = 60). G2: The group in which enamel microhardness was examined (n = 60). Then, these groups were randomly divided into 4 groups among themselves (n = 15)...
March 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Chika Ifeanyi Chukwuma, Shahidul Islam
The present study investigated the anti-oxidative effects of xylitol both in vitro and in vivo in normal and type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model. Free radical scavenging and ferric reducing potentials of different concentrations of xylitol were investigated in vitro. For in vivo study, six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Normal Xylitol (NXYL) and Diabetic Xylitol (DXYL). T2D was induced in the DBC and DXYL groups. After the confirmation of diabetes, a 10% xylitol solution was supplied instead of drinking water to NXYL and DXYL, while normal drinking water was supplied to NC and DBC ad libitum...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Ping Yang, Wu Jun Long, Li Wei
Background: A number of studies with conflicting results have evaluated the effect of chewing gum on post-operative gastrointestinal recovery in patients after major colorectal surgery. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the efficacy of chewing gum in patients with rectal cancer after elective open proctectomy only. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. We recruited patients who would undergo elective open proctectomy for rectal cancer in Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Giorgia Pertile, Jacek Panek, Karolina Oszust, Anna Siczek, Magdalena Frąc
The aim of the study was an analysis of the intraspecific genetic and functional diversity of the new isolated fungal strains of P. setifera . This is the first report concerning the genetic and metabolic diversity of Petriella setifera strains isolated from industrial compost and the first description of a protocol for AFLP fingerprinting analysis optimised for these fungal species. The results showed a significant degree of variability among the isolates, which was demonstrated by the clearly subdivision of all the isolates into two clusters with 51% and 62% similarity, respectively...
2018: PeerJ
Huanhuan Zhang, Junhua Yun, H Zabed, Miaomiao Yang, Guoyan Zhang, Yilin Qi, Qi Guo, Xianghui Qi
In the present study, recombinant strains were constructed for xylitol production by cloning and expressing the novel xylitol dehydrogenase (xdh) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) genes in E. coli BL21 (DE3) from Gluconobacter thailandicus CGMCC1.3748. The optimum pH, temperature, specific activity and kinetic parameters were further investigated for purified XDH. The co-culture of G. thailandicus (30 g/L), BL21-xdh (20 g/L) and BL21-adh (20 g/L) produced 34.34 g/L of xylitol after 48 h in the presence of 40 g/L d-arabitol and 2% ethanol...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Artur Conde, Andreia Neves, Richard Breia, Diana Pimentel, Lia-Tânia Dinis, Sara Bernardo, Carlos Manuel Correia, Ana Cunha, Hernâni Gerós, José Moutinho-Pereira
Water scarcity is associated with extreme temperatures and high irradiance, and significantly and increasingly affects grapevine yield and quality. In this context, the foliar application of kaolin, a chemically inert mineral that greatly reflects ultraviolet and infrared radiations, as well as, in part, photosynthetically active radiation, has recently been shown to decrease photoinhibition in mature leaves. Here, the influence of this particle film on grapevine leaf metabolome and carbohydrate metabolism was evaluated...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Kristian Semjonov, Maia Salm, Tiina Lipiäinen, Karin Kogermann, Andres Lust, Ivo Laidmäe, Osmo Antikainen, Clare J Strachan, Henrik Ehlers, Jouko Yliruusi, Jyrki Heinämäki
Solid dispersions (SDs) hold a proven potential in formulating poorly water-soluble drugs. The present paper investigates the interfacial phenomena associated with the bulk powder flow, water sorption, wetting and dissolution of the SDs prepared by a modified melt and quench-cooling (QC) method. Poorly water-soluble indomethacin (IND) was QC molten with solubilizing graft copolymer (Soluplus® ) or polyol sugar alcohol (xylitol, XYL). The interfacial interactions of SDs with air/water were found to be reliant on the type (amorphous/crystalline) and amount of the carrier material used...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Neda Hassanpour, Ehsan Ullah, Mona Yousofshahi, Nikhil U Nair, Soha Hassoun
Directed evolution of enzymes consists of an iterative process of creating mutant libraries and choosing desired phenotypes through screening or selection until the enzymatic activity reaches a desired goal. The biggest challenge in directed enzyme evolution is identifying high-throughput screens or selections to isolate the variant(s) with the desired property. We present in this paper a computational metabolic engineering framework, Selection Finder (SelFi), to construct a selection pathway from a desired enzymatic product to a cellular host and to couple the pathway with cell survival...
June 2017: Metabolic Engineering Communications
E A Maden, C Altun, B Ozmen, F Basak
Aim: This in vivo study was designed to compare the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing fluoride, xylitol, or xylitol-probiotic on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in 13-15-year-old children. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 60 pediatric patients who were randomly divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1 recieved fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Max Fresh), group 2 used xylitol toothpaste (Xyliwhite), and group 3 used xylitol-probiotic toothpaste (PerioBiotic)...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Joanna Cichowska, Joanna Żubernik, Jakub Czyżewski, Hanna Kowalska, Dorota Witrowa-Rajchert
The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of selected compounds from the polyol group, as well as other saccharides, on the osmotic dehydration process of apples. The following alternative solutions were examined: erythritol, xylitol, maltitol, inulin and oligofructose. Efficiency of the osmotic dehydration process was evaluated based on the kinetics of the process, and through comparison of the results obtained during the application of a sucrose solution. This innovative research utilizes alternative solutions in osmotic pretreatment, which until now, have not been commonly used in fruit processing by researchers worldwide...
February 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lingjuan Han, Taixun Pu, Xi Wang, Beiling Liu, Yonghong Wang, Juntao Feng, Xing Zhang
Response surface methodology (RSM) is a commonly used system to optimize cryoprotectants of biocontrol strains when they are subjected to preparations. Various kinds of cryoprotectants and centrifugal conditions were tested to improve the survival of biocontrol agents after freeze-drying. To determine the optimum levels of incorporation of three cryoprotectants (glucose, trehalose and xylitol) in the freeze-drying process of strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B1408, a range of experiments based on Box-Behnken Design (BBD) were conducted...
February 16, 2018: Cryobiology
Seung-Ho Seo, Seong-Eun Park, Eun-Ju Kim, Kyoung-In Lee, Chang-Su Na, Hong-Seok Son
GC-MS datasets coupled with multivariate statistical analysis were used to investigate metabolic changes in Kimchi during fermentation and metabolic differences in Kimchi added with various amounts (0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5%) of salts. PCA score plot obtained after 1day of fermentation were clearly distinguishable by different salinity groups, implying that early fermentation speed varied according to Kimchi salinity. PLS-DA score plot from data obtained on the 50th day of fermentation also showed a clear separation, indicating metabolites of Kimchi were different according to salinity...
March 2018: Food Research International
Á Jerzsele, Z Karancsi, E Pászti-Gere, Á Sterczer, A Bersényi, K Fodor, D Szabó, P Vajdovich
Xylitol is commonly used as sugar substitute in households. While it has numerous beneficial effects on human health, it is highly toxic to dogs. The goal of this study was to examine whether xylitol has similar deleterious effects, such as hypoglycaemia and acute hepatic failure, on cats. Our research included six healthy middle-aged cats. Xylitol was dissolved in deionized water and administered p.o. at three doses (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight). These dosages have been considered toxic and can cause liver failure or even death in dogs...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Zahra Talattof, Azita Azad, Maryam Zahed, Nazanin Shahradnia
AIM: The most common fungal infection among human population is candidiasis, the etiology of which is mostly Candida albicans. As a result of a disrupted balance of the normal flora or a compromised immune system, Candida species can become pathogenic. Various in vitro surveys have shown that glucose intake is a promoter of C. albicans growth, whereas in vivo studies have found that xylitol can decrease the risk of candidiasis and angular cheilitis. Hence, we aimed to evaluate for the first time the inhibitory effects of xylitol on C...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Daniel Koester, Benjamin Wolbert, Marcel Schulte, Maik A Jochmann, Torsten Claus Schmidt
The sugar replacement compound xylitol has gained increasing attention due to its use in many commercial food products, dental hygiene articles and pharmaceuticals. It can be classified by the origin of the raw material used for the production. The traditional "birch xylitol" is considered a premium product in contrast to xylitol produced from agriculture byproducts such as corn husks or sugar cane straw. Bulk stable isotope analysis (BSIA) as well as compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) by LC-IRMS for chewing gum extracts was used to determine δ13C isotope signatures for xylitol...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wei Ren, Ruanhong Cai, Wanli Yan, Mingsheng Lyu, Yaowei Fang, Shujun Wang
This study evaluated the ability of a dextranase from a marine bacterium Catenovulum sp. (Cadex) to impede formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms, a primary pathogen of dental caries, one of the most common human infectious diseases. Cadex was purified 29.6-fold and had a specific activity of 2309 U/mg protein and molecular weight of 75 kDa. Cadex showed maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 40 °C and was stable at temperatures under 30 °C and at pH ranging from 5.0 to 11.0. A metal ion and chemical dependency study showed that Mn2+ and Sr2+ exerted positive effects on Cadex, whereas Cu2+ , Fe3+ , Zn2+ , Cd2+ , Ni2+ , and Co2+ functioned as inhibitors...
February 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
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