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Siwaporn Wannawilai, Wen-Chien Lee, Yusuf Chisti, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul
Xylitol production from xylose by the yeast Candida magnoliae TISTR 5663 was enhanced by supplementing the fermentation medium with furfural (300mg/L) and glucose (3g/L with an initial mass ratio of glucose to xylose of 1:10) together under oxygen limiting conditions. In the presence of furfural and glucose, the final concentration of xylitol was unaffected relative to control cultures but the xylitol yield on xylose increased by about 5%. Supplementation of the culture medium with glucose alone at an initial concentration of 3g/L, stimulated the volumetric and specific rates of xylose consumption and the rate of xylitol production from xylose...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Aritomo Yamaguchi, Natsumi Muramatsu, Naoki Mimura, Masayuki Shirai, Osamu Sato
The intramolecular dehydration of biomass-derived sugar alcohols d-sorbitol, d-mannitol, galactitol, xylitol, ribitol, l-arabitol, erythritol, l-threitol, and dl-threitol was investigated in high-temperature water at 523-573 K without the addition of any acid catalysts. d-Sorbitol and d-mannitol were dehydrated into isosorbide and isomannide, respectively, as dianhydrohexitol products. Galactitol was dehydrated into anhydrogalactitols; however, the anhydrogalactitols could not be dehydrated into dianhydrogalactitol products because of the orientation of the hydroxyl groups at the C-3 and C-6 positions...
November 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kristian Semjonov, Karin Kogermann, Ivo Laidmäe, Osmo Antikainen, Clare J Strachan, Henrik Ehlers, Jouko Yliruusi, Jyrki Heinämäki
Amorphous solid dispersions (SDs) are a promising approach to improve the dissolution rate of and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. In some cases multi-phase, instead of single-phase, SD systems with amorphous drug are obtained. While it is widely assumed that one-phase amorphous systems are desirable, two-phase systems may still potentially exhibit enhanced stability and dissolution advantages over undispersed systems. The objective of the present study was to understand the solid-state properties of two-phase SDs with amorphous drug and their relation to physical stability...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alejandro Muñoz de Las Heras, Diogo J Portugal-Nunes, Nathasha Rizza, Anders G Sandström, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
BACKGROUND: Poly-3-D-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) that is a promising precursor for bioplastic with similar physical properties as polypropylene, is naturally produced by several bacterial species. The bacterial pathway is comprised of the three enzymes β-ketothiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (AAR) and PHB synthase, which all together convert acetyl-CoA into PHB. Heterologous expression of the pathway genes from Cupriavidus necator has enabled PHB production in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from glucose as well as from xylose, after introduction of the fungal xylose utilization pathway from Scheffersomyces stipitis including xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH)...
November 18, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Diaa Osman, Omnia Ali, Manar Obada, Hatem El-Mezayen, Hala El-Said
Metabolomics has been shown to be an effective tool for disease diagnosis, biomarker screening and characterization of biological pathways. A total of 140 subjects were included in this study; urine metabolomes of patients with liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 40), patients with HCC (n = 55) and healthy male subjects (n = 45); as control group, were studied. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based urine metabolomics profile was investigated for all participants. Diagnostic models were constructed with a combination of marker metabolites, using principal components analysis (PCA) and receiver operator characteristic curves...
November 10, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Alessio Gambino, Roberto Broccoletti, Adriana Cafaro, Marco Cabras, Paola Carcieri, Paolo G Arduino
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to make an initial estimation on the effects of a sodium bicarbonate and xylitol spray (Cariex(®) ), associated with non-surgical periodontal therapy, in participants with primary Sjögren's syndrome. BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that predominantly involves salivary and lachrymal glands, with the clinical effect of dry eyes and mouth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort of 22 women and two men has been evaluated...
November 4, 2016: Gerodontology
Tadashi Sato, Shiro Kusuhara, Wakae Yokoi, Masahiko Ito, Kouji Miyazaki
Dietary low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) affect gut microbial metabolism, including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of various LDCs to promote butyrate production was evaluated in in vitro human fecal cultures. Fecal suspensions from five healthy males were anaerobically incubated with various LDCs. L-sorbose and xylitol markedly promoted butyrate formation in cultures. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of these fecal cultures revealed a marked increase in the abundance of bacteria closely related to the species Anaerostipes hadrus or Anaerostipes caccae, or both, during enhanced butyrate formation from L-sorbose or xylitol...
November 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Raquel M Cadete, Monaliza A Melo-Cheab, Adriana L Viana, Evelyn S Oliveira, César Fonseca, Carlos A Rosa
This study assessed the efficiency of Scheffersomyces amazonensis UFMG-CM-Y493(T), cultured in xylose-supplemented medium (YPX) and rice hull hydrolysate (RHH), to convert xylose to xylitol under moderate and severe oxygen limitation. The highest xylitol yields of 0.75 and 1.04 g g(-1) in YPX and RHH, respectively, were obtained under severe oxygen limitation. However, volumetric productivity in RHH was ninefold decrease than that in YPX medium. The xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) activities in the YPX cultures were strictly dependent on NADPH and NAD(+) respectively, and were approximately 10% higher under severe oxygen limitation than under moderate oxygen limitation...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Gwen Falony, Sisko Honkala, Riina Runnel, Jana Olak, Rita Nõmmela, Silvia Russak, Mare Saag, Pirkko-Liisa Mäkinen, Kauko Mäkinen, Tero Vahlberg, Eino Honkala
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of daily consumption of erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol candies on caries development in mixed dentition during a 3-year intervention and 3 years after the intervention. METHODS: 485 Estonian first- and second-grade primary school children participated. Children were randomly allocated to an erythritol, xylitol, or sorbitol (control) group. Polyol-containing candies were administered on school days with a daily polyol consumption of 3 × 2...
November 3, 2016: Caries Research
Javier A Dávila, Moshe Rosenberg, Carlos A Cardona
This work investigated a model biorefinery for producing phenolic compounds extract, ethanol and xylitol from spent blackberry pulp (SBP). The biorefinery was investigated according to four potential scenarios including mass and heat integrations as well as cogeneration system for supplying part of the energy requirements in the biorefinery. The investigated SBP had 61.54% holocellulose; its total phenolic compounds was equivalent to 2700mg of gallic acid/100g SBP, its anthocyanins content was 126.41mg/kg of SBP and its total antioxidant activity was 174...
October 20, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Peng-Fei Xia, Guo-Chang Zhang, Berkley Walker, Seung-Oh Seo, Suryang Kwak, Jingjing Liu, Heejin Kim, Donald Ort, Shu-Guang Wang, Yong-Su Jin
Global climate change caused by the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHGs) is a grand challenge to humanity. To alleviate the trend, the consumption of fossil fuels needs to be largely reduced and alternative energy technologies capable of controlling GHG emissions are anticipated. In this study, we introduced a synthetic reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP) into a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SR8 to achieve simultaneous lignocellulosic bioethanol production and carbon dioxide recycling...
October 17, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Paula Regina Elias, Gleicekelly Silva Coelho, Viviane Flores Xavier, Policarpo Ademar Sales Junior, Alvaro José Romanha, Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta, Claudia Martins Carneiro, Nilton Soares Camilo, Flaviane Francisco Hilário, Jason Guy Taylor
A series of novel xylitan derivatives derived from xylitol were synthesized using operationally simple procedures. A xylitan acetonide was the key intermediate used to prepare benzoate, arylsulfonate esters and 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of xylitan. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite in T. cruzi-infected cell lineages. Benznidazole was used as positive control against T. cruzi and cytotoxicity was determined in mammalian L929 cells...
October 10, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bettina K Wölnerhanssen, Anne Christin Meyer Gerspach, Christoph Beglinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Su Hyun Seok, Seung-Yeob Kang, Jeong-Woong Seo, Su-Hyeon Kim, Kyu-Mok Hwang, Eun-Seok Park
The aims of this study were to improve in vitro dissolution property of poorly water-soluble everolimus (EVR) for enhanced bioavailability without using organic solvents and characterize the effects of microfluidization and freeze-drying on physicochemical properties of EVR nanosuspension and nanoparticle, respectively. EVR nanosuspension was prepared using microfluidization with various types and concentrations of stabilizers. After that, it was solidified into nanoparticle using freeze-drying with various concentrations of xylitol, a cryoprotectant...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Rodrigo S Raposo, M Catarina M D de Almeida, M da Conceição M A de Oliveira, M Manuela da Fonseca, M Teresa Cesário
Efficient production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB)) based on glucose-xylose mixtures simulating different types of lignocellulosic hydrolysate (LCH) was addressed using Burkholderia sacchari, a wild strain capable of metabolizing both sugars and producing P(3HB). Carbon catabolite repression was avoided by maintaining glucose concentration below 10g/L. Xylose concentrations above 30g/L were inhibitory for growth and production. In fed-batch cultivations, pulse size and feed addition rate were controlled in order to reach high productivities and efficient sugar consumptions...
January 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
Rachel Fickes, Dennis R Voelker, Karin Zemski Berry, Robert C Murphy
RATIONALE: Structural analogs of the bioactive lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol, were synthesized with a xylitol polar headgroup and both diacyl and diether radyl groups. Mass spectral characterization of xylitol phospholipids (PX) was carried out using collisional activation and high resolution mass measurements of positive molecular ion species and compared with the phosphatidylglycerol (PG) analogs. METHODS: Xylitol phospholipids were synthesized using a transphosphatidylation reaction catalyzed by phospholipase D and purified by HPLC...
September 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Letícia M F Sena, Camila G Morais, Mariana R Lopes, Renata O Santos, Ana P T Uetanabaro, Paula B Morais, Marcos J S Vital, Marcos A de Morais, Marc-André Lachance, Carlos A Rosa
Sixteen yeast isolates identified as belonging to the genus Sugiyamaella were studied in relation to D-xylose fermentation, xylitol production, and xylanase activities. The yeasts were recovered from rotting wood and sugarcane bagasse samples in different Brazilian regions. Sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of large subunit rRNA gene showed that these isolates belong to seven new species. The species are described here as Sugiyamaella ayubii f.a., sp. nov...
September 29, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Mona F Arafa, Sanaa A El-Gizawy, Mohamed A Osman, Gamal M El Maghraby
Dissolution enhancement is a promising strategy for improving drug bioavailability. Co-crystallization of drugs with inert material can help in this direction. The benefit will become even greater if the inert material can form co-crystal while maintaining its main function as excipient. Accordingly, the objective of the current study was to investigate xylitol as a potential co-crystal co-former for felodipine with the goal of preparing felodipine sublingual tablets. Co-crystallization was achieved by wet co-grinding of the crystals deposited from methanolic solutions containing felodipine with increasing molar ratios of xylitol (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3)...
September 28, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Xingguang Zhang, Karen Wilson, Adam F Lee
Biomass has been long exploited as an anthropogenic energy source; however, the 21st century challenges of energy security and climate change are driving resurgence in its utilization both as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels and as a sustainable carbon feedstock for chemicals production. Deconstruction of cellulose and hemicellulose carbohydrate polymers into their constituent C5 and C6 sugars, and subsequent heterogeneously catalyzed transformations, offer the promise of unlocking diverse oxygenates such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, and gluconic acid as biorefinery platform chemicals...
October 12, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Bruno Mello de Matos, Fernanda Lourenção Brighenti, Thuy Do, David Beighton, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acidogenicity of dual-species biofilms of bifidobacteria and Streptococcus mutans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The following strains were tested: Bifidobacterium dentium DSM20436, Parascardovia denticolens DSM10105, and Scardovia inopinata DSM10107. Streptococcus mutans UA159 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356 were used as control. Bifidobacteria were studied planktonically as they were not able to form monospecies biofilm, they were grown in biofilms associated with S...
September 23, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
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