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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107052/multisensory-stimulation-modulates-perceptual-and-post-perceptual-face-representations-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#1
Alejandro J Estudillo, Jürgen M Kaufmann, Markus Bindemann, Stefan R Schweinberger
Seeing a face being touched in spatial and temporal synchrony with the own face produces a bias in self-recognition, whereby the other face becomes more likely to be perceived as the self. The present study employed event-related potentials to explore whether this enfacement effect reflects initial face encoding, enhanced distinctiveness of the enfaced face, modified self-identity representations, or even later processing stages that are associated with the emotional processing of faces. Participants were stroked in synchrony or asynchrony with an unfamiliar face they observed on a monitor in front of them, in a situation approximating a mirror image...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106729/a-deep-multi-modal-cnn-for-multi-instance-multi-label-image-classification
#2
Lingyun Song, Jun Liu, Buyue Qian, Mingxuan Sun, Kuan Yang, Meng Sun, Samar Abbas
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have shown superior performance on the task of single-label image classification. However, the applicability of CNNs to multilabel images still remains an open problem, mainly because of two reasons. First, each image is usually treated as an inseparable entity and represented as one instance, which mixes the visual information corresponding to different labels. Second, the correlations amongst labels are often overlooked. To address these limitations, we propose a deep Multi-Modal CNN for Multi-Instance Multi-Label image classification, called MMCNNMIML...
August 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106728/assessing-image-retrieval-quality-at-the-first-glance
#3
Shaoyan Sun, Wengang Zhou, Qi Tian, Ming Yang, Houqiang Li
Image retrieval has achieved remarkable improvements with the rapid progress on visual representation and indexing techniques. Given a query image, search engines are expected to retrieve relevant results in which the top-ranked short list is of most value to users. However, it is challenging to measure the retrieval quality on-the-fly without direct user feedbacks. In this paper, we aim at evaluating the quality of retrieval results at the first glance (i.e., with the top-ranked images). For each retrieval result, we compute a correlation based feature matrix that comprises of contextual information from the retrieval list, and then feed it into a convolutional neural network regression model for retrieval quality evaluation...
August 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106709/robust-visual-tracking-via-hierarchical-convolutional-features
#4
Chao Ma, Jia-Bin Huang, Xiaokang Yang, Ming-Hsuan Yang
Visual tracking is challenging as target objects often undergo significant appearance changes caused by deformation, abrupt motion, background clutter and occlusion. In this paper, we propose to exploit the rich hierarchical features of deep convolutional neural networks to improve the accuracy and robustness of visual tracking. Deep neural networks trained on object recognition datasets consist of multiple convolutional layers. These layers encode target appearance with different levels of abstraction. For example, the outputs of the last convolutional layers encode the semantic information of targets and such representations are invariant to significant appearance variations...
August 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106698/semantically-modeling-of-object-and-context-for-categorization
#5
Chunjie Zhang, Jian Cheng, Qi Tian
Object-centric-based categorization methods have been proven more effective than hard partitions of images (e.g., spatial pyramid matching). However, how to determine the locations of objects is still an open problem. Besides, modeling of context areas is often mixed with the background. Moreover, the semantic information is often ignored by these methods that only use visual representations for classification. In this paper, we propose an object categorization method by semantically modeling the object and context information (SOC)...
August 7, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105771/social-stress-potentiated-methamphetamine-seeking
#6
Ashley M Blouin, Swathi Pisupati, Colton G Hoffer, Madalyn Hafenbreidel, Sarah E Jamieson, Gavin Rumbaugh, Courtney A Miller
Human studies of substance use disorder show that psychological stress and drug availability interact following rehabilitation, contributing to the high relapse potential. Social stressors trigger particularly strong motivation for drug, but how this affects neuronal function to increase relapse is unknown. Animal models, which allow for the dissection of neural mechanisms, primarily utilize physical stressors to trigger relapse. To recapitulate psychosocial post-rehabilitation challenges in animals, we developed a model of social stress-potentiated methamphetamine (METH) seeking...
August 14, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105385/spatial-summation-in-the-human-fovea-do-normal-optical-aberrations-and-fixational-eye-movements-have-an-effect
#7
William S Tuten, Robert F Cooper, Pavan Tiruveedhula, Alfredo Dubra, Austin Roorda, Nicolas P Cottaris, David H Brainard, Jessica I W Morgan
Psychophysical inferences about the neural mechanisms supporting spatial vision can be undermined by uncertainties introduced by optical aberrations and fixational eye movements, particularly in fovea where the neuronal grain of the visual system is fine. We examined the effect of these preneural factors on photopic spatial summation in the human fovea using a custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope that provided control over optical aberrations and retinal stimulus motion. Consistent with previous results, Ricco's area of complete summation encompassed multiple photoreceptors when measured with ordinary amounts of ocular aberrations and retinal stimulus motion...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105203/increased-efficiency-of-brain-connectivity-networks-in-veterans-with-suicide-attempts
#8
Jaeuk Hwang, Margaret Legarreta, Charles Elliott Bueler, Jennifer DiMuzio, Erin McGlade, In Kyoon Lyoo, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Background: Suicide is a public health concern for United States veterans and civilians. Prior research has shown neurobiological factors in suicide. However, studies of neuroimaging correlates of suicide risk have been limited. This study applied complex weighted network analyses to characterize the neural connectivity in white matter in veterans with suicide behavior. Methods: Twenty-eight veterans without suicide behavior (NS), 29 with a history of suicidal ideation only (SI), and 23 with prior suicide attempt (SA) completed diffusion tensor brain imaging, the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104968/in-standing-corticospinal-excitability-is-proportional-to-cop-velocity-whereas-m1-excitability-is-participant-specific
#9
Tulika Nandi, Claudine J C Lamoth, Helco G van Keeken, Lisanne B M Bakker, Iris Kok, George J Salem, Beth E Fisher, Tibor Hortobágyi
Reductions in the base of support (BOS) make standing difficult and require adjustments in the neural control of sway. In healthy young adults, we determined the effects of reductions in mediolateral (ML) BOS on peroneus longus (PL) motor evoked potential (MEP), intracortical facilitation (ICF), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and long interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We also examined whether participant-specific neural excitability influences the responses to increasing standing difficulty...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104429/a-distributed-brain-network-predicts-general-intelligence-from-resting-state-human-neuroimaging-data
#10
Julien Dubois, Paola Galdi, Lynn K Paul, Ralph Adolphs
Individual people differ in their ability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, plan and learn. A reliable measure of this general ability, also known as intelligence, can be derived from scores across a diverse set of cognitive tasks. There is great interest in understanding the neural underpinnings of individual differences in intelligence, because it is the single best predictor of long-term life success. The most replicated neural correlate of human intelligence to date is total brain volume; however, this coarse morphometric correlate says little about function...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104336/language-exposure-relates-to-structural-neural-connectivity-in-childhood
#11
Rachel R Romeo, Joshua Segaran, Julia A Leonard, Sydney T Robinson, Martin R West, Allyson P Mackey, Anastasia Yendiki, Meredith L Rowe, John D E Gabrieli
Neuroscience research has elucidated broad relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and young children's brain structure, but there is little mechanistic knowledge about specific environmental factors that are associated with specific variation in brain structure. One environmental factor, early language exposure, predicts children's linguistic and cognitive skills and later academic achievement, but how language exposure relates to neuroanatomy is unknown. By measuring the real-world language exposure of young children (ages 4-6 years, 27 male/13 female), we confirmed the preregistered hypothesis that greater adult-child conversational experience, independent of SES and the sheer amount of adult speech, is related to stronger, more coherent white matter connectivity in the left arcuate and superior longitudinal fasciculi on average, and specifically near their anterior termination at Broca's area in left inferior frontal cortex...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104335/posterior-parietal-cortex-dysfunction-is-central-to-working-memory-storage-and-broad-cognitive-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#12
Britta Hahn, Benjamin M Robinson, Carly J Leonard, Steven J Luck, James M Gold
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is widely believed to underlie working memory (WM) deficits in people with schizophrenia (PSZ), but few studies have focused on measures of WM storage devoid of manipulation. Research in neurotypical individuals has shown that storage capacity is more closely related to posterior parietal cortex (PPC) than PFC, suggesting that reductions in WM storage capacity in schizophrenia that are associated with broad cognitive deficits may be related to neural activity in PPC. In the present human neuroimaging study, 37 PSZ and 37 matched healthy control subjects (HCS) of either sex completed a change detection task with varying set sizes while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103620/variability-in-retronasal-odor-identification-among-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#13
Kimia G Ganjaei, Zachary M Soler, Kristina A Storck, Nicholas R Rowan, Florence A Othieno, Rodney J Schlosser
Background Retronasal olfaction is important in flavor detection and enjoyment. The ability to identify specific individual retronasal odors may play a role in quality of life for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Objective To identify patterns and improve understanding of retronasal identification of individual odors in CRS patients. Methods Patients diagnosed with CRS underwent retronasal and orthonasal (Sniffin' Sticks) olfactory testing and taste testing (taste strips). Retronasal identification was tested with presentation of flavored powders on the posterior tongue...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103326/medical-and-research-consent-decision-making-capacity-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#14
Eelco van Duinkerken, Juliana Farme, Jesus Landeira-Fernandez, Marcia C Dourado, Jerson Laks, Daniel C Mograbi
The capacity to make decisions is an important feature of daily living, which is closely linked to proper cognitive functioning. In conditions in which cognitive functioning becomes compromised, such as in Alzheimer's disease (AD), decision-making capacity can also get affected. Especially in AD, this has important implications, since over the course of the condition many important clinical decisions have to be made. For caregivers as well as physicians, it is sometimes difficult to determine how and when to intervene in the decision-making process...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103322/different-abnormalities-of-cortical-neural-synchronization-mechanisms-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-due-to-alzheimer-s-and-chronic-kidney-diseases-an-eeg-study
#15
Roberta Lizio, Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Antonia Losurdo, Lucia Vernò, Marina De Tommaso, Anna Montemurno, Giuseppe Dalfino, Pietro Cirillo, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Giuseppe Noce, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Valentina Catania, Flavio Nobili, Francesco Famá, Francesco Orzi, Franco Giubilei, Carla Buttinelli, A Ivano Triggiani, Giovanni B Frisoni, Anna Maria Scisci, Nicola Mastrofilippo, Deni Aldo Procaccini, Loreto Gesualdo
This study tested whether resting state alpha rhythms (8-13 Hz) may characterize mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) compared with MCI due to chronic kidney disease (CKDMCI). Clinical and resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms from 40 ADMCI, 29 CKDMCI, and 45 cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects were available in a national archive. Age, gender, and education were matched in the three groups, and Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score was paired in the ADMCI and CKDMCI groups...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103188/neural-correlates-of-phonological-processing-disrupted-in-children-with-dyslexia-and-enhanced-in-musically-trained-children
#16
Jennifer Zuk, Meaghan V Perdue, Bryce Becker, Xi Yu, Michelle Chang, Nora Maria Raschle, Nadine Gaab
Phonological processing has been postulated as a core area of deficit among children with dyslexia. Reduced brain activation during phonological processing in children with dyslexia has been observed in left-hemispheric temporoparietal regions. Musical training has shown positive associations with phonological processing abilities, but the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unspecified. The present research aims to distinguish neural correlates of phonological processing in school-age typically developing musically trained children, musically untrained children, and musically untrained children with dyslexia utilizing fMRI...
July 29, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101061/functional-and-structural-connectivity-of-the-amygdala-underpins-locus-of-control-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
Ping Ren, Benjamin Chapman, Zhengwu Zhang, Giovanni Schifitto, Feng Lin
Locus of control (LOC) is an important personality trait. LOC over cognitive competency reflects an individual's perceived control of desired cognitive outcomes, which is critical for maintaining successful cognitive aging. It is important to understand the neural substrates of LOC over cognitive competency in older adults, especially for individuals at high risk of dementia. Here, we characterized a cohesive functional and structural connectivity profile underlying LOC among 55 older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101059/relationship-between-sensorimotor-cortical-activation-as-assessed-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-lower-extremity-motor-coordination-in-bilateral-cerebral-palsy
#18
Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Ana Carolina de Campos, Katharine E Alter, Theodore J Huppert, Diane L Damiano
Background: Evaluation of task-evoked cortical responses during movement has been limited in individuals with bilateral cerebral palsy (CP), despite documented alterations in brain structure/function and deficits in motor control. Objective: To systematically evaluate cortical activity associated with lower extremity tasks, and relate activation parameters to clinical measures in CP. Methods: 28 ambulatory participants (14 with bilateral CP and 14 with typical development) completed five motor tasks (non-dominant ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion and leg cycling as well as bilateral dorsiflexion and cycling) in a block design while their sensorimotor cortex was monitored using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), in addition to laboratory and clinical measures of performance...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101058/neurodevelopmental-changes-in-the-relationship-between-stress-perception-and-prefrontal-amygdala-functional-circuitry
#19
Jingsong Wu, Xiujuan Geng, Robin Shao, Nichol M L Wong, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen, Chetwyn C H Chan, Tatia M C Lee
Our brain during distinct developmental phases may show differential responses to perceived psychological stress, yet existing research specifically examining neurodevelopmental changes in stress processing is scarce. To fill in this research gap, this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the relationship between perceived stress and resting-state neural connectivity patterns among 67 healthy volunteers belonging to three age groups (adolescents, young adults and adults), who were supposed to be at separate neurodevelopmental phases and exhibit different affect regulatory processes in the brain...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100647/a-neurocomputational-model-of-developmental-trajectories-of-gifted-children-under-a-polygenic-model-when-are-gifted-children-held-back-by-poor-environments
#20
Michael S C Thomas
From the genetic side, giftedness in cognitive development is the result of contribution of many common genetic variants of small effect size, so called polygenicity (Spain et al., 2016). From the environmental side, educationalists have argued for the importance of the environment for sustaining early potential in children, showing that bright poor children are held back in their subsequent development (Feinstein, 2003a). Such correlational data need to be complemented by mechanistic models showing how gifted development results from the respective genetic and environmental influences...
July 2018: Intelligence
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