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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028910/assessment-of-changes-in-lactate-concentration-with-intravascular-microdialysis-during-high-risk-cardiac-surgery-using-the-trend-interchangeability-method
#1
C Gouëzel, E Lorne, V Bonnet, S Fradin, V Saplacan, J-L Gérard, J-L Hanouz, J-L Fellahi, M-O Fischer
Background: Blood lactate is a strong predictor of mortality, and repeated blood lactate assays are recommended during surgery in high-risk patients. We hypothesized that the use of intravascular microdialysis incorporated in a central venous catheter would be interchangeable with the reference blood gas technique to monitor changes in blood lactate. Methods: Microdialysis and central venous blood lactate measurements were recorded simultaneously in high-risk cardiac surgical patients...
October 3, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028466/is-acute-care-oriented-research-ethical-in-resource-limited-settings
#2
Anwar D Jackson, Harold W Neighbors
In this case scenario, a medical student, Jenny, is conducting congenital heart disease research in a resource-limited setting faced with water insecurity. She has concerns about how ethical it is for her to conduct advanced clinical research in a region with more basic health needs. The first commentary argues that advanced clinical research in resource-limited settings follows the ethical principle of beneficence and interactional justice but violates the principle of distributive justice. The second commentary questions whether beneficence is enough, since the Belmont Report states that beneficence is the obligation to simultaneously reduce harm and increase benefit...
October 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028255/wipe-sampling-method-and-evaluation-of-environmental-variables-for-assessing-surface-contamination-of-10-antineoplastic-drugs-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Manuel Colombo, Matthew Jeronimo, George Astrakianakis, Chirag Apte, Chun-Yip Hon
This paper describes a novel wipe sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method capable of simultaneously detecting 10 antineoplastic drugs (5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, methotrexate, vindesine, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, vinblastine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel). The good overall recoveries and sensitivity values of this method along with the comparatively short run time (8 min) allows for its use in routine monitoring in health care facilities...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027226/efferocytosis-of-dying-cells-differentially-modulate-immunological-outcomes-in-tumor-microenvironment
#4
REVIEW
Sushil Kumar, David Calianese, Raymond B Birge
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an integral part of tissue homeostasis in complex organisms, allowing for tissue turnover, repair, and renewal while simultaneously inhibiting the release of self antigens and danger signals from apoptotic cell-derived constituents that can result in immune activation, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Unlike cells in culture, the physiological fate of cells that die by apoptosis in vivo is their rapid recognition and engulfment by phagocytic cells (a process called efferocytosis)...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024919/graphene-oxide-gold-nanorods-for-chemo-photothermal-treatment-and-controlled-release-of-doxorubicin-in-mice-tumor
#5
M Shahnawaz Khan, Sunil Pandey, Mukesh L Bhaisare, Gangaraju Gedda, Abou Talib, Hui-Fen Wu
Graphene oxide (GO) is a close derivative of graphene has unlocked many pivotal steps in drug delivery due to their inherent biocompatibility, excellent drug loading capacity, and shows antibacterial, antifungal properties etc. We used a novel plant material called Gum arabic (GA) to increase the solubility of GO as well as to chemically reduce it in the solution. GA functionalized GO (fGO) exhibited increased absorption in near infra-red region (NIR) which was exploited in photothermal therapy for cancer. In order to understand the shape and size effect of GO which may affect their rheological properties, we have conjugated them with gold nanorods (GNRs) using in situ synthesis of GO@GNRs via seed mediated method...
September 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021370/integrating-nutrition-interventions-into-an-existing-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-program-increased-maternal-dietary-diversity-micronutrient-intake-and-exclusive-breastfeeding-practices-in-bangladesh-results-of-a-cluster-randomized-program-evaluation
#6
Phuong Hong Nguyen, Sunny S Kim, Tina Sanghvi, Zeba Mahmud, Lan Mai Tran, Sadia Shabnam, Bachera Aktar, Raisul Haque, Kaosar Afsana, Edward A Frongillo, Marie T Ruel, Purnima Menon
Background: Maternal undernutrition is a major concern globally, contributing to poor birth outcomes. Limited evidence exists on delivering multiple interventions for maternal nutrition simultaneously. Alive & Thrive addressed this gap by integrating nutrition-focused interpersonal counseling, community mobilization, distribution of free micronutrient supplements, and weight-gain monitoring through an existing Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health (MNCH) program in Bangladesh.Objectives: We evaluated the effect of providing nutrition-focused MNCH compared with standard MNCH (antenatal care with standard nutrition counseling) on coverage of nutrition interventions, maternal dietary diversity, micronutrient supplement intake, and early breastfeeding practices...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020254/statistical-analysis-of-multiple-phenotypes-in-genetic-epidemiological-studies-from-cross-phenotype-associations-to-pleiotropy
#7
Yasmmyn D Salinas, Zuoheng Wang, Andrew T DeWan
In the context of genetics, pleiotropy refers to the phenomenon in which a single genetic locus affects more than one trait or disease. Genetic epidemiological studies have identified loci associated with multiple phenotypes, and these cross-phenotype associations are often incorrectly interpreted as examples of pleiotropy. Pleiotropy is only one possible explanation for cross-phenotype associations. Cross-phenotype associations may also arise due to issues related to study design, confounder bias, or non-genetic causal links between the phenotypes under analysis...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019917/the-prevalence-and-characteristics-of-e-cigarette-users-in-the-u-s
#8
David T Levy, Zhe Yuan, Yameng Li
Studies have examined the characteristics of individuals who use e-cigarettes, including sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, and the relationship of e-cigarette use to tobacco control policies. While most studies consider a subset of these characteristics with weak measures of regular e-cigarette use, this study uses a large, recent U.S. survey to simultaneously consider the association of each of these factors with different use measures. Data from the May 2014 Tobacco Use Supplement-Current Population Survey is supplemented with information on tobacco control policies...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019799/to-see-the-suffering
#9
Rita Charon
The author notes the impressive growth in medical humanities programs, scholarly journals, textbooks, and national and international conferences as well as the convening of two recent national forums or boards addressing the potential of the humanities and the arts to improve medical practice. She also notes that the field of medical humanities seems to have shifted from addressing topics on the margins of medical education to equipping students with the foundational skills required for effective doctoring...
October 10, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018819/the-clinical-significance-of-filmarray-respiratory-panel-in-diagnosing-community-acquired-pneumonia
#10
Huanzhu Chen, Huilan Weng, Meirui Lin, Ping He, Yazhen Li, Qingdong Xie, Changwen Ke, Xiaoyang Jiao
AIM: FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FilmArray RP) test is an emerging diagnostic method in fast detecting multiple respiratory pathogens; the methodology and clinical significance of FilmArray RP in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) diagnosis were evaluated in this study. METHODS: Specimens from 74 patients with CAP were analyzed and compared using FilmArray RP, traditional multiple PCR assay, bacterial (or fungal) culture, and serological detection. RESULTS: FilmArray RP and multiplex PCR showed 100% coincidence rate in detecting coronaviruses 229E, OC43, HKU1, and NL63, human metapneumovirus, influenza A and B, and parainfluenza viruses (PIV1, PIV2, and PIV4)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018539/clinical-characteristics-of-antimitochondrial-antibody-positive-patients-at-a-safety-net-health-care-system-in-arizona
#11
Susanna Tan, Napatkamon Ayutyanont, Bikash Bhattarai, Zohreh Movahedi, Lakshmi Jayaram, Robert Gish, Abdul Nadir
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To assess whether aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels can predict the diagnosis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) or any other diagnoses and whether PBC occurs either simultaneously or independently of other liver diseases among antimitochondrial antibody (AMA)-positive patients. METHODS: Demographic and clinical variables were assessed in 90 AMA-positive patients with and without liver biopsies...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018400/including-a-lower-extremity-component-during-hand-arm-bimanual-intensive-training-does-not-attenuate-improvements-of-the-upper-extremities-a-retrospective-study-of-randomized-trials
#12
Geoffroy Saussez, Marina B Brandão, Andrew M Gordon, Yannick Bleyenheuft
Hand-Arm Bimanual Intensive Therapy (HABIT) promotes hand function using intensive practice of bimanual functional and play tasks. This intervention has shown to be efficacious to improve upper-extremity (UE) function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). In addition to UE function deficits, lower-extremity (LE) function and UE-LE coordination are also impaired in children with USCP. Recently, a new intervention has been introduced in which the LE is simultaneously engaged during HABIT (Hand-Arm Bimanual Intensive Therapy Including Lower Extremities; HABIT-ILE)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017890/faulty-brca1-brca2-genes-how-poor-is-the-prognosis
#13
REVIEW
John O'Quigley
We take a critical look at the meaning behind the number 87% given to 25-year-old Sophie, a BRCA1 and BRCA2 carrier. Sophie has been told she has an 87% chance of getting breast cancer. She is contemplating a preventive double mastectomy after genetic counseling and her physician's advice. Some 92% of British general practitioners are in favor of prophylactic mastectomy as a treatment option for women similar to Sophie. The treatment decision results, to a very large extent, from the size of the number (87%) alone...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993652/oxygen-vacancy-clusters-essential-for-the-catalytic-activity-of-ceo2-nanocubes-for-o-xylene-oxidation
#14
Lian Wang, Yunbo Yu, Hong He, Yan Zhang, Xiubo Qin, Baoyi Wang
Catalytic oxidation of o-xylene was investigated on CeO2 nanocubes calcined at 350, 450, 550, and 650 °C, among which the samples calcined at 550 °C exhibited the highest activity and long durability. Positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements revealed that the size and distribution of oxygen vacancies for CeO2 nanocubes could be tuned by carefully controlling the calcination temperature. An excellent linear correlation between a factor related to size and density of oxygen vacancy clusters and reaction rate of o-xylene oxidation was revealed on ceria nanocubes...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993286/spirit-trial-a-phase-iii-pragmatic-trial-of-an-advance-care-planning-intervention-in-esrd
#15
Mi-Kyung Song, Mark L Unruh, Amita Manatunga, Laura C Plantinga, Janice Lea, Manisha Jhamb, Abhijit V Kshirsagar, Sandra E Ward
Advance care planning (ACP) is a central tenet of dialysis care, but the vast majority of dialysis patients report never engaging in ACP discussions with their care providers. Over the last decade, we have developed and iteratively tested SPIRIT (Sharing Patient's Illness Representation to Increase Trust), a theory-based, patient- and family-centered advance care planning intervention. SPIRIT is a six-step, two-session, face-to-face intervention to promote cognitive and emotional preparation for end-of-life decision making for patients with ESRD and their surrogates...
October 6, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991817/the-moderating-role-of-hospital-size-on-the-relationship-between-patient-experience-and-patient-safety
#16
Geoffrey A Silvera
OBJECTIVES: Previous examinations of the relationship between patient experience and patient safety initiatives find that higher patient experience evaluations correspond to reduced incidence of adverse events. Little is known, however, about the impact of hospital organizational characteristics on this relationship. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree to which hospital size moderates the relationship between patient experience and patient safety. METHODS: A lagged cross-sectional ordinary least squares regression tests a hypothesis of a diminishing effect of hospital size on the relationship between patient evaluations of their interpersonal care experience and hospital's central-line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is tested on a sample of 1740 US hospitals using data compiled from Hospital Compare and the American Hospital Association...
October 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991047/vasopressors-do-not-influence-cerebral-critical-closing-pressure-during-systemic-inflammation-evoked-by-experimental-endotoxemia-and-sepsis-in-humans
#17
Judith Maria Dimphena van den Brule, Roeland Stolk, Elisabeth Janine Vinke, Lex Maxim van Loon, Peter Pickkers, Johannes Gerardus van der Hoeven, Matthijs Kox, Cornelia Wilhelmina Elisabeth Hoedemaekers
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different vasopressors on the cerebral vasculature during experimental human endotoxemia and sepsis. We used the critical closing pressure (CrCP) as a measure of cerebral vascular tone. METHODS: We performed a prospective pilot study, at the intensive care department (ICU) of a tertiary care university hospital in the Netherlands, in 40 healthy male subjects during experimental human endotoxemia (administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and in 10 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990395/an-evaluation-of-reach-for-a-work-site-implementation-of-the-national-diabetes-prevention-program-focusing-on-diet-and-exercise
#18
Victoria A Zigmont, Abigail B Shoben, Gail L Kaye, Richard J Snow, Steven K Clinton, Randall E Harris, Susan E Olivo-Marston
PURPOSE: Our objective is to evaluate the "reach" component of the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework by comparing prediabetics who were and were not interested in enrolling in a free work site diabetes prevention program (DPP) during the first year of the program. Reach is defined as the proportion of eligible participants who enroll in a health program. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was used. SETTING: The setting was a large health system in the Midwest...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989188/how-to-construct-a%C3%A2-mixed-methods-research-design
#19
Judith Schoonenboom, R Burke Johnson
This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity...
2017: Kölner Zeitschrift Für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988963/defining-novel-and-practical-metrics-to-assess-the-deliverables-of-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-ultrasound-fusion-prostate-biopsy
#20
Benjamin T Ristau, David Y T Chen, Jeffrey Ellis, Aseem Malhotra, Lyudmilla DeMora, Rosaleen B Parsons, Barton Milestone, Marion Brody, Rosalia Viterbo, Richard Greenberg, Marc Smaldone, Robert Uzzo, Jordan Anaokar, Alexander Kutikov
PURPOSE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance (mpMRI)/ultrasound targeted prostate biopsy (TB) is touted as a tool to improve prostate cancer care. Yet, the true clinical utility of TB over transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-B) has not been systematically analyzed. We introduce two metrics to better quantify and report the deliverables of TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed our prospective database containing patients who underwent simultaneous TB/TRUS-B...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Urology
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