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Xylitol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718681/partial-substitution-of-glucose-with-xylitol-suppressed-the-glycolysis-and-selectively-inhibited-the-proliferation-of-oral-cancer-cells
#1
Dunyaporn Trachootham, Pimjai Chingsuwanrote, Penkhair Yoosadiang, Duangsamon Mekkriangkrai, Tanapat Ratchawong, Nicha Buraphacheep, Siripa Kijanukul, Sumrit Saekhow, Orawan Pongpitchayadej, Kittituch Vongvachvasin, Paknisa Sittikornpaiboon, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
Suitable diet for cancer survivors remains an unresolved challenge. Increased glucose utilization is a hallmark of various cancers. Therefore, alternative carbohydrate supplying normal tissue but retarding cancer growth is needed. This study investigated the effect of sugar alcohols on the proliferation of oral cancer cells compared to nontransformed cells and explored the mechanism. Six oral squamous cell carcinoma (CAL-27, FaDu, SCC4, SCC9, SCC15, and SCC25) and one nontransformed oral keratinocyte (OKF6/TERT2) lines were cultured in media containing 1 mg/ml glucose and 5...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717846/effects-of-xylitol-and-sucrose-mint-products-on-streptococcus-mutans-colonization-in-a-dental-simulator-model
#2
Krista M Salli, Ulvi K Gürsoy, Eva M Söderling, Arthur C Ouwehand
Few laboratory methods exist for evaluating the cariogenicity of food ingredients. In this study, a dental simulator was used to determine the effects of commercial sucrose and xylitol mint products on the adherence and planktonic growth of Streptococcus mutans. Solutions (3% w/v) of sucrose, xylitol, sucrose mints, xylitol mints, xylitol with 0.02% peppermint oil (PO), and 0.02% PO alone were used to test the levels of planktonic and adhered S. mutans. A dental simulator with continuous artificial saliva flow, constant temperature, and mixing was used as a test environment and hydroxyapatite (HA) discs were implemented into the model to simulate the tooth surface...
July 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710995/enhanced-and-green-extraction-polyphenols-and-furanocoumarins-from-fig-ficus-carica-l-leaves-using-deep-eutectic-solvents
#3
Tong Wang, Jiao Jiao, Qing-Yan Gai, Peng Wang, Na Guo, Li-Li Niu, Yu-Jie Fu
Nowadays, green extraction of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants has gained increasing attention. As green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) have been highly rated to replace toxic organic solvents in extraction process. In present study, to simultaneous extraction five main bioactive compounds from fig leaves, DES was tailor-made. The tailor-made DES composed of a 3:3:3 molar ratio of glycerol, xylitol and D-(-)-Fructose showed enhanced extraction yields for five target compounds simultaneously compared with traditional methanol and non-tailor DESs...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708089/effects-of-consuming-xylitol-on-gut-microbiota-and-lipid-metabolism-in-mice
#4
Takashi Uebanso, Saki Kano, Ayumi Yoshimoto, Chisato Naito, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
The sugar alcohol xylitol inhibits the growth of some bacterial species including Streptococcus mutans. It is used as a food additive to prevent caries. We previously showed that 1.5-4.0 g/kg body weight/day xylitol as part of a high-fat diet (HFD) improved lipid metabolism in rats. However, the effects of lower daily doses of dietary xylitol on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism are unclear. We examined the effect of 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol intake on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in mice...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684263/development-of-maltodextrin-based-immediate-release-tablets-using-an-integrated-twin-screw-hot-melt-extrusion-and-injection-molding-continuous-manufacturing-process
#5
Vibha Puri, Dave Brancazio, Parind M Desai, Keith D Jensen, Jung-Hoon Chun, Allan S Myerson, Bernhardt L Trout
The combination of hot melt extrusion and injection molding (HME-IM) is a promising process technology for continuous manufacturing of tablets. However, there has been limited research on its application to formulate crystalline drug containing immediate release tablets. Further, studies that have applied the HME-IM process to molded tablets have used a non-continuous two-step approach. The current study develops maltodextrin (MDX) based extrusion molded immediate release tablets for a crystalline drug (griseofulvin, GRIS) using an integrated twin-screw HME-IM continuous process...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676827/isolation-and-characterization-of-yeasts-able-to-assimilate-sugarcane-bagasse-hemicellulosic-hydrolysate-and-produce-xylitol-associated-with-veturius-transversus-passalidae-coleoptera-and-insecta
#6
Italo Thiago Silveira Rocha Matos, Enedina Nogueira Assunção, Edson Junior do Carmo, Verena Makaren Soares, Spartaco Astolfi-Filho
Yeasts are an important component of insect gut microbial content, playing roles such as degradation of polymers and toxic compounds, biological control, and hormone, vitamin, and digestive enzyme production. The xylophagous beetle gut is a hyperdiverse habitat and a potential source of new species with industrial abilities such as enzyme production, pentose fermentation, and biodetoxification. In this work, samples of Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta) were collected from the Central Amazon Rainforest...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658521/the-in-vitro-mucolytic-effect-of-xylitol-and-dornase-alfa-on-chronic-rhinosinusitis-mucus
#7
Tim Hardcastle, Ravi Jain, Fiona Radcliff, Sharon Waldvogel-Thurlow, Melissa Zoing, Kristi Biswas, Richard Douglas
BACKGROUND: The overproduction and stagnation of purulent mucus impair mucociliary clearance and exacerbate the symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). There is a clinical need for effective topical mucolytic agents to facilitate removal of mucus and improve postoperative outcomes. METHODS: The effects of xylitol (5%) and dornase alfa (1 mg/mL) on mucus and mucus crusts were investigated. Viscoelasticity and viscosity of wet mucus derived from 30 CRS patients was measured with a plate rheometer...
June 28, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656380/current-knowledge-on-agarolytic-enzymes-and-the-industrial-potential-of-agar-derived-sugars
#8
REVIEW
Eun Ju Yun, Sora Yu, Kyoung Heon Kim
Agar is a major cell wall carbohydrate of red macroalgae (Rhodophyta). Sugars derived from agar, such as agarooligosaccharides (AOSs), neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOSs), neoagarobiose (NAB), and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (L-AHG), possess various physiological activities. These agar-derived sugars can be produced by hydrolysis using chemicals or agarolytic enzymes. Despite the industrial potential of agar-derived sugars, their application has been hampered mainly due to the absence of efficient processes for the liquefaction and saccharification of agar...
June 27, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651135/a-model-biorefinery-for-avocado-persea-americana-mill-processing
#9
Javier A Dávila, Moshe Rosenberg, Eulogio Castro, Carlos A Cardona
This research investigated and evaluated a biorefinery for processing avocado Hass variety into microencapsulated phenolic compounds extract, ethanol, oil and xylitol. Avocado was first characterized for its potential valuable compounds; then, the techno-economic and environmental aspects of the biorefinery were developed and finally the total production costs and potential environmental impact of the proposed biorefinery were investigated. Four scenarios of the biorefinery were evaluated with different extent of mass and energy integration as well as the incorporation of a cogeneration system...
June 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650782/effect-of-probiotic-yogurt-and-xylitol-containing-chewing-gums-on-salivary-s-mutans-count
#10
Elnaz Ghasemi, Romina Mazaheri, Arezoo Tahmourespour
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. STUDY DESIGN: This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10(5) colony forming units S...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636893/controlled-release-from-aspirin-based-linear-biodegradable-poly-anhydride-esters-for-anti-inflammatory-activity
#11
Queeny Dasgupta, Sahitya Movva, Kaushik Chatterjee, Giridhar Madras
This work reports the synthesis of a novel, aspirin-loaded, linear poly (anhydride ester) and provides mechanistic insights into the release of aspirin from this polymer for anti-inflammatory activity. As compared to conventional drug delivery systems that rely on diffusion based release, incorporation of bioactives in the polymer backbone is challenging and high loading is difficult to achieve. In the present study, we exploit the pentafunctional sugar alcohol (xylitol) to provide sites for drug (aspirin) attachment at its non-terminal OH groups...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606842/physical-and-mechanical-properties-of-a-new-edible-film-made-of-pea-starch-and-guar-gum-as-affected-by-glycols-sugars-and-polyols
#12
Bahareh Saberi, Suwimol Chockchaisawasdee, John B Golding, Christopher J Scarlett, Costas E Stathopoulos
The influence of different plasticizers (glycols, sugars and polyols) on the moisture sorption, mechanical, physical, optical, and microstructure characteristics of pea starch-guar gum (PSGG) film was studied. All plasticizers formed homogeneous, transparent, and smooth films, while PEG-400 did not produce film with suitable characteristics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated some interaction between plasticizers and the polymers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the films presented surfaces without cracks, breaks, or openings which were indicator of the miscibility and compatibility of employed plasticizers with PSGG films...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596296/dietary-saccharides-and-sweet-tastants-have-differential-effects-on-colonization-of-drosophila-oocytes-by-wolbachia-endosymbionts
#13
Moises Camacho, Mailin Oliva, Laura R Serbus
Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in Drosophila melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595166/comparison-of-four-types-of-energy-grasses-as-lignocellulosic-feedstock-for-the-production-of-bio-ethanol
#14
Linfeng Kou, Yanliang Song, Xu Zhang, Tianwei Tan
In order to utilize energy grasses as substrates for production of biofuels and expand the diversity of lignocellulosic feedstocks, this work developed an evaluation system considering 16 kinds of parameters related to the contents of three main compositions (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), inhibitors generated from the pretreatment, the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Giant reed, corn stalks, switch grass, pennisetum and silvergrass were investigated. Comprehensive utilization indexes of giant reed (55...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582494/engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-the-efficient-co-utilization-of-glucose-and-xylose
#15
Jin Hou, Chenxi Qiu, Yu Shen, Hongxing Li, Xiaoming Bao
The rapid co-fermentation of both glucose and xylose is important for the efficient conversion of lignocellulose biomass into fuels and chemicals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered to be a potential cell factory and has been used to produce various fuels and chemicals, but it cannot metabolize xylose, which has greatly limited the utilization of lignocellulose materials. Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to develop xylose fermenting strains in past decades. The simple introduction of the xylose metabolic pathway does not enable yeast to rapidly utilize xylose, and several limitations still need to be addressed, including glucose repression and slow xylose transport, cofactor imbalance in the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase pathway, functional expression of a heterologous xylose isomerase, the low efficiency of downstream pathways and low ethanol production...
June 4, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575936/solid-crystal-suspension-of-efavirenz-using-hot-melt-extrusion-exploring-the-role-of-crystalline-polyols-in-improving-solubility-and-dissolution-rate
#16
Jaywant N Pawar, Ritesh A Fule, Mohammed Maniruzzaman, Purnima D Amin
Poor aqueous solubility of drugs has emerged as a major issue for pharmaceutical scientists from many decades. The current study explores the manufacture and development of a thermodynamically stabilized solid crystal suspension (SCS) of poorly water soluble drug efavirenz via hot melt extrusion. Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and belongs to BCS class II. The SCS was prepared using pearlitol and xylitol as a crystalline carrier. The drug-excipient blend was processed by hot melt extrusion with up to 50% (w/w) drug loading...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571874/organic-ligand-induced-dissolution-kinetics-of-antimony-trioxide
#17
Xingyun Hu, Mengchang He
The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was investigated. Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl, hydroxyl, hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen, namely oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, EDTA, salicylic acid, phthalandione, glycine, thiolactic acid, xylitol, glucose and catechol. These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH=3.7, 6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb2O3 in a stirred, thermostatted reactor (25°C)...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550778/construction-of-efficient-xylose-fermenting-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-through-a-synthetic-isozyme-system-of-xylose-reductase-from-scheffersomyces-stipitis
#18
Jung-Hyun Jo, Yong-Cheol Park, Yong-Su Jin, Jin-Ho Seo
Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for ethanol production from xylose, the abundant sugar in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Development of engineered S. cerevisiae able to utilize xylose effectively is crucial for economical and sustainable production of fuels. To this end, the xylose-metabolic genes (XYL1, XYL2 and XYL3) from Scheffersomyces stipitis have been introduced into S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strains, however, often exhibit undesirable phenotypes such as slow xylose assimilation and xylitol accumulation...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532266/soft-chewable-gelatin-based-pharmaceutical-oral-formulations-a-technical-approach
#19
Morten J Dille, Magnus N Hattrem, Kurt I Draget
OBJECTIVE: Hard tablets and capsules for oral drug delivery cause problems for people experiencing dysphagia. The present work describes the formulation and properties of a gelatin based, self-preserved and soft chewable tablet as an alternative and novel drug delivery format. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gelatin (8.8-10% in 24.7-29% water) constituted the matrix of the soft, semi-solid tablets. Three different pharmaceuticals (Ibuprofen 10%, Acetaminophen 15%, Meloxicam 1...
May 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529327/metabolite-profiling-of-obese-individuals-before-and-after-a-one-year-weight-loss-program
#20
N Geidenstam, M Al-Majdoub, M Ekman, P Spégel, M Ridderstråle
OBJECTIVE: We and others have previously characterized changes in circulating metabolite levels following diet-induced weight loss. Our aim was to investigate if baseline metabolite levels and weight loss-induced changes in these are predictive of or associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) and metabolic risk traits. METHODS: Serum metabolites were analyzed with gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in 91 obese individuals at baseline and after participating in a one year non-surgical weight loss program...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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