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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843047/dysregulation-of-limk-1-cofilin-1-pathway-a-possible-basis-for-alteration-of-neuronal-morphology-in-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#2
Praveen Kumar Simhadri, Ruchi Malwade, Ravisankar Vanka, Venkata Prasuja Nakka, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Prakash Babu Phanithi
OBJECTIVE: Loss of cognition even after survival is the salient feature of cerebral malaria (CM). Currently, the fate of neuronal morphology is not studied at the ultra-structural level in CM. Recent studies suggest that maintenance of neuronal morphology and dendritic spine density (actin dynamics in particular) are essential for proper cognitive functions. LIMK-1/Cofilin-1signaling pathway is known to involve in the maintenance of actin dynamics through regulation of cofilin-1, in executing learning and memory functions...
August 26, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833901/estradiol-rapidly-increases-glua2-mushroom-spines-and-decreases-glua2-filopodia-spines-in-hippocampus-ca1
#3
Jorge A Avila, Amber A Alliger, Brigett Carvajal, Roseanna M Zanca, Peter A Serrano, Victoria N Luine
Hippocampal dendritic spine density rapidly increases following estradiol (E2 ) treatment, but the types of spines and trafficking of synaptic markers have received little investigation. We assessed rapid effects of E2 over time on the density of four spine types (stubby, filopodial, long thin and mushroom) and trafficking of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 and PSD95 on tertiary, apical dendrites in CA1. Castrated male rats received 20 μg/kg of E2 or vehicle and were sacrificed 30 or 120 min later. Images of Golgi-Cox impregnated and PSD95/GluA2 stained dendrites were captured under the confocal microscope and quantified with IMARIS-XT...
August 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#4
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743448/chronic-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-antagonism-persistently-increases-dendritic-spine-densities-in-brain-regions-important-to-zebra-finch-vocal-learning-and-production-in-an-antidepressant-sensitive-manner
#5
Tessa L Holland, Ken Soderstrom
During typical late-postnatal CNS development, net reductions in dendritic spine densities are associated with activity-dependent learning. Prior results showed agonist exposure in young animals increased spine densities in a subset of song regions while adult exposures did not, suggesting endocannabinoid signaling regulates dendritic spine dynamics important to vocal development. Here we addressed this question using the CB1 receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A (SR) to disrupt endocannabinoid signaling both during and after vocal learning...
July 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712861/a-novel-golgi-cox-staining-method-for-detecting-and-characterizing-roles-of-the-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-liver-injury
#6
Ma de Jesús Gómez Villalobos, Susana Vidrio, Ruth Giles López, Gabriel Flores Gómez, Victoria Chagoya de Sánchez
The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Golgi-Cox method to characterize the distribution and morphological changes of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in CCl4 liver damaged rats. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were injected with CCl4 for ten weeks. The livers were processed with the Golgi-Cox method, reticuline, and Massońs Trichrome stains, and analyzed under light microscopy. Histological evaluation of livers was made through the METAVIR score. In normal livers, the HSCs show stellate form with abundant thin cytoplasmic processes, distributed into hepatic lobule, mainly in zone 1...
June 30, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697947/synaptic-distribution-and-plasticity-in-primary-auditory-cortex-a1-exhibits-laminar-and-cell-specific-changes-in-the-deaf
#7
H Ruth Clemo, Stephen G Lomber, M Alex Meredith
The processing sequence through primary auditory cortex (A1) is impaired by deafness as evidenced by reduced neuronal activation in A1 of cochlear-implanted deaf cats. Such a loss of neuronal excitation should be manifest as changes in excitatory synaptic number and/or size, for which the post-synaptic correlate is the dendritic spine. Therefore, the present study sought evidence for this functional disruption using Golgi-Cox/light microscopic techniques that examined spine-bearing neurons and their dendritic spine features across all laminae in A1 of early-deaf (ototoxic lesion <1 month; raised into adulthood >16 months) and hearing cats...
July 1, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681457/pregnancy-improves-cognitive-deficit-and-neuronal-morphology-atrophy-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-aging-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#8
Verónica R Cabrera-Pedraza, María de Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, Fidel de la Cruz, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso, Sergio Zamudio, Gonzalo Flores
It is well known that the survival is higher in women compared to men and women have a better survival prognosis than men in some pathologies such as vascular dementia (VD). Our previous reports showed that the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat, an animal model of VD, exhibited dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at 8 months of age. Cerebrolysin (CBL), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, reduces dendritic atrophy and improves the memory process in aged rats...
July 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671647/assessment-of-hippocampal-dendritic-complexity-in-aged-mice-using-the-golgi-cox-method
#9
Thomas R Groves, Jing Wang, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
Dendritic spines are the protuberances from the neuronal dendritic shafts that contain  excitatory synapses. The morphological and branching variations of the neuronal dendrites within the hippocampus are implicated in cognition and memory formation. There are several approaches to Golgi staining, all of which have been useful for determining the morphological characteristics of dendritic arbors and produce a clear background. The present Golgi-Cox method, (a slight variation of the protocol that is provided with a commercial Golgi staining kit), was designed to assess how a relatively low dose of the chemotherapeutic drug 5-flurouracil (5-Fu) would affect dendritic morphology, the number of spines, and the complexity of arborization within the hippocampus...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#10
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503136/a-quantitative-golgi-study-of-dendritic-morphology-in-the-mice-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons
#11
Ivana Bicanic, Ana Hladnik, Zdravko Petanjek
In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit) impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487495/naoling-decoction-restores-cognitive-function-by-inhibiting-the-neuroinflammatory-network-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Zian Xia, Weijun Peng, Shunhua Cheng, Bingwu Zhong, Chenxia Sheng, Chunhu Zhang, Wei Gong, Shuai Cheng, Jun Li, Zhe Wang
Neuroinflammation is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously showed that Naoling decoction (NLD), a traditional Chinese medicine, was effective against AD, acting by inhibiting expression of IL-1β and IL-6. In the present study, we generated the rat model of AD by injecting Aβ1-42 peptide intracerebroventricularly and evaluated the dose-dependent effects of NLD treatment. The NLD-treated rats exhibited significant improvements in cognitive function as evaluated by the Morris water maze test...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447990/imaging-neurons-within-thick-brain-sections-using-the-golgi-cox-method
#13
Emma L Louth, Charles D Sutton, Ari L Mendell, Neil J MacLusky, Craig D C Bailey
The Golgi-Cox method of neuron staining has been employed for more than two hundred years to advance our understanding of neuron morphology within histological brain samples. While it is preferable from a practical perspective to prepare brain sections at the greatest thickness possible, in order to increase the probability of identifying stained neurons that are fully contained within single sections, this approach is limited from a technical perspective by the working distance of high-magnification microscope objectives...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379212/effects-of-epidural-compression-on-stellate-neurons-and-thalamocortical-afferent-fibers-in-the-rat-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#14
Tzu-Yin Yeh, Guo-Fang Tseng, Chi-Yu Tseng, Yung-Hsin Huang, Pei-Hsin Liu
A number of neurological disorders such as epidural hematoma can cause compression of cerebral cortex. We here tested the hypothesis that sustained compression of primary somatosensory cortex may affect stellate neurons and thalamocortical afferent (TCA) fibers. A rat model with barrel cortex subjected to bead epidural compression was used. Golgi-Cox staining analyses showed the shrinkage of dendritic arbors and the stripping of dendritic spines of stellate neurons for at least 3 months post-lesion. Anterograde tracing analyses exhibited a progressive decline of TCA fiber density in barrel field for 6 months post-lesion...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374408/morphological-alterations-in-the-hippocampus-of-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-for-down-syndrome-correlate-with-structural-plasticity-markers
#15
Olga Villarroya, Raúl Ballestín, Rosa López-Hidalgo, Maria Mulet, José Miguel Blasco-Ibáñez, Carlos Crespo, Juan Nacher, Javier Gilabert-Juan, Emilio Varea
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal aneuploidy. Although trisomy on chromosome 21 can display variable phenotypes, there is a common feature among all DS individuals: the presence of intellectual disability. This condition is partially attributed to abnormalities found in the hippocampus of individuals with DS and in the murine model for DS, Ts65Dn. To check if all hippocampal areas were equally affected in 4-5 month adult Ts65Dn mice, we analysed the morphology of dentate gyrus granule cells and cornu ammonis pyramidal neurons using Sholl method on Golgi-Cox impregnated neurons...
April 4, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267433/hemi-ovariectomies-promote-a-decrease-in-the-dendritic-lengths-of-ca1-and-ca3-neurons-a-dimorphic-effect-of-the-cerebral-hemispheres
#16
Dolores Adriana Bravo Durán, Adriana Berenice Silva Gómez, Ana Coral Gutiérrez Rosas, Angélica Trujillo
Certain structures of the central nervous system (CNS) are morphologically and functionally related to the ovaries. Ovariectomy has been used to study the functional role of the ovaries in the CNS, as well as the role of the CNS on the reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of left and right hemi-ovariectomy on the morphology of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 and CA3 regions of the ventral hippocampus were studied. During the estrus phase, female Long-Evans rats underwent either left and right hemi-ovariectomies or left and right sham surgeries...
May 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150086/morphological-structural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-the-basolateral-amygdala-after-early-lesion-of-the-rat-mediodorsal-thalamus
#17
Zakaria Ouhaz, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Mohamed Bennis
Early postnatal damage to the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) produces deficits in cognition and behavior believed to be associated with early prefrontal cortical maldevelopment. We assessed the role of MD afferents during development on the morphological and functional maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Sprague-Dawley rat pups (n = 56) received a bilateral electrolytic lesion of the MD or a MD Sham lesion on postnatal day 4. 7 weeks later, all rats were tested in anxiety-related and cognitive paradigms using the elevated plus maze and novel object recognition tests...
February 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042870/obesity-induced-structural-and-neuronal-plasticity-in-the-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex
#18
Jennifer L Thompson, Michael Drysdale, Corey Baimel, Manpreet Kaur, Taigan MacGowan, Kimberley A Pitman, Stephanie L Borgland
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) integrates sensory information with the current value of foods and updates actions based on this information. Obese humans and rats fed a cafeteria diet have impaired devaluation of food rewards, implicating a potential obesity-induced dysfunction of the OFC. We hypothesized that obesity alters OFC pyramidal neuronal structure and function and reduces conditioned suppression of feeding. Rats were given restricted (1 h/day), extended (23 h/day) or no (chow only) access to a cafeteria diet and tested for a conditioned suppression of feeding...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997735/curcuma-treatment-prevents-cognitive-deficit-and-alteration-of-neuronal-morphology-in-the-limbic-system-of-aging-rats
#19
Blanca Vidal, Rubén A Vázquez-Roque, Dino Gnecco, Raúl G Enríquez, Benjamin Floran, Alfonso Díaz, Gonzalo Flores
Curcuma is a natural compound that has shown neuroprotective properties, and has been reported to prevent aging and improve memory. While the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are unclear, they may be related to increases in neural plasticity. Morphological changes have been reported in neuronal dendrites in the limbic system in animals and elderly humans with cognitive impairment. In this regard, there is a need to use alternative therapies that delay the onset of morphologies and behavioral characteristics of aging...
March 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981196/social-defeat-stress-induces-depression-like-behavior-and-alters-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-male-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Sergio D Iñiguez, Antonio Aubry, Lace M Riggs, Jason B Alipio, Roseanna M Zanca, Francisco J Flores-Ramirez, Mirella A Hernandez, Steven J Nieto, David Musheyev, Peter A Serrano
Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes for 10 consecutive days...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
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