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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042870/obesity-induced-structural-and-neuronal-plasticity-in-the-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex
#1
Jennifer L Thompson, Michael Drysdale, Corey Baimel, Manpreet Kaur, Taigan MacGowan, Kimberley A Pitman, Stephanie L Borgland
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) integrates sensory information with the current value of foods and updates actions based on this information. Obese humans and rats fed a cafeteria diet have impaired devaluation of food rewards, implicating a potential obesity-induced dysfunction of the OFC. We hypothesized that obesity alters OFC pyramidal neuronal structure and function and reduces conditioned suppression of feeding. Rats were given restricted (1 h/day), extended (23 h/day) or no (chow only) access to a cafeteria diet and tested for a conditioned suppression of feeding...
January 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997735/curcuma-treatment-prevents-cognitive-deficit-and-alteration-of-neuronal-morphology-in-the-limbic-system-of-aging-rats
#2
Blanca Vidal, Rubén A Vázquez-Roque, Dino Gnecco, Raúl G Enríquez, Benjamin Floran, Alfonso Díaz, Gonzalo Flores
Curcuma is a natural compound that has shown neuroprotective properties, and has been reported to prevent aging and improve memory. While the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are unclear, they may be related to increases in neural plasticity. Morphological changes have been reported in neuronal dendrites in the limbic system in animals and elderly humans with cognitive impairment. In this regard, there is a need to use alternative therapies that delay the onset of morphologies and behavioural characteristics of aging...
December 20, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981196/social-defeat-stress-induces-depression-like-behavior-and-alters-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-male-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Sergio D Iñiguez, Antonio Aubry, Lace M Riggs, Jason B Alipio, Roseanna M Zanca, Francisco J Flores-Ramirez, Mirella A Hernandez, Steven J Nieto, David Musheyev, Peter A Serrano
Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes for 10 consecutive days...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964870/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-infralimbic-cortex-induces-morphological-changes-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#4
Yarema B Bezchlibnyk, Scellig S D Stone, Clement Hamani, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Although a significant subset of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail to respond to medical or behavioural therapy, deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied to the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC; sg25) has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms in a subset of patients. This area receives projections from neurons in the CA1 region and subiculum of the hippocampus (HC), a brain region implicated in the pathobiology and treatment of MDD. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the infralimbic cortex is associated with changes in cellular morphology in the HC...
November 23, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936013/%C3%AE-asarone-rescues-pb-induced-impairments-of-spatial-memory-and-synaptogenesis-in-rats
#5
Qian-Qian Yang, Wei-Zhen Xue, Rong-Xin Zou, Yi Xu, Yang Du, Shuang Wang, Lai Xu, Yuan-Zhi Chen, Hui-Li Wang, Xiang-Tao Chen
Chronic lead (Pb) exposure causes cognitive deficits. This study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of β-asarone, an active component from Chinese Herbs Acorus tatarinowii Schott, to alleviate impairments of spatial memory and synaptogenesis in Pb-exposed rats. Both Sprague-Dawley developmental rat pups and adult rats were used in the study. Developmental rat pups were exposed to Pb throughout the lactation period and β-asarone (10, 40mg kg-1, respectively) was given intraperitoneally from postnatal day 14 to 21...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873505/hyperbaric-oxygen-pretreatment-improves-cognition-and-reduces-hippocampal-damage-via-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-a-rat-model
#6
Baisong Zhao, Yongying Pan, Zixin Wang, Haiping Xu, Xingrong Song
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment on cognitive decline and neuronal damage in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: normal saline (NS), AD, and HBO+AD. In the AD group, amyloid β peptide (Aβ)₁₋₄₀ was injected into the hippocampal CA1 region of the brain. NS rats received NS injection. In the HBO+AD group, rats received 5 days of daily HBO therapy following Aβ₁₋₄₀ injection...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829127/sex-dependent-changes-in-neuronal-morphology-and-psychosocial-behaviors-after-pediatric-brain-injury
#7
Bridgette D Semple, Shilpi Dixit, Sandy R Shultz, Wah Chin Boon, Terence J O'Brien
Chronic social behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) significantly contribute to poor quality of life for survivors. Using a well-characterized mouse model of early childhood TBI, we have previously demonstrated that young brain-injured mice develop social deficits by adulthood. As biological sex may influence both normal and aberrant social development, we here evaluated potential sex differences in post-TBI psychosocial deficits by comparing the behavior of male and female mice at adulthood (8 weeks post-injury)...
February 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488828/marked-changes-in-dendritic-structure-and-spine-density-precede-significant-neuronal-death-in-vulnerable-cortical-pyramidal-neuron-populations-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Matthew J Fogarty, Erica W H Mu, Peter G Noakes, Nickolas A Lavidis, Mark C Bellingham
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by the death of upper (corticospinal) and lower motor neurons (MNs) with progressive muscle weakness. This incurable disease is clinically heterogeneous and its aetiology remains unknown. Increased excitability of corticospinal MNs has been observed prior to symptoms in human and rodent studies. Increased excitability has been correlated with structural changes in neuronal dendritic arbors and spines for decades. Here, using a modified Golgi-Cox staining method, we have made the first longitudinal study examining the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the motor cortex, medial pre-frontal cortex, somatosensory cortex and entorhinal cortex of hSOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermate controls at postnatal (P) days 8-15, 28-35, 65-75 and 120...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282914/altered-excitatory-inhibitory-balance-within-somatosensory-cortex-is-associated-with-enhanced-plasticity-and-pain-sensitivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Liam E Potter, John W Paylor, Jee Su Suh, Gustavo Tenorio, Jayalakshmi Caliaperumal, Fred Colbourne, Glen Baker, Ian Winship, Bradley J Kerr
BACKGROUND: Chronic neuropathic pain is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been used as an animal model to investigate the mechanisms of pain in MS. Previous studies have implicated sensitization of spinal nociceptive networks in the pathogenesis of pain in EAE. However, the involvement of supraspinal sites of nociceptive integration, such as the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), has not been defined. We therefore examined functional, structural, and immunological alterations in S1 during the early stages of EAE, when pain behaviors first appear...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238893/anabolic-androgenic-steroids-decrease-dendritic-spine-density-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-male-rats
#10
Kathryn Wallin-Miller, Grace Li, Diana Kelishani, Ruth I Wood
Recent studies have demonstrated that anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) modify cognitive processes such as decision making and behavioral flexibility. However, the neural mechanisms underlying these AAS-induced cognitive changes remain poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, particularly the nucleus accumbens (Acb), is important for reward, motivated behavior, and higher cognitive processes such as decision making. Therefore, AAS-induced plasticity in the DA system is a potential structural substrate for the observed cognitive alterations...
August 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208629/the-effects-of-amphetamine-exposure-on-juvenile-rats-on-the-neuronal-morphology-of-the-limbic-system-at-prepubertal-pubertal-and-postpubertal-ages
#11
Hiram Tendilla-Beltrán, Luis Enrique Arroyo-García, Alfonso Diaz, Israel Camacho-Abrego, Fidel de la Cruz, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Gonzalo Flores
Amphetamines (AMPH) are psychostimulants widely used for therapy as well as for recreational purposes. Previous results of our group showed that AMPH exposure in pregnant rats induces physiological and behavioral changes in the offspring at prepubertal and postpubertal ages. In addition, several reports have shown that AMPH are capable of modifying the morphology of neurons in some regions of the limbic system. These modifications can cause some psychiatric conditions. However, it is still unclear if there are changes to behavioral and morphological levels when low doses of AMPH are administered at a juvenile age...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189902/advancing-age-and-ischemia-elevate-the-electric-threshold-to-elicit-spreading-depolarization-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-young-adult-rats
#12
Péter Hertelendy, Ákos Menyhárt, Péter Makra, Zoltán Süle, Tamás Kiss, Gergely Tóth, Orsolya Ivánkovits-Kiss, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas
Spreading depolarizations of long cumulative duration have been implicated in lesion development and progression in patients with stroke and traumatic brain injury. Spreading depolarizations evolve less likely in the aged brain, but it remains to be determined at what age the susceptibility to spreading depolarizations starts to decline, especially in ischemia. Spreading depolarizations were triggered by epidural electric stimulation prior and after ischemia induction in the cortex of 7-30 weeks old anesthetized rats (n = 38)...
April 11, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176563/social-play-in-juvenile-hamsters-alters-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-attenuates-effects-of-social-stress-in-adulthood
#13
Cody A Burleson, Robert W Pedersen, Sahba Seddighi, Lauren E DeBusk, Gordon M Burghardt, Matthew A Cooper
Social play is a fundamental aspect of behavioral development in many species. Social play deprivation in rats alters dendritic morphology in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and we have shown that this brain region regulates responses to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. In this study, we tested whether play deprivation during the juvenile period disrupts dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and potentiates the effects of social defeat stress. At weaning, male hamsters were either group-housed with peers or pair-housed with their mother, with whom they do not play...
August 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164468/cerebrolysin-improves-memory-and-ameliorates-neuronal-atrophy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-aged-rats
#14
Carlos Solis-Gaspar, Ruben A Vazquez-Roque, Ma De Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, Gonzalo Flores
The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat has been used as an animal model of vascular dementia (VD). Our previous report showed that, SH rats exhibited dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 dorsal hippocampus and layers 3 and 5 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at 8 months of age. In addition, we showed that cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, reduces the dendritic atrophy in aged animal models. This study aimed to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations, in old female SH rats...
September 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27093561/rostral-intralaminar-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-triggered-cortical-and-hippocampal-structural-plasticity-and-enhanced-spatial-memory
#15
Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Li-Jin Chen, Yueh-Jan Wang, Shin-Yuan Chen, Guo-Fang Tseng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rostral intralaminar thalamic nucleus (ILN) has been shown to modulate cognition through indirect connection with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. We explored the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to the rostral ILN on spatial memory acquisition, brain neuronal activation and cortical and hippocampal synaptic changes in rats. METHODS: The Morris water maze (MWM) task was used to evaluate the spatial memory of the rats. The expression of c-fos, an immediate early gene, was used to identify neural activation in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus...
2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065817/golgi-cox-staining-step-by-step
#16
Sami Zaqout, Angela M Kaindl
Golgi staining remains a key method to study neuronal morphology in vivo. Since most protocols delineating modifications of the original staining method lack details on critical steps, establishing this method in a laboratory can be time-consuming and frustrating. Here, we describe the Golgi-Cox staining in such detail that should turn the staining into an easily feasible method for all scientists working in the neuroscience field.
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047355/prolonged-consumption-of-sucrose-in-a-binge-like-manner-alters-the-morphology-of-medium-spiny-neurons-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell
#17
Paul M Klenowski, Masroor R Shariff, Arnauld Belmer, Matthew J Fogarty, Erica W H Mu, Mark C Bellingham, Selena E Bartlett
The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks) binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017219/effects-of-maternal-marginal-iodine-deficiency-on-dendritic-morphology-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-in-rat-offspring
#18
Hui Min, Yi Wang, Jing Dong, Yuan Wang, Ye Yu, Zhongyan Shan, Qi Xi, Weiping Teng, Jie Chen
Although the salt iodization programmes are taken to control iodine deficiency (ID), some regions are still suffering from marginal ID. During pregnancy, marginal ID frequently leads to subtle insufficiency of thyroid hormones, characterized as low serum T4 levels. Therefore, the present research was to explore the effects of maternal marginal ID exposure on dendritic arbor growth in the hippocampal CA1 region and the underlying mechanisms. We established Wistar rat models with ID diet during pregnancy and lactation...
June 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996825/contrasting-the-effects-of-proton-irradiation-on-dendritic-complexity-of-subiculum-neurons-in-wild-type-and-mcat-mice
#19
Nicole N Chmielewski, Chongshan Caressi, Erich Giedzinski, Vipan K Parihar, Charles L Limoli
Growing evidence suggests that radiation-induced oxidative stress directly affects a wide range of biological changes with an overall negative impact on CNS function. In the past we have demonstrated that transgenic mice over-expressing human catalase targeted to the mitochondria (MCAT) exhibit a range of neuroprotective phenotypes following irradiation that include improved neurogenesis, dendritic complexity, and cognition. To determine the extent of the neuroprotective phenotype afforded by MCAT expression in different hippocampal regions, we analyzed subiculum neurons for changes in neuronal structure and synaptic integrity after exposure to low dose (0...
June 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994416/effects-of-perinatal-undernutrition-on-the-basilar-dendritic-arbor-of-the-anterior-cingulate-pyramidal-neurons-in-lactating-dams
#20
Manuel Salas, Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Lorena Rubio
In altricial species, early pre- and neonatal undernutrition interferes with the neuronal organization of several brain structures that have critical time windows for synaptic organization, including the prefrontal cortex. In Golgi-Cox stained tissue the basilar dendritic arbor of pyramidal neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of early underfed adult lactating dams was evaluated. The anterior cingulate of the rat plays a major role in the execution of sexual, maternal and visual attentional control and other cognitive responses...
2015: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
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