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Neural Correlates

Sile Hu, Davide Ciliberti, Andres D Grosmark, Frédéric Michon, Daoyun Ji, Hector Penagos, György Buzsáki, Matthew A Wilson, Fabian Kloosterman, Zhe Chen
Uncovering spatial representations from large-scale ensemble spike activity in specific brain circuits provides valuable feedback in closed-loop experiments. We develop a graphics processing unit (GPU)-powered population-decoding system for ultrafast reconstruction of spatial positions from rodents' unsorted spatiotemporal spiking patterns, during run behavior or sleep. In comparison with an optimized quad-core central processing unit (CPU) implementation, our approach achieves an ∼20- to 50-fold increase in speed in eight tested rat hippocampal, cortical, and thalamic ensemble recordings, with real-time decoding speed (approximately fraction of a millisecond per spike) and scalability up to thousands of channels...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Guido Camps, Kees de Graaf, Paul A M Smeets
Background: The most commonly consumed carbonated beverages are soda and beer. Carbon dioxide increases gastric volume, which can lead to epigastric discomfort. Women are more susceptible to this; however, correlations with neural activity and gastric distention are unknown. Objective: This study sought to determine the subjective, gastric, and neural correlates of epigastric discomfort in men and women. Methods: Thirty-four healthy, normal-weight adults [17 women; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; kg/m2): 22...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Rebecca Hunting Pompon, Dagmar Amtmann, Charles Bombardier, Diane Kendall
Purpose: Chronic stress is likely a common experience among people with the language impairment of aphasia. Importantly, chronic stress reportedly alters the neural networks central to learning and memory-essential ingredients of aphasia rehabilitation. Before we can explore the influence of chronic stress on rehabilitation outcomes, we must be able to measure chronic stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to (a) modify a widely used measure of chronic stress (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]; Cohen & Janicki-Deverts, 2012) to fit the communication needs of people with aphasia (PWA) and (b) validate the modified PSS (mPSS) with PWA...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Danielle D Sliva, Christopher J Black, Paul Bowary, Uday Agrawal, Juan F Santoyo, Noah S Philip, Benjamin D Greenberg, Christopher I Moore, Stephanie R Jones
The (8-12 Hz) neocortical alpha rhythm is associated with shifts in attention across sensory systems, and is thought to represent a sensory gating mechanism for the inhibitory control of cortical processing. The present preliminary study sought to explore whether alpha frequency transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) could modulate endogenous alpha power in the somatosensory system, and whether the hypothesized modulation would causally impact perception of tactile stimuli at perceptual threshold...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yann Le Guen, Marie Amalric, Philippe Pinel, Christophe Pallier, Vincent Frouin
Cognitive performance is highly heritable. However, little is known about common genetic influences on cognitive ability and brain activation when engaged in a cognitive task. The Human Connectome Project (HCP) offers a unique opportunity to study this shared genetic etiology with an extended pedigree of 785 individuals. To investigate this common genetic origin, we took advantage of the HCP dataset, which includes both language and mathematics activation tasks. Using the HCP multimodal parcellation, we identified areals in which inter-individual functional MRI (fMRI) activation variance was significantly explained by genetics...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Filip Morys, Stefan Bode, Annette Horstmann
Obese individuals discount future rewards to a higher degree than lean individuals, which is generally considered disadvantageous. Moreover, their decisions are altered more easily by decision-irrelevant cues. Here, we investigated neural correlates of this phenomenon using functional MRI. We tested 30 lean and 26 obese human subjects on a primed delay discounting paradigm using gustatory and visual cues of positive, neutral and negative valence to bias their intertemporal preferences. We hypothesised that activation differences in reward-related and behavioural control areas, and changes in connectivity between these areas, would reflect the effect of these cues...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Li Li, Yulun Huang, Yuge Gao, Tengfei Shi, Yunyun Xu, Huini Li, Marko Hyytiäinen, Jorma Keski-Oja, Qiuying Jiang, Yizhou Hu, Zhimin Du
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant central nervous system tumor. Alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for GBM. However, the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ is affected by many factors. And, several clinic trials, including co-administration of TMZ with other drugs, have failed in successful treatment of GBM. We have previously reported that Netrin-4 (NTN4), a laminin-like axon guidance protein, plays a protective role in GBM cell senescence upon TMZ-triggered DNA damage...
December 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
Eshel Faraggi, Pawel Krupa, Magdalena A Mozolewska, Adam Liwo, Andrzej Kloczkowski
Ranking protein structure models is an elusive problem in bioinformatics. These models are evaluated on both the degree of similarity to the native structure and the folding pathway. Here, we simulated the use of the coarse-grained UNited RESidue (UNRES) force field as a tool to choose the best protein structure models for a given protein sequence among a pool of candidate models, using server data from the CASP11 experiment. Because the original UNRES was optimized for Molecular Dynamics simulations, we reoptimized UNRES using a deep feed-forward neural network, and we show that introducing additional descriptive features can produce better results...
December 3, 2018: Genes
Uijong Ju, Christian Wallraven
A large number of perceptual and cognitive processes are instantiated during active gameplay, culminating in what is termed the overall "gaming experience", which encapsulates multiple, subjective dimensions of how one feels about the game. Although some research has been conducted into the neural mechanisms underlying the gaming experience, previous studies so far have relied on commercial games that provide little control over key aspects of gameplay and also have focused only on a few individual dimensions of the gaming experience...
December 1, 2018: NeuroImage
K Rubia, M Criaud, M Wulff, A Alegria, H Brinson, G Barker, D Stahl, V Giampietro
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor self-control, underpinned by inferior fronto-striatal deficits. We showed previously that 18 ADHD adolescents over 11 runs of 8.5 min of real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) progressively increased activation in 2 regions of the rIFC which was associated with clinical symptom improvement. In this study, we used functional connectivity analyses to investigate whether fMRI-Neurofeedback of rIFC resulted in dynamic functional connectivity changes in underlying neural networks...
December 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Haoyun Zhang, Anna Eppes, Michele T Diaz
Older adults typically show decline in a variety of cognitive functions including inhibitory control and language production, with corresponding age-related increases in fMRI activation. However, it remains unclear whether such increases are compensatory or whether they reflect neural decline. One factor that may influence these brain-behavior relationships is difficulty. The current study investigated the effect of difficulty on age-related differences in the behavioral and neural bases of language production and inhibitory control using a phonological Go/No-Go picture naming task...
December 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Maggie M Sweitzer, Karli K Watson, Savannah R Erwin, Amy A Winecoff, Nandini Datta, Scott Huettel, Michael L Platt, Nancy L Zucker
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by atypical patterns of reward valuation (e.g. positive valuation of hunger). Atypical reward processing may extend into social domains. If so, such findings would be of prognostic significance as impaired social functioning predicts worse outcome. We explore neural circuits implicated in social reward processing in individuals with a history of AN who are weight-restored relative to controls and examine the effects of illness course on the experience of social value...
2018: PloS One
James E Niemeyer, Michael A Paradiso
Neurons in visual areas of the brain are generally characterized by the increase in firing rate that occurs when a stimulus is flashed on in the receptive field (RF). However, neurons also increase their firing rate when a stimulus is turned off. These "termination responses" or "after-discharges" that occur with flashed stimuli have been observed in area V1 and they may be important for vision as stimulus terminations have been shown to influence visual perception. The goal of the present study was to determine the strength of termination responses in the more natural situation in which eye movements move a stimulus out of an RF...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Dan-Dan Zhang, Gan Lu, Xuan-Feng Zhu, Ling-Ling Zhang, Jia Gao, Li-Cheng Shi, Jian-Hua Gu, Jian-Nan Liu
Background: Neural respiratory drive (NRD) using diaphragm electromyography through an invasive transesophageal multi-electrode catheter can be used as a feasible clinical physiological parameter in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to provide useful information on the treatment response. However, it remains unknown whether the surface diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) could be used to identify the deterioration of clinical symptoms and to predict the necessity of hospitalization in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) patients...
December 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Joseph N Stember, Peter Chang, Danielle M Stember, Michael Liu, Jack Grinband, Christopher G Filippi, Philip Meyers, Sachin Jambawalikar
Aneurysm size correlates with rupture risk and is important for treatment planning. User annotation of aneurysm size is slow and tedious, particularly for large data sets. Geometric shortcuts to compute size have been shown to be inaccurate, particularly for nonstandard aneurysm geometries. To develop and train a convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect and measure cerebral aneurysms from magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) automatically and without geometric shortcuts. In step 1, a CNN based on the U-net architecture was trained on 250 MRA maximum intensity projection (MIP) images, then applied to a testing set...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Yicheng Chen, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Melanie A Morrison, Janine M Lupo
Cerebral microbleeds, which are small focal hemorrhages in the brain that are prevalent in many diseases, are gaining increasing attention due to their potential as surrogate markers of disease burden, clinical outcomes, and delayed effects of therapy. Manual detection is laborious and automatic detection and labeling of these lesions is challenging using traditional algorithms. Inspired by recent successes of deep convolutional neural networks in computer vision, we developed a 3D deep residual network that can distinguish true microbleeds from false positive mimics of a previously developed technique based on traditional algorithms...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Macauley S Breault, Pierre Sacré, Jorge González-Martínez, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
High-resolution whole brain recordings have the potential to uncover unknown functionality but also present the challenge of how to find such associations between brain and behavior when presented with a large number of regions and spectral frequencies. In this paper, we propose an exploratory data analysis method that sorts through a massive quantity of multivariate neural recordings to quickly extract a subset of brain regions and frequencies that encode behavior. This approach combines existing tools and exploits low-rank approximation of matrices without a priori selection of regions and frequency bands for analysis...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Huijun Zhang, Chen Qu
Microblogs are one of the main social networking channels by which information is spread. Millions of users repost information from microblogs and share embedded emotion at the same time. The present study employed a mimicked interface of microblog (sina Weibo) and recruited university students to investigate users' propensity to repost microblogs of positive, negative or neutral valence, and studied the neural correlates with reposting microblogs of different emotional valence. Ninety pieces of microblog messages, consisting of 30 positive, 30 negative and 30 neutral were read by 28 participants (14 males and 14 females)...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alícia Deitos, Matheus Dorigatti Soldatelli, Jairo Alberto Dussán-Sarria, Andressa Souza, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo
Background: The fibromyalgia (FM) physiopathology involves an intracortical excitability/inhibition imbalance as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation measures (TMS). TMS measures provide an index that can help to understand how the basal neuronal plasticity state (i.e., levels of the serum neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100-B protein) could predict the effect of therapeutic approaches on the cortical circuitries. We used an experimental paradigm to evaluate if pregabalin could be more effective than a placebo, to improve the disinhibition in the cortical circuitries in FM patients, than in healthy subjects (HS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Isra Alsaady, Ellen Tedford, Mohammad Alsaad, Greg Bristow, Shivali Kohli, Matthew Murray, Matthew Reeves, M S Vijayabaskar, Steven J Clapcote, Jonathan Wastling, Glenn A McConkey
Toxoplasma gondii is associated with physiological effects in the host. Dysregulation of catecholamines in the central nervous system has previously been observed in chronically-infected animals. In the study described here, the noradrenergic system was found to be suppressed with decreased levels of norepinephrine (NE) in brains of infected animals and in infected human and rat neural cells in vitro The mechanism responsible for the NE suppression was found to be down-regulation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) gene expression, encoding the enzyme that synthesizes norepinephrine from dopamine with down-regulation observed in vitro and in infected brain tissue, particularly in the dorsal locus coeruleus/pons region...
December 3, 2018: Infection and Immunity
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