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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731582/episodic-foresight-beyond-the-very-next-event-in-3-and-4-year-old-children
#1
Hannah Boden, Lisa G Labuschagne, Ashley E Hinten, Damian Scarf
Testing episodic foresight in children generally involves presenting them with a problem in one location (e.g., Room A) and, after a spending a delay in a different location, telling them they will be returning to Room A. Before they go, children are presented with a number of items, one of which will allow them to solve the problem in Room A. At around 3 to 4 years of age children display episodic foresight, selecting the item that will allow them to solve the problem. To date, however, no study has assessed whether 3- and 4-year-old children can plan beyond the very next event, selecting the correct item when there is a delay before returning to Room A...
July 21, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708906/effectiveness-of-periapical-radiography-versus-cone-beam-computed-tomography-with-different-kilovoltage-settings-in-the-detection-of-chemically-created-peri-implant-bone-defects-an-in-vitro-study
#2
Lucas Rodrigues Pinheiro, William C Scarfe, Marcelo Augusto de Oliveira Sales, Bruno Felipe Gaia, Arthur Rodriguez Gonzalez Cortes, Marcelo Gusmão Paraiso Cavalcanti
PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images obtained with different kilovoltage settings compared with intraoral periapical photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP) plate images in the detection of chemically created peri-implant defects utilizing a bovine rib bone model in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After placing 80 implants in bovine ribs, peri-implant circumferential bone defects of different sizes were created with 70% perchloric acid...
July 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707141/do-literate-pigeons-columba-livia-show-mirror-word-generalization
#3
Damian Scarf, Michael C Corballis, Onur Güntürkün, Michael Colombo
Many children pass through a mirror stage in reading, where they write individual letters or digits in mirror and find it difficult to correctly utilize letters that are mirror images of one another (e.g., b and d). This phenomenon is thought to reflect the fact that the brain does not naturally discriminate left from right. Indeed, it has been argued that reading acquisition involves the inhibition of this default process. In the current study, we tested the ability of literate pigeons, which had learned to discriminate between 30 and 62 words from 7832 nonwords, to discriminate between words and their mirror counterparts...
July 13, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676769/spacing-repetitions-over-long-timescales-a-review-and-a-reconsolidation-explanation
#4
Christopher D Smith, Damian Scarf
Recent accounts of the spacing effect have proposed molecular explanations that explain spacing over short, but not long timescales. In the first half of this paper, we review research on the spacing effect that has employed spaces of 24 h or more across skill-related tasks, language-related tasks and generalization for adults and children. Throughout this review, we distinguish between learning and retention by defining learning (or acquisition) as performance at the end of training and retention as performance after a delay period...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657402/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-inhibition-and-induction-potential-of-olaparib-a-potent-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibitor-on-cytochrome-p450
#5
Alex McCormick, Helen Swaisland, Venkatesh Pilla Reddy, Maria Learoyd, Graeme Scarfe
1. In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate potential inhibitory and inductive effects of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, olaparib, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Inhibitory effects were determined in human liver microsomes (HLM); inductive effects were evaluated in cultured human hepatocytes. 2. Olaparib did not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2D6 or CYP2E1 and caused slight inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5 in HLM up to a concentration of 100 µM. However, olaparib (17‒500 µM) inhibited CYP3A4/5 with an IC50 of 119 µM...
June 28, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627978/scarf-pin-related-hijab-syndrome-a-new-name-for-an-unusual-type-of-foreign-body-aspiration
#6
Aram Baram, Fahmi H Kakamad, Delan Ahmed Bakir
Background Foreign body aspiration refers to the inhalation of an object into the respiratory system and is a serious and potentially fatal event. A distinct group of patients has recently been recognized among Muslim nations. These patients include women who wear headscarves and place the safety pin in their mouth prior to securing the veils, leading to accidental foreign body aspiration. The aim of this study was to analyze the main presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with scarf pin aspiration...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576099/solitons-and-their-stability-in-the-nonlocal-nonlinear-schr%C3%A3-dinger-equation-with-pt-symmetric-potentials
#7
Zichao Wen, Zhenya Yan
We report localized nonlinear modes of the self-focusing and defocusing nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the generalized PT-symmetric Scarf-II, Rosen-Morse, and periodic potentials. Parameter regions are presented for broken and unbroken PT-symmetric phases of linear bounded states and the linear stability of the obtained solitons. Moreover, we numerically explore the dynamical behaviors of solitons and find stable solitons for some given parameters.
May 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479160/technique-for-preventing-troughing-in-scarf-osteotomy
#8
Su Chan Lee, Seung Hyun Hwang, Chang Hyun Nam, Ji-Hoon Baek, Soon Yong Yoo, Hye Sun Ahn
Scarf osteotomy is a common operative procedure for mild-to-moderate hallux valgus. We describe a simple supportive technique that prevents troughing intraoperatively without additional bony procedures.
July 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476096/hallux-valgus-correction-comparing-percutaneous-chevron-akin-peca-and-open-scarf-akin-osteotomies
#9
Moses Lee, James Walsh, Margaret M Smith, Jeff Ling, Andrew Wines, Peter Lam
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery is being used increasingly, including for hallux valgus surgery. Despite the growing interest in minimally invasive procedures, there have been few publications on percutaneous chevron/akin (PECA) procedures, and no studies have been published comparing PECA to open scarf/akin osteotomies (SA). METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized study of 50 patients undergoing operative correction of hallux valgus using one of 2 techniques (PECA vs open SA)...
May 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455499/families-of-stable-solitons-and-excitations-in-the-pt-symmetric-nonlinear-schr%C3%A3-dinger-equations-with-position-dependent-effective-masses
#10
Yong Chen, Zhenya Yan, Dumitru Mihalache, Boris A Malomed
Since the parity-time-([Formula: see text]-) symmetric quantum mechanics was put forward, fundamental properties of some linear and nonlinear models with [Formula: see text]-symmetric potentials have been investigated. However, previous studies of [Formula: see text]-symmetric waves were limited to constant diffraction coefficients in the ambient medium. Here we address effects of variable diffraction coefficient on the beam dynamics in nonlinear media with generalized [Formula: see text]-symmetric Scarf-II potentials...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429477/the-emerging-role-of-maxillofacial-radiology-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-with-complex-periodontitis
#11
REVIEW
William C Scarfe, Bruno Azevedo, Lucas R Pinheiro, Menik Priaminiarti, Marcelo A O Sales
Contemporary periodontal therapy has evolved to become more interdisciplinary and increasingly involves more complex treatments, including bone and soft-tissue regenerative procedures. Therapeutic options require an imaging modality or combination of techniques that are capable of providing a diagnostic osseous baseline and facilitating quantification of smaller increments of bony change, both loss and additive, which are comparable over time. Intra-oral and panoramic radiography are the modalities most commonly used to identify the location, quantify the amount and the pattern of alveolar bone loss and determine response to therapy...
June 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407000/blindness-enhances-auditory-obstacle-circumvention-assessing-echolocation-sensory-substitution-and-visual-based-navigation
#12
Andrew J Kolarik, Amy C Scarfe, Brian C J Moore, Shahina Pardhan
Performance for an obstacle circumvention task was assessed under conditions of visual, auditory only (using echolocation) and tactile (using a sensory substitution device, SSD) guidance. A Vicon motion capture system was used to measure human movement kinematics objectively. Ten normally sighted participants, 8 blind non-echolocators, and 1 blind expert echolocator navigated around a 0.6 x 2 m obstacle that was varied in position across trials, at the midline of the participant or 25 cm to the right or left...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405709/-scarf-osteotomy
#13
H-J Trnka, P Bock
Hallux valgus is one of the most common deformities of the lower extremity. Multiple etiologies have been discussed, and various techniques have been described. The SCARF osteotomy is indicated for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformities. The technique historically used by carpenters allows immediate postoperative weight bearing and also entails the possibility to correct the distal metatarsal articular angle by rotation of the osteotomy. The SCARF osteotomy has also been successfully used in revision surgeries...
May 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367688/first-metatarsophalangeal-contact-properties-following-proximal-opening-wedge-and-scarf-osteotomies-for-hallux-valgus-correction-a-biomechanical-study
#14
Cameron Kia, Ryu Yoshida, Mark Cote, Jessica DiVenere, Lauren E Geaney
BACKGROUND: Proximal opening wedge osteotomy (POWO) is an established procedure for moderate to severe hallux valgus. A common concern of this procedure is that it results in lengthening of the first metatarsal, which could cause increased intra-articular pressure of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) and may ultimately lead to arthritis because of these altered mechanics. The purpose of this study was to use a cadaveric model to compare intra-articular pressures and articulating contact properties of the MTP joint following either scarf osteotomy or POWO...
April 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336419/scarf-related-injuries-at-a-major-trauma-center-in-northern-india
#15
Pritish Singh, Ashok Kumar, Vishal Shekhawat
PURPOSE: Scarf is a long loose piece of cloth worn around the neck and shoulder. Despite cultural association of this apparel, it is part of numerous injury episodes of varying enormity. Entanglement of loose scarf in spoke wheels of bike, tricycle, belt driven machines like sugarcane juice machine, thresher, grinding machines, etc is observed both in social and industrial milieu. This study aims to investigate the scarf-related injuries at a major trauma center in northern India. METHODS: From June 2013 to May 2015, a hospital-based prospective observational study was done in patients who presented to a level 1 trauma center in northern India with the mode of injury involving scarf around the neck...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297089/cone-beam-computed-tomographic-imaging-in-orthodontics
#16
W C Scarfe, B Azevedo, S Toghyani, A G Farman
Over the last 15 years, cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging has emerged as an important supplemental radiographic technique for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, especially in situations which require an understanding of the complex anatomic relationships and surrounding structures of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT imaging provides unique features and advantages to enhance orthodontic practice over conventional extraoral radiographic imaging. While it is the responsibility of each practitioner to make a decision, in tandem with the patient/family, consensus-derived, evidence-based clinical guidelines are available to assist the clinician in the decision-making process...
March 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293756/the-40th-anniversary-of-the-ai-project-the-commemorative-gift-is-a-silk-scarf-painted-by-ai-the-chimpanzee
#17
EDITORIAL
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282488/a-comparison-of-reach-to-grasp-and-transport-to-place-performance-in-participants-with-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-glaucoma
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shahina Pardhan, Amy Scarfe, Rupert Bourne, Matthew Timmis
Purpose: To compare visually guided manual prehension in participants with primarily central field loss (CFL) due to age-related macular degeneration and peripheral visual field loss (PFL) due to glaucoma. This study extends current literature by comparing directly "reach-to-grasp" performance, and presents a new task of "transport-to-place" the object accurately to a new location. Data were compared to age-matched controls. Methods: Three-dimensional motion data were collected from 17 glaucoma participants with PFL, 17 participants with age-related macular degeneration CFL and 10 age-matched control participants...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271227/clinical-safety-and-effectiveness-of-transversus-abdominis-plane-tap-block-in-post-operative-analgesia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Ning Ma, Joanna K Duncan, Anje J Scarfe, Susanne Schuhmann, Alun L Cameron
Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks can provide analgesia postoperatively for a range of surgeries. Abundant clinical trials have assessed TAP block showing positive analgesic effects. This systematic review assesses safety and effectiveness outcomes of TAP block in all clinical settings, comparing with both active (standard care) and inactive (placebo) comparators. PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and the University of York CRD databases were searched. RCTs were screened for their eligibility and assessed for risk of bias...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210803/being-overweight-has-limited-effect-on-scarf-osteotomy-outcome-for-hallux-valgus-correction
#20
Marcin A Milczarek, Julia J Milczarek, Bartłomiej Tomasik, Przemysław Łaganowski, Krzysztof Nowak, Marcin Domżalski
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and the results of SCARF osteotomy of the first metatarsal for hallux valgus (HV) correction, as the literature on this is scant. METHODS: This prospective study was carried out between 2011 and 2015. One hundred and thirty-three patients diagnosed with moderate to severe HV underwent a SCARF corrective osteotomy. We divided the patients into two groups according to their BMI: normal and overweight...
April 2017: International Orthopaedics
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