Read by QxMD icon Read

Neural Correlates

Zu Wei Zhai, Sarah W Yip, Cheryl M Lacadie, Rajita Sinha, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza
OBJECTIVE: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a critical for both stress and inhibitory control processes and has been implicated in childhood trauma. This prospective study tested the hypothesis that early trauma moderates the association between inhibitory control during late childhood and ACC stress reactivity during adolescence. METHOD: Sixty-four adolescents were stratified into higher- or lower-childhood-trauma groups. Inhibitory control was indicated by fewer errors on a Stroop Color-Word task...
October 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Amir Talaei-Khoei, James M Wilson
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to identify the patients at risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). There is a body of literature that uses machine learning classification algorithms to predict development of T2D among patients. The current study compares the performance of these classification algorithms to identify patients who are at risk of developing T2D in short, medium and long terms. In addition, the list of predictor variables important for prediction for T2D progression is provided...
November 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
David Kabelik, Chelsea A Weitekamp, Shelley C Choudhury, Jacob T Hartline, Alexandra N Smith, Hans A Hofmann
Animals have evolved flexible strategies that allow them to evaluate and respond to their social environment by integrating the salience of external stimuli with internal physiological cues into adaptive behavioral responses. A highly conserved social decision-making network (SDMN), consisting of interconnected social behavior and mesolimbic reward networks, has been proposed to underlie such adaptive behaviors across all vertebrates, although our understanding of this system in reptiles is very limited. Here we measure neural activation across the SDMN and associated regions in the male brown anole (Anolis sagrei), within both reproductive and agonistic contexts, by quantifying the expression density of the immediate early gene product Fos...
October 17, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Andrea Reinecke, Kai V Thilo, Alison Croft, Catherine J Harmer
Exposure-based cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is an effective intervention, but the brain mechanisms driving recovery are largely unknown. In this experimental medicine study, we investigated to what degree CBT affects neural markers of anxiety at an early stage of treatment, to identify dynamic mechanistic changes which might be crucial in the process of recovery as opposed to those seen following full treatment completion. In a randomised controlled trial, unmedicated patients with panic disorder either received four weekly sessions of exposure-based CBT (N = 14) or were allocated to a waiting group (N = 14)...
October 19, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Huaiyu Zhu, Yun Pan, Kwang-Ting Cheng, Ruohong Huan
This paper presents a lightweight synthesis algorithm, named adaptive region segmentation based piecewise linear (ARSPL) algorithm, for reconstructing standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a 3-lead subset (I, II and V2). Such a lightweight algorithm is particularly suitable for healthcare mobile devices with limited resources for computing, communication and data storage. After detection of R-peaks, the ECGs are segmented by cardiac cycles. Each cycle is further divided into four regions according to different cardiac electrical activity stages...
2018: PloS One
Sung-Il Kim, Suyoung Hwang, Minhye Lee
We investigated whether negative feedback with information could benefit both behavioral and neural responses. Fifteen participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while receiving various feedbacks in a novel perceptual task. Behavioral data showed that reaction times of task performance were faster after receiving negative informative feedback compared to negative confirmatory feedback. The fMRI analysis of the interaction contrast between feedback type (informative vs. confirmatory) and valence (negative vs...
2018: PloS One
Wei Gao, ShengDong Chen, Bharat Biswal, Xu Lei, JiaJin Yuan
Cognitive reappraisal has been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and spontaneous activity patterns of the default mode network (DMN) relate closely with reappraisal and MDD. However, neural mechanisms subserving the close association of spontaneous reappraisal and depression are unclear. Spontaneous reappraisal, depression and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were measured from one-hundred and five healthy subjects. We assessed the temporal complexity (Hurst exponent), Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (fALFF) profiles of Default Mode Network (DMN), a network involved in both reappraisal and depression...
October 19, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Xian Liu, Chun-Yu Zhao, Cheng-Xia Sun, Zhan-Ming Chen, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi
Closed-loop control plays an important role in the treatment of epileptiform spikes by using brain stimulation. In recent years, there have been many analytical methods for determining stimulus protocols and stimulus parameters. However, the analytical method that can start the stimulus protocol when it is needed and stop the stimulus protocol when it is not needed is rather rare. In this work, we design an analytic closed-loop control scheme which can starts control when epileptiform spikes are detected and stops control when no epileptiform spikes are detected...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Faraj Al-Marri, Faruque Reza, Tahamina Begum, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam, Goh Khean Jin, Jing Xiang
Visual cognitive function is important in the construction of executive function in daily life. Perception of visual number form (e.g. Arabic digits) and numerosity (numeric magnitude) is of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Neural correlates and the functional measurement of number representations are complex events when their semantic categories are assimilated together with concepts of shape and color. Color perception can be processed further to modulate visual cognition. The Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates are one of the best and most common screening tools for basic red-green color vision testing...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Abolfazl Alipour, Sahar Seifzadeh, Hadi Aligholi, Mohammad Nami
The neurocognitive substrates of decision making in the context of chess has appealed to the interest of investigators for decades. Expert and beginner chess players are hypothesized to employ different functional brain networks when involved in episodes of critical decision making while playing chess. Cognitive capacities including, but not restricted to, pattern recognition, visuospatial search, reasoning, planning, and decision making are perhaps the key determinants of the reward and judgment decisions made during chess games...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
U Olcese
The scientific study of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has long relied on comparing conditions in which consciousness is normally present with others in which it is impaired. Brain lesions offer a unique opportunity to understand which anatomical networks are needed to sustain consciousness, but provide limited insights on the patterns of neural activity that can support conscious processing. Non-REM sleep, on the other hand, has long epitomized the typical case of a non-conscious yet fully active brain...
September 1, 2018: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Zdenka Gasparova, Pavol Janega, Peter Weismann, Hisham El Falougy, Barbara Tyukos Kaprinay, Boris Liptak, Dominika Michalikova, Ruzena Sotnikova
Fat-rich diet (FRD) triggers health complications like hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, known as the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which may result in neurological deficits. The impact of MetS on neuronal functions and brain morphology are poorly understood. We induced MetS-like conditions by exposing hypertriacylglycerolemic (HTG) rats to FRD for eight weeks with the aim to study possible neurological dysfunctions. HTG-FRD rats were compared to HTG rats and Wistar rats on standard diet...
October 19, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Giuseppe Massaro, Daniela Altavilla, Paola Aceto, Gaia Romana Pellicano, Giada Lucarelli, Massimiliano Luciani, Carlo Lai
In the present study, we aimed to explore neural correlates of survivors of the 2009 L'Aquila, Italy earthquake in response to being shown pictures featuring their own city before and after an earthquake as well as those of an unfamiliar city. Moreover, we explored the associations among psychological variables and brain responses to the pictures of L'Aquila after the earthquake. Our final sample (N = 30 adults) comprised 15 survivors (M age = 31.40 years, SD = 9.42) and 15 controls (M age = 30.53 years, SD = 10...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Xavier Muracciole, Wassim El-Amine, Emmeline Tabouret, Mohamed Boucekine, Anne Barlier, Gregorio Petrirena, Tovo Harivony, Laetitia Solignac, Olivier L Chinot, Nicolas Macagno, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Laetitia Padovani
Aims: Assess the impact of radiation doses to neural stem cell (NSC) niches in patients with IDH-wild-type glioblastoma. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients were included in the study. NSC niches [SubVentricular Zone (SVZ) and Sub Granular Zone (SGZ)] were contoured by fusing CT scans and pre-therapy MRI, Tumor location defined ipsilateral and contralateral SVZ and SGZ. Prognostic significance of clinical, biological and dosimetric parameters were examined. We generated a Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) model with independent prognostic classes...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Andrea Scalabrini, Clara Mucci, Georg Northoff
The concept and the assessment of personality have been extensively discussed in psychoanalysis and in clinical psychology over the years. Nowadays there is large consensus in considering the constructs of the self and relatedness as central criterions to assess the personality and its disturbances. However, the relation between the psychological organization of personality, the construct of the self, and its neuronal correlates remain unclear. Based on the recent empirical data on the neural correlates of the self (and others), on the importance of early relational and attachment experiences, and on the relation with the brain's spontaneous/resting state activity (rest-self overlap/containment), we propose here a multilayered model of the self with: (i) relational alignment; (ii) self-constitution; (iii) self-manifestation; and (iv) self-expansion...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Saskia Steinmann, Rom Amselberg, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, Andreas K Engel, Gregor Leicht, Christoph Mulert
Interhemispheric connectivity between auditory areas is highly relevant for normal auditory perception and alterations are a major factor for the development of auditory verbal hallucinations. Surprisingly, there is no combined EEG-DTI study directly addressing the role of functional and structural connectivity in the same group of subjects. Accordingly, nothing is known about the relationship between functional connectivity such as gamma-band synchrony, structural integrity of the interhemispheric auditory pathways (IAPs) and language lateralization as well as whether the gamma-band synchrony is configured on the backbone of IAPs...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tara Deemyad, Joel Lüthi, Nelson Spruston
Many brain functions depend on the ability of neural networks to temporally integrate transient inputs to produce sustained discharges. This can occur through cell-autonomous mechanisms in individual neurons and through reverberating activity in recurrently connected neural networks. We report a third mechanism involving temporal integration of neural activity by a network of astrocytes. Previously, we showed that some types of interneurons can generate long-lasting trains of action potentials (barrage firing) following repeated depolarizing stimuli...
October 18, 2018: Nature Communications
O Tymofiyeva, D Gano, R J Trevino, H C Glass, T Flynn, S M Lundy, P S McQuillen, D M Ferriero, A J Barkovich, D Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differences in structural brain connectivity that underlie inattention have been previously investigated in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but not in the context of premature birth, which is often associated with attentional problems. The purpose of this study was to identify the neural correlates of attentional problems in adolescents born prematurely and determine neonatal predictors of those neural correlates and attention problems...
October 18, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Michela Balconi, Maria Elide Vanutelli
BACKGROUND: Social behavior and interactions pervasively shape and influence our lives and relationships. Competition, in particular, has become a core topic in social neuroscience since it stresses the relevance and salience of social comparison processes between the inter-agents that are involved in a common task. The majority of studies, however, investigated such kind of social interaction via one-person individual paradigms, thus not taking into account relevant information concerning interdependent participants' behavioral and neural responses...
October 18, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Wan-Ling Tseng, Christen M Deveney, Joel Stoddard, Katharina Kircanski, Anna E Frackman, Jennifer Y Yi, Derek Hsu, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Laura Donahue, Alexandra Roule, Gretchen Perhamus, Richard C Reynolds, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: Childhood irritability is a common, impairing problem with changing age-related manifestations that predict long-term adverse outcomes. However, more investigation of overall and age-specific neural correlates is needed. Because youths with irritability exhibit exaggerated responses to frustrating stimuli, the authors used a frustration functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to examine associations between irritability and neural activation and tested the moderating effect of age. METHOD: The authors studied a transdiagnostic sample of 195 youths with varying levels of irritability (disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, N=52; anxiety disorder, N=42; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, N=40; and healthy volunteers, N=61)...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"