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Emily J Erbelding, Diane Post, Erik Stemmy, Paul C Roberts, Alison Deckhut Augustine, Stacy Ferguson, Catharine I Paules, Barney S Graham, Anthony S Fauci
A priority for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is development of an influenza vaccine providing durable protection against multiple influenza strains, including those that may cause a pandemic, i.e., a universal influenza vaccine. To invigorate research efforts, NIAID developed a strategic plan focused on knowledge gaps in three major research areas, as well as additional resources required to ensure progress towards a universal influenza vaccine. NIAID will use this plan as a foundation for future investments in influenza research and will support and coordinate a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists focused on accelerating progress towards this goal...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Timothy M Uyeki, Karl J Erlandson, George Korch, Michael O'Hara, Michael Wathen, Jean Hu-Primmer, Sally Hojvat, Erik J Stemmy, Armen Donabedian
Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol...
July 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rafael Molina-Venegas, Cristina Roquet
Recent years have seen an increasing effort to incorporate phylogenetic hypotheses to the study of community assembly processes. The incorporation of such evolutionary information has been eased by the emergence of specialized software for the automatic estimation of partially resolved supertrees based on published phylogenies. Despite this growing interest in the use of phylogenies in ecological research, very few studies have attempted to quantify the potential biases related to the use of partially resolved phylogenies and to branch length accuracy, and no work has examined how tree shape may affect inference of community phylogenetic metrics...
June 1, 2014: Ecography
Jesse M Damsker, Blythe C Dillingham, Mary C Rose, Molly A Balsley, Christopher R Heier, Alan M Watson, Erik J Stemmy, Roslyn A Jurjus, Tony Huynh, Kathleen Tatem, Kitipong Uaesoontrachoon, Dana M Berry, Angela S Benton, Robert J Freishtat, Eric P Hoffman, John M McCall, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Stephanie L Constant, Erica K M Reeves, Kanneboyina Nagaraju
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lower respiratory tract associated with airway hyperreactivity and mucus obstruction in which a majority of cases are due to an allergic response to environmental allergens. Glucocorticoids such as prednisone have been standard treatment for many inflammatory diseases for the past 60 years. However, despite their effectiveness, long-term treatment is often limited by adverse side effects believed to be caused by glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription...
2013: PloS One
Rasmus S Ripa, Erik Jørgensen, Jens Kastrup
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been investigated in trials aiming to promote recovery of myocardial function after myocardial infarction. Long-term safety-data have never been reported. A few studies indicated an increased risk of in-stent re-stenosis. We aimed to investigate clinical events 5 years after inclusion into a randomized trial of G-CSF versus placebo. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients were randomized, from 2003-2005, to G-CSF or placebo after myocardial infarction...
March 2013: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Patrick Kück, Carola Greve, Bernhard Misof, France Gimnich
The amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method has become an attractive tool in phylogenetics due to the ease with which large numbers of characters can be generated. In contrast to sequence-based phylogenetic approaches, AFLP data consist of anonymous multilocus markers. However, potential artificial amplifications or amplification failures of fragments contained in the AFLP data set will reduce AFLP reliability especially in phylogenetic inferences. In the present study, we introduce a new automated scoring approach, called "AMARE" (AFLP MAtrix REduction)...
2012: PloS One
Gabriel Yedid, Jason Stredwick, Charles A Ofria, Paul-Michael Agapow
The effect of mass extinctions on phylogenetic diversity and branching history of clades remains poorly understood in paleobiology. We examined the phylogenies of communities of digital organisms undergoing open-ended evolution as we subjected them to instantaneous "pulse" extinctions, choosing survivors at random, and to prolonged "press" extinctions involving a period of low resource availability. We measured age of the phylogenetic root and tree stemminess, and evaluated how branching history of the phylogenetic trees was affected by the extinction treatments...
2012: PloS One
Erik J Stemmy, Angela S Benton, Jennifer Lerner, Sarah Alcala, Stephanie L Constant, Robert J Freishtat
OBJECTIVE: Leukocyte persistence during chronic (quiescent) phases of asthma is a major hallmark of the disease. The mechanisms regulating these persistent leukocyte populations are not clearly understood. An alternative family of chemoattracting proteins, cyclophilins (Cyps), has recently been shown to contribute to leukocyte recruitment in animal models of allergic asthma. The goals of this study were to determine whether Cyps are present in asthma patients during the chronic phase of the disease and to investigate whether levels of Cyps associate with clinical parameters of disease severity...
December 2011: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Erik J Stemmy, Molly A Balsley, Rosalyn A Jurjus, Jesse M Damsker, Michael I Bukrinsky, Stephanie L Constant
Allergic asthma is characterized by acute influxes of proinflammatory leukocytes in response to allergen stimulation, followed by quiescent (chronic) periods between allergen challenges, during which sustained, low-level inflammation is evident. These chronic phases of disease are thought to be mediated by populations of leukocytes persisting within airways and tissues. The lack of any in situ proliferation by these cells, along with their limited lifespan, suggests that a continual recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation is needed to maintain disease chronicity...
November 2011: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Molly A Balsley, Miroslav Malesevic, Erik J Stemmy, Jason Gigley, Rosalyn A Jurjus, Dallen Herzog, Michael I Bukrinsky, Gunter Fischer, Stephanie L Constant
Although the main regulators of leukocyte trafficking are chemokines, another family of chemotactic agents is cyclophilins. Intracellular cyclophilins function as peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases and are targets of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA). Cyclophilins can also be secreted in response to stress factors, with elevated levels of extracellular cyclophilins detected in several inflammatory diseases. Extracellular cyclophilins are known to have potent chemotactic properties, suggesting that they might contribute to inflammatory responses by recruiting leukocytes into tissues...
December 15, 2010: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Alessandra Jales, Rustom Falahati, Elisabeth Mari, Erik J Stemmy, Weiping Shen, Cathy Southammakosane, Dallen Herzog, Stephan Ladisch, David Leitenberg
Tumour pathogenesis is characterized by an immunosuppressive microenvironment that limits the development of effective tumour-specific immune responses. This is in part the result of tumour-dependent recruitment and activation of regulatory cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells in the tumour microenvironment and draining lymph nodes. Shedding of gangliosides by tumour cells has immunomodulatory properties, suggesting that gangliosides may be a critical factor in initiating an immunosuppressive microenvironment...
January 2011: Immunology
Laura M Beaver, Erik J Stemmy, Arnold M Schwartz, Jesse M Damsker, Stephanie L Constant, Susan M Ceryak, Steven R Patierno
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is implicated in the development of several human cancers, including lung cancer. Certain particulate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are well-documented human respiratory carcinogens that release genotoxic soluble chromate and are associated with fibrosis, fibrosarcomas, adenocarcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. Despite this, little is known about the pathologic injury and immune responses after repetitive exposure to particulate chromates...
December 2009: Environmental Health Perspectives
Michael D Crisp, Lyn G Cook
How biodiversity is generated and maintained underlies many major questions in evolutionary biology, particularly relating to the tempo and pattern of diversification through time. Molecular phylogenies and new analytical methods provide additional tools to help interpret evolutionary processes. Evolutionary rates in lineages sometimes appear punctuated, and such "explosive" radiations are commonly interpreted as adaptive, leading to causative key innovations being sought. Here we argue that an alternative process might explain apparently rapid radiations ("broom-and-handle" or "stemmy" patterns seen in many phylogenies) with no need to invoke dramatic increase in the rate of diversification...
September 2009: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Mikkel Overgaard, Rasmus Sejersten Ripa, Yongzhong Wang, Erik Jørgensen, Jens Kastrup
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have not demonstrated impact on systolic recovery compared to placebo. However, recent studies suggest that timing of G-CSF therapy is crucial. METHODS: Timing of G-CSF treatment was analyzed in the STEMMI MRI subpopulation including 54 patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) <12 h after symptom onset. Patients were randomized to double blind treatment with G-CSF (10 microg/kg/day) or placebo...
April 30, 2010: International Journal of Cardiology
Laura M Beaver, Erik J Stemmy, Stephanie L Constant, Arnold Schwartz, Laura G Little, Jason P Gigley, Gina Chun, Kent D Sugden, Susan M Ceryak, Steven R Patierno
Certain particulate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human respiratory carcinogens that release genotoxic soluble chromate, and are associated with fibrosis, fibrosarcomas, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. We postulate that inflammatory processes and mediators may contribute to the etiology of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis, however the immediate (0-24 h) pathologic injury and immune responses after exposure to particulate chromates have not been adequately investigated. Our aim was to determine the nature of the lung injury, inflammatory response, and survival signaling responses following intranasal exposure of BALB/c mice to particulate basic zinc chromate...
February 15, 2009: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Erik Jørgensen, Federica Baldazzi, Rasmus S Ripa, Tina Friis, Yongzong Wang, Steffen Helqvist, Jens Kastrup
BACKGROUND: Recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized pluripotent cells from the bone marrow are proposed to have a regenerative potential. Though, a report of excessive instent restenosis, in patients treated with G-CSF before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) warrants caution. METHODS: Patients (n=59) enrolled in the STEMMI trial, a randomized and double blind study, comparing G-CSF and placebo after large ST-elevation myocardial infarctions, had an intracoronary ultrasound imaging at 6 months follow-up with a quantitative analysis of instent neointimal hyperplasia...
March 18, 2010: International Journal of Cardiology
Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Erik J Stemmy, Denise Olive, Jesse M Damsker, Alex Loukas, Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira, Stephanie L Constant, Jeffrey M Bethony
The impact of the interaction between excreted and/or secreted (ES) Necator americanus products and NK cells from Necator-infected individuals was analyzed. We investigated the binding of ES products to NK cells, the expression of NK cell receptors (CD56, CD159a/NKG2A, CD314/NKG2D, CD335/NKp46, and KLRF1/NKp80), the frequency of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing NK cells after whole-blood in vitro stimulation, and the capacity of N. americanus ES products to induce NK cell chemotaxis. In contrast to those from noninfected individuals, NK cells from Necator-infected individuals demonstrated no binding with N...
December 2008: Infection and Immunity
Donald Gullberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2008: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Rasmus Sejersten Ripa, Mandana Haack-Sørensen, Yongzhong Wang, Erik Jørgensen, Steen Mortensen, Lene Bindslev, Tina Friis, Jens Kastrup
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) after myocardial infarction does not affect systolic function when compared with placebo. In contrast, intracoronary infusion of bone marrow cells appears to improve ejection fraction. We aimed to evaluate the G-CSF mobilization of subsets of stem cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 78 patients (62 men; 56+/-8 years) with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous intervention <12 hours after symptom onset...
September 11, 2007: Circulation
T B Batygina, G Iu Vinogradova
Different concepts of polyembryony and genetic heterogeneity of seeds in flower plants have been reviewed. Different types, ways, and forms of plant reproduction appeared in the course of evolution as a consequences of the attached mode of life and autotrophy. This is ascribed to totipotency, "stemminess" of plant cells, and presence of constantly functioning meristems, which determined to a great extent the system of plant safety. There are two ways of formation of a new individual: sexual process --> gamospermy involving meiosis and gamete fusion and asexual process --> agamospermy without meiosis and gamete fusion and two types of reproduction: seed and vegetative...
May 2007: Ontogenez
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