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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337045/increased-dendritic-length-in-ca1-and-ca3-hippocampal-neurons-during-the-metestrus-phase-in-wistar-rats
#1
Anayeli López Mendoza, Dolores Adriana Bravo Durán, Adriana Berenice Silva Gómez
Studies have shown that changes in ovarian hormone concentrations promote natural fluctuations in the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons in female Sprague-Dawley rats, without changes in dendritic length, throughout the estrous cycle. However, it is still unknown whether these fluctuations are present in other rat strains. Due to our interest in Wistar, the objective of the present study was to determine if there is natural dendritic remodeling in the female Wistar rat throughout the estrous cycle...
January 11, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323756/juvenile-taiep-rats-have-shorter-dendritic-trees-in-the-dorsal-field-of-the-hippocampus-without-spatial-learning-disabilities
#2
Adriana B Silva, Dolores A Bravo-Duran, Jose R Eguibar, Carmen Cortes
Myelin mutant taiep rats show a progressive demyelination in the central nervous system due to an abnormal accumulation of microtubules in the cytoplasm and the processes on their oligodendrocytes. Demyelination is associated with electrophysiological alterations and the mutant had a progressive astrocytosis. The illness is associated with change in cytokine levels and in the expression of different nitric oxide synthase and concomitantly lipoperoxidation in several areas of the brain. However, until now there has been no detailed anatomical analysis of neurons in this mutant...
January 11, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277371/repeated-fluvoxamine-treatment-recovers-early-postnatal-stress-induced-hypersociability-like-behavior-in-adult-rats
#3
Haruko Kumamoto, Taku Yamaguchi, Kohtarou Konno, Takeshi Izumi, Takayuki Yoshida, Yu Ohmura, Masahiko Watanabe, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Childhood maltreatment is associated with impaired adult brain function, particularly in the hippocampus, and is not only a major risk factor for some psychiatric diseases but also affects early social development and social adaptation in later life. The aims of this study were to determine whether early postnatal stress affects social behavior and whether repeated fluvoxamine treatment reverses these changes. Rat pups were exposed to footshock stress during postnatal days 21-25 (at 3 weeks old: 3wFS). During the post-adolescent period (10-14 weeks postnatal), the social interaction test and Golgi-cox staining of dorsal hippocampal pyramidal neurons were performed...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178372/thc-alters-alters-morphology-of-neurons-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-and-alters-the-ability-of-later-experience-to-promote-structural-plasticity
#4
Bryan Kolb, Yilin Li, Terry Robinson, Linda A Parker
Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 27, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163013/motor-areas-show-altered-dendritic-structure-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mouse-model
#5
Matthew J Fogarty, Erica W H Mu, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes, Mark C Bellingham
Objective: Motor neurons (MNs) die in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. In human or rodent studies, MN loss is preceded by increased excitability. As increased neuronal excitability correlates with structural changes in dendritic arbors and spines, we have examined longitudinal changes in dendritic structure in vulnerable neuron populations in a mouse model of familial ALS. Methods: We used a modified Golgi-Cox staining method to determine the progressive changes in dendritic structure of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, striatal medium spiny neurons, and resistant (trochlear, IV) or susceptible (hypoglossal, XII; lumbar) MNs from brainstem and spinal cord of mice over-expressing the human SOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mutation, in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, at four postnatal (P) ages of 8-15, 28-35, 65-75, and 120 days...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155038/a-novel-modernized-golgi-cox-stain-optimized-for-clarity-cleared-tissue
#6
Mustafa S Kassem, Sandra Y Y Fok, Kristie L Smith, Michael Kuligowski, Bernard W Balleine
BACKGROUND: High resolution neuronal information is extraordinarily useful in understanding the brain's functionality. The development of the Golgi-Cox stain allowed observation of the neuron in its entirety with unrivalled detail. Recently tissue clearing techniques, e.g., CLARITY and CUBIC, provide the potential to observe entire neuronal circuits intact within tissue and without previous restrictions with regard to section thickness. NEW METHOD: Here we describe an improved Golgi-Cox stain method, optimized for use with CLARITY and CUBIC, that stains within 48hrs and that can be used in both fresh and fixed tissue...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129405/neurogenesis-and-morphological-neural-alterations-closely-related-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-25-35-induced-memory-impairment-in-male-rats
#7
Eleazar Ramírez, Liliana Mendieta, Gonzalo Flores, I Daniel Limón
Memory impairment by the Amyloid-β 25-35 (Aβ25-35) peptide in animal models has provided an understanding of the causes behind the similar deterioration that occurs in Alzheimer's disease. However, it is uncertain if a decrease of dendritic spines and neurogenesis conduces to cognitive impairment by an impairment in the retrieval of stored memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of impairment on spatial memory caused by the administration of the Aβ25-35 peptide in the hippocampus, which is associated whit morphological changes and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG)...
November 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040533/hippocampal-phosphorylated-tau-induced-cognitive-decline-dendritic-spine-loss-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Ramesh Kandimalla, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Rui Wang, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the toxic effects of hippocampal phosphorylated tau in tau mice. Using rotarod and Morris Water Maze tests, immunoblotting & immunofluorescence, Golgi-cox staining and transmission electron microscopy, we assessed cognitive behavior, measured protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, MAP2, total & phosphorylated tau, and quantified dendritic spines and mitochondrial number and length in 12-month-old tau mice with P301L mutation. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039252/western-style-diet-induces-object-recognition-deficits-and-alters-complexity-of-dendritic-arborization-in-the-hippocampus-and-entorhinal-cortex-of-male-rats
#9
Kathryn S Sarfert, Melina L Knabe, Nicole S Gunawansa, Sarah N Blythe
OBJECTIVE: Research demonstrates a link between diet-induced obesity and cognitive impairments; however, no studies have utilized the Sholl analysis to assess changes in dendritic arborization as a possible cause of obesity-induced memory deficits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a Western-style diet (WSD) on memory and dendritic complexity of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18) were fed either a control or WSD...
October 17, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017910/developmental-ethanol-exposure-alters-the-morphology-of-mouse-prefrontal-neurons-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#10
Emma L Louth, Hanna D Luctkar, Kayla A Heney, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic developmental exposure to ethanol can lead to a wide variety of teratogenic effects, which in humans are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Individuals affected by FASD may exhibit persistent impairments to cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and attention, which are highly dependent on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. The objective of this study was to determine long-term effects of chronic developmental ethanol exposure on mPFC neuron morphology, in order to better-understand potential neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments associated with FASD...
October 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988852/assessment-of-a-nutritional-supplement-containing-resveratrol-prebiotic-fiber-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#11
Sabrina Salberg, Glenn Yamakawa, Jennaya Christensen, Bryan Kolb, Richelle Mychasiuk
Children and adolescents have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI), with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for most of these injuries. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable and often suffer from post-injury symptomologies that may persist for months. We hypothesized that the combination of resveratrol (RES), prebiotic fiber (PBF), and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) would be an effective therapeutic supplement for the mitigation of mTBI outcomes in the developing brain. Adolescent male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the supplement (3S) or control condition, which was followed by a mTBI or sham insult...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982677/inhibiting-histone-deacetylase-2-hdac2-promotes-functional-recovery-from-stroke
#12
Ying Tang, Yu-Hui Lin, Huan-Yu Ni, Jian Dong, Hong-Jin Yuan, Yu Zhang, Hai-Ying Liang, Meng-Cheng Yao, Qi-Gang Zhou, Hai-Yin Wu, Lei Chang, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. However, current therapies that promote functional recovery from stroke are limited to physical rehabilitation. No pharmacological therapy is available. Thus, understanding the role of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the pathophysiological process of stroke-induced functional loss may provide a novel strategy for stroke recovery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Focal stroke was induced by photothrombosis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begin years prior to clinical dementia onset. However, some 30 to 50% of older individuals who harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology, structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals who had or did not have clinical dementia...
October 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843047/dysregulation-of-limk-1-cofilin-1-pathway-a-possible-basis-for-alteration-of-neuronal-morphology-in-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#14
Praveen Kumar Simhadri, Ruchi Malwade, Ravisankar Vanka, Venkata Prasuja Nakka, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Phanithi Prakash Babu
OBJECTIVE: Loss of cognition even after survival is the salient feature of cerebral malaria (CM). Currently, the fate of neuronal morphology is not studied at the ultrastructural level in CM. Recent studies suggest that maintenance of neuronal morphology and dendritic spine density (actin dynamics in particular) are essential for proper cognitive function. LIMK-1/cofilin-1 signaling pathway is known to be involved in the maintenance of actin dynamics through regulation of cofilin-1, and in executing learning and memory functions...
September 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833901/estradiol-rapidly-increases-glua2-mushroom-spines-and-decreases-glua2-filopodia-spines-in-hippocampus-ca1
#15
Jorge A Avila, Amber A Alliger, Brigett Carvajal, Roseanna M Zanca, Peter A Serrano, Victoria N Luine
Hippocampal dendritic spine density rapidly increases following estradiol (E2 ) treatment, but the types of spines and trafficking of synaptic markers have received little investigation. We assessed rapid effects of E2 over time on the density of four spine types (stubby, filopodial, long thin, and mushroom) and trafficking of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 and PSD95 on tertiary, apical dendrites in CA1. Castrated male rats received 20 μg kg(-1) of E2 or vehicle and were sacrificed 30 or 120 min later. Images of Golgi-Cox impregnated and PSD95/GluA2 stained dendrites were captured under the confocal microscope and quantified with IMARIS-XT...
August 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#16
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743448/chronic-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-antagonism-persistently-increases-dendritic-spine-densities-in-brain-regions-important-to-zebra-finch-vocal-learning-and-production-in-an-antidepressant-sensitive-manner
#17
Tessa L Holland, Ken Soderstrom
During typical late-postnatal CNS development, net reductions in dendritic spine densities are associated with activity-dependent learning. Prior results showed agonist exposure in young animals increased spine densities in a subset of song regions while adult exposures did not, suggesting endocannabinoid signaling regulates dendritic spine dynamics important to vocal development. Here we addressed this question using the CB1 receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A (SR) to disrupt endocannabinoid signaling both during and after vocal learning...
October 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712861/a-novel-golgi-cox-staining-method-for-detecting-and-characterizing-roles-of-the-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-liver-injury
#18
Ma de Jesús Gómez Villalobos, Susana Vidrio, Ruth Giles López, Gabriel Flores Gómez, Victoria Chagoya de Sánchez
The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Golgi-Cox method to characterize the distribution and morphological changes of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in CCl4 liver damaged rats. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were injected with CCl4 for ten weeks. The livers were processed with the Golgi-Cox method, reticuline, and Massońs Trichrome stains, and analyzed under light microscopy. Histological evaluation of livers was made through the METAVIR score. In normal livers, the HSCs show stellate form with abundant thin cytoplasmic processes, distributed into hepatic lobule, mainly in zone 1...
June 30, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697947/synaptic-distribution-and-plasticity-in-primary-auditory-cortex-a1-exhibits-laminar-and-cell-specific-changes-in-the-deaf
#19
H Ruth Clemo, Stephen G Lomber, M Alex Meredith
The processing sequence through primary auditory cortex (A1) is impaired by deafness as evidenced by reduced neuronal activation in A1 of cochlear-implanted deaf cats. Such a loss of neuronal excitation should be manifest as changes in excitatory synaptic number and/or size, for which the post-synaptic correlate is the dendritic spine. Therefore, the present study sought evidence for this functional disruption using Golgi-Cox/light microscopic techniques that examined spine-bearing neurons and their dendritic spine features across all laminae in A1 of early-deaf (ototoxic lesion <1 month; raised into adulthood >16 months) and hearing cats...
July 1, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681457/pregnancy-improves-cognitive-deficit-and-neuronal-morphology-atrophy-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-aging-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#20
Verónica R Cabrera-Pedraza, María de Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, Fidel de la Cruz, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso, Sergio Zamudio, Gonzalo Flores
It is well known that the survival is higher in women compared to men and women have a better survival prognosis than men in some pathologies such as vascular dementia (VD). Our previous reports showed that the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat, an animal model of VD, exhibited dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at 8 months of age. Cerebrolysin (CBL), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, reduces dendritic atrophy and improves the memory process in aged rats...
July 6, 2017: Synapse
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