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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636893/controlled-release-from-aspirin-based-linear-biodegradable-poly-anhydride-esters-for-anti-inflammatory-activity
#1
Queeny Dasgupta, Sahitya Movva, Kaushik Chatterjee, Giridhar Madras
This work reports the synthesis of a novel, aspirin-loaded, linear poly (anhydride ester) and provides mechanistic insights into the release of aspirin from this polymer for anti-inflammatory activity. As compared to conventional drug delivery systems that rely on diffusion based release, incorporation of bioactives in the polymer backbone is challenging and high loading is difficult to achieve. In the present study, we exploit the pentafunctional sugar alcohol (xylitol) to provide sites for drug (aspirin) attachment at its non-terminal OH groups...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606842/physical-and-mechanical-properties-of-a-new-edible-film-made-of-pea-starch-and-guar-gum-as-affected-by-glycols-sugars-and-polyols
#2
Bahareh Saberi, Suwimol Chockchaisawasdee, John B Golding, Christopher J Scarlett, Costas E Stathopoulos
The influence of different plasticizers (glycols, sugars and polyols) on the moisture sorption, mechanical, physical, optical, and microstructure characteristics of pea starch-guar gum (PSGG) film was studied. All plasticizers formed homogeneous, transparent, and smooth films, while PEG-400 did not produce film with suitable characteristics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated some interaction between plasticizers and the polymers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the films presented surfaces without cracks, breaks, or openings which were indicator of the miscibility and compatibility of employed plasticizers with PSGG films...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596296/dietary-saccharides-and-sweet-tastants-have-differential-effects-on-colonization-of-drosophila-oocytes-by-wolbachia-endosymbionts
#3
Moises Camacho, Mailin Oliva, Laura R Serbus
Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in D. melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants...
June 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595166/comparison-of-four-types-of-energy-grasses-as-lignocellulosic-feedstock-for-the-production-of-bio-ethanol
#4
Linfeng Kou, Yanliang Song, Xu Zhang, Tianwei Tan
In order to utilize energy grasses as substrates for production of biofuels and expand the diversity of lignocellulosic feedstocks, this work developed an evaluation system considering 16 kinds of parameters related to the contents of three main compositions (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), inhibitors generated from the pretreatment, the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Giant reed, corn stalks, switch grass, pennisetum and silvergrass were investigated. Comprehensive utilization indexes of giant reed (55...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582494/engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-the-efficient-co-utilization-of-glucose-and-xylose
#5
Jin Hou, Chenxi Qiu, Yu Shen, Hongxing Li, Xiaoming Bao
The rapid co-fermentation of both glucose and xylose is important for the efficient conversion of lignocellulose biomass into fuels and chemicals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered to be a potential cell factory and has been used to produce various fuels and chemicals, but it cannot metabolize xylose, which has greatly limited the utilization of lignocellulose materials. Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to develop xylose fermenting strains in past decades. The simple introduction of the xylose metabolic pathway does not enable yeast to rapidly utilize xylose, and several limitations still need to be addressed, including glucose repression and slow xylose transport, cofactor imbalance in the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase pathway, functional expression of a heterologous xylose isomerase, the low efficiency of downstream pathways and low ethanol production...
June 4, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575936/solid-crystal-suspension-of-efavirenz-using-hot-melt-extrusion-exploring-the-role-of-crystalline-polyols-in-improving-solubility-and-dissolution-rate
#6
Jaywant N Pawar, Ritesh A Fule, Mohammed Maniruzzaman, Purnima D Amin
Poor aqueous solubility of drugs has emerged as a major issue for pharmaceutical scientists from many decades. The current study explores the manufacture and development of a thermodynamically stabilized solid crystal suspension (SCS) of poorly water soluble drug efavirenz via hot melt extrusion. Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and belongs to BCS class II. The SCS was prepared using pearlitol and xylitol as a crystalline carrier. The drug-excipient blend was processed by hot melt extrusion with up to 50% (w/w) drug loading...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571874/organic-ligand-induced-dissolution-kinetics-of-antimony-trioxide
#7
Xingyun Hu, Mengchang He
The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was investigated. Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl, hydroxyl, hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen, namely oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, EDTA, salicylic acid, phthalandione, glycine, thiolactic acid, xylitol, glucose and catechol. These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH=3.7, 6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb2O3 in a stirred, thermostatted reactor (25°C)...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550778/construction-of-efficient-xylose-fermenting-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-through-a-synthetic-isozyme-system-of-xylose-reductase-from-scheffersomyces-stipitis
#8
Jung-Hyun Jo, Yong-Cheol Park, Yong-Su Jin, Jin-Ho Seo
Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for ethanol production from xylose, the abundant sugar in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Development of engineered S. cerevisiae able to utilize xylose effectively is crucial for economical and sustainable production of fuels. To this end, the xylose-metabolic genes (XYL1, XYL2 and XYL3) from Scheffersomyces stipitis have been introduced into S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strains, however, often exhibit undesirable phenotypes such as slow xylose assimilation and xylitol accumulation...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532266/soft-chewable-gelatin-based-pharmaceutical-oral-formulations-a-technical-approach
#9
Morten J Dille, Magnus N Hattrem, Kurt I Draget
OBJECTIVE: Hard tablets and capsules for oral drug delivery cause problems for people experiencing dysphagia. The present work describes the formulation and properties of a gelatin based, self-preserved and soft chewable tablet as an alternative and novel drug delivery format. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gelatin (8.8-10% in 24.7-29% water) constituted the matrix of the soft, semi-solid tablets. Three different pharmaceuticals (Ibuprofen 10%, Acetaminophen 15%, Meloxicam 1...
May 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529327/metabolite-profiling-of-obese-individuals-before-and-after-a-one-year-weight-loss-program
#10
N Geidenstam, M Al-Majdoub, M Ekman, P Spégel, M Ridderstråle
OBJECTIVE: We and others have previously characterized changes in circulating metabolite levels following diet-induced weight loss. Our aim was to investigate if baseline metabolite levels and weight loss-induced changes in these are predictive of or associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) and metabolic risk traits. METHODS: Serum metabolites were analyzed with gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in 91 obese individuals at baseline and after participating in a one year non-surgical weight loss program...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527826/metabolic-pathway-analysis-of-the-xylose-metabolizing-yeast-protoplast-fusant-zlyrhz7
#11
Jingping Ge, Renpeng Du, Gang Song, Yuhuan Zhang, Wenxiang Ping
Xylose is the second major fermentable sugar present in hard woods and herbs (after d-glucose). Therefore, efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol is essential for the commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol, which may provide an ideal alternative to fossil fuels in the future. ZLYRHZ7 is a fusant produced by protoplast fusion between two different yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335, which is able to utilize xylose to produce ethanol. To improve ethanol production and to quantitatively analyze metabolic pathway in ZLYRHZ7, we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to assess the utilization rates of xylose, xylitol, and xylulose, and to measure ethanol yields using xylose, xylitol, and xylulose as sole carbon sources...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527765/lignocellulosic-sugar-management-for-xylitol-and-ethanol-fermentation-with-multiple-cell-recycling-by-kluyveromyces-marxianus-iipe453
#12
Diptarka Dasgupta, Debashish Ghosh, Sheetal Bandhu, Dilip K Adhikari
Optimum utilization of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass to deliver multiple products under biorefinery concept has been reported in this work. Alcohol fermentation has been carried out with multiple cell recycling of Kluyveromyces marxianus IIPE453. The yeast utilized xylose-rich fraction from acid and steam treated biomass for cell generation and xylitol production with an average yield of 0.315±0.01g/g while the entire glucose rich saccharified fraction had been fermented to ethanol with high productivity of 0...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494761/production-of-fuels-and-chemicals-from-xylose-by-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-a-review-and-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Suryang Kwak, Yong-Su Jin
Efficient xylose utilization is one of the most important pre-requisites for developing an economic microbial conversion process of terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and biochemicals. A robust ethanol producing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered with heterologous xylose assimilation pathways. A two-step oxidoreductase pathway consisting of NAD(P)H-linked xylose reductase and NAD(+)-linked xylitol dehydrogenase, and one-step isomerase pathway using xylose isomerase have been employed to enable xylose assimilation in engineered S...
May 11, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492501/urinary-metabolomics-in-pediatric-obesity-and-nafld-identifies-metabolic-pathways-metabolites-related-to-dietary-habits-and-gut-liver-axis-perturbations
#14
Jacopo Troisi, Luca Pierri, Annamaria Landolfi, Francesca Marciano, Antonella Bisogno, Federica Belmonte, Carmen Palladino, Salvatore Guercio Nuzio, Pietro Campiglia, Pietro Vajro
To get insight into still elusive pathomechanisms of pediatric obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) we explored the interplay among GC-MS studied urinary metabolomic signature, gut liver axis (GLA) abnormalities, and food preferences (Kid-Med). Intestinal permeability (IP), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were investigated in forty children (mean age 9.8 years) categorized as normal weight (NW) or obese (body mass index <85th or >95th percentile, respectively) ± ultrasonographic bright liver and hypertransaminasemia (NAFLD)...
May 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471330/characterization-and-gene-cloning-of-l-xylulose-reductase-involved-in-l-arabinose-catabolism-from-the-pentose-fermenting-fungus-rhizomucor-pusillus
#15
Shino Yamasaki-Yashiki, Hidenobu Komeda, Kazuhiro Hoshino, Yasuhisa Asano
l-Xylulose reductase (LXR) catalyzes the reduction of l-xylulose to xylitol in the fungal l-arabinose catabolic pathway. LXR (RpLXR) was purified from the pentose-fermenting zygomycetous fungus Rhizomucor pusillus NBRC 4578. The native RpLXR is a homotetramer composed of 29 kDa subunits and preferred NADPH as a coenzyme. The Km values were 8.71 mM for l-xylulose and 3.89 mM for dihydroxyacetone. The lxr3 (Rplxr3) gene encoding RpLXR consists of 792 bp and encodes a putative 263 amino acid protein (Mr = 28,341)...
May 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469699/metabolomics-approach-reveals-annual-metabolic-variation-in-roots-of-cyathula-officinalis-kuan-based-on-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrum
#16
Kai Tong, Zhao-Ling Li, Xu Sun, Shen Yan, Mei-Jie Jiang, Meng-Sheng Deng, Ji Chen, Jing-Wei Li, Meng-Liang Tian
BACKGROUND: Herbal quality is strongly influenced by harvest time. It is therefore one of crucial factors that should be well respected by herbal producers when optimizing cultivation techniques, so that to obtain herbal products of high quality. In this work, we paid attention on one of common used Chinese herbals, Cyathula officinalis Kuan. According to previous studies, its quality may be related with growth years because of the variation of several main bioactive components in different growth years...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465256/a-combination-of-the-probiotic-and-prebiotic-product-can-prevent-the-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-and-infection
#17
M Rätsep, S Kõljalg, E Sepp, I Smidt, K Truusalu, E Songisepp, J Stsepetova, P Naaber, R H Mikelsaar, M Mikelsaar
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most prevalent healthcare associated infections in hospitals and nursing homes. Different approaches are used for prevention of CDI. Absence of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been associated with C. difficile colonization in hospitalized patients. Our aim was to test a) the susceptibility of C. difficile strains of different origin and the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Inducia (DSM 21379) to various antimicrobial preparations incl...
April 29, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461883/comparison-of-antimicrobial-effects-of-titanium-tetrafluoride-chlorhexidine-xylitol-and-sodium-fluoride-on-streptococcus-mutans-an-in-vitro-study
#18
Tahereh Eskandarian, Mohammad Motamedifar, Peyman Arasteh, Seyed Sajad Eghbali, Ali Adib, Zahra Abdoli
INTRODUCTION: No studies have yet documented the bactericidal effects of TiF4, and its role in the treatment of dental caries, and no definite protocol has been introduced to regulate its use. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial/bactericidal effects of TiF4 on Streptococcus Mutans (S. Mutans) and to compare it with chlorhexidine (Chx), sodium fluoride (NaF) and xylitol. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences microbiology laboratory during March 2015 to September 2015...
March 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452022/xylitol-production-from-non-detoxified-and-non-sterile-lignocellulosic-hydrolysate-using-low-cost-industrial-media-components
#19
Tatyaso Yewale, Shruti Panchwagh, Shaileshkumar Sawale, Rishi Jain, Pradip B Dhamole
Immobilized Candida tropicalis cells in freeze dried calcium alginate beads were used for production of xylitol from lignocellulosic waste like corn cob hydrolysate without any detoxification and sterilization of media. Media components for xylitol fermentation were screened by statistical methods. Urea, KH2PO4 and initial pH were identified as significant variables by Plackett-Burman (PB) design. Significant medium components were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Predicted xylitol yield by RSM model and experimental yield was 0...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448807/alternative-sweeteners-influence-the-biomass-of-oral-biofilm
#20
Fathilah Abdul Razak, Baizatul Amirah Baharuddin, Elisya Farha Mohd Akbar, Amira Hanim Norizan, Nur Fazilah Ibrahim, Md Yusoff Musa
OBJECTIVE: Compact-structured oral biofilm accumulates acids that upon prolonged exposure to tooth surface, causes demineralisation of enamel. This study aimed to assess the effect of alternative sweeteners Equal Stevia(®), Tropicana Slim(®), Pal Sweet(®) and xylitol on the matrix-forming activity of plaque biofilm at both the early and established stages of formation. METHODS: Saliva-coated glass beads (sGB) were used as substratum for the adhesion of a mixed-bacterial suspension of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mitis...
August 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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