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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212942/factors-leading-to-the-loss-of-natural-elite-control-of-hiv-1-infection
#1
María Pernas, Laura Tarancón-Diez, Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Julia G Prado, Concepción Casado, Beatriz Dominguez-Molina, Isabel Olivares, Maite Coiras, Agathe León, Carmen Rodriguez, Jose Miguel Benito, Norma Rallón, Montserrat Plana, Onofre Martinez-Madrid, Marta Dapena, Jose Antonio Iribarren, Jorge Del Romero, Felipe García, José Alcamí, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Francisco Vidal, Manuel Leal, Cecilio Lopez-Galindez, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos
HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) maintain undetectable viral load (VL) in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. However, these subjects have heterogeneous clinical outcomes including a proportion loosing HIV-1 control over time. In this work we compared, in a longitudinal design, transient EC, analyzed before and after the loss of virological control, versus persistent EC. The aim was to identify factors leading to the loss of natural virological control of HIV-1-infection with a longitudinal retrospective study design...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211981/mait-cells-a-link-between-gut-integrity-and-type-1-diabetes
#2
Elke Gülden, Noah Palm, Kevan C Herold
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease whose etiology involves complex interactions between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota. Recent studies by Rouxel et al. (2017) suggest that innate-like mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) may link gut integrity, the microbiota, and T1D.
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203558/seipin-proteins-mediate-lipid-droplet-biogenesis-to-promote-pollen-transmission-and-reduce-seed-dormancy
#3
Marco Taurino, Sara Costantini, Stefania De Domenico, Francesco Stefanelli, Guillermo Ruano, Maria Otilia Delgadillo, Jose J Sanchez-Serrano, Maite Sanmartín, Angelo Santino, Enrique Rojo
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles in plant cells, but their physiological roles are largely unknown. To gain insight into the function of LDs in plants, we have characterized the Arabidopsis homologues of SEIPIN proteins, which are crucial factors for LD biogenesis in yeast and animals. SEIPIN1 is expressed almost exclusively in embryos, while SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 have broader expression profiles with maximal levels in embryos and pollen, where LDs accumulate most abundantly. Genetic analysis demonstrates that all three SEIPINs contribute to proper LD biogenesis in embryos, whereas in pollen, only SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 play a significant role...
December 4, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197761/the-interaction-between-drought-and-elevated-co2-in-water-relations-in-two-grassland-species-is-species-specific
#4
Jon Miranda-Apodaca, Usue Pérez-López, Maite Lacuesta, Amaia Mena-Petite, Alberto Muñoz-Rueda
Climate change can have major consequences for grassland communities since the different species of the community utilize different mechanisms for adaptation to drought and elevated CO2 levels. In addition, contradictory data exist when the combined effects of elevated CO2 and drought are analyzed because the soil water content is not usually similar between CO2 concentrations. Thus, the objectives of this work have been to examine the effect of water stress on plant water relations in two grassland species (Trifolium pratense and Agrostis capillaris), analyzing the possible differences between the two species when soil water content is equal in all treatments, and to elucidate if development under elevated CO2 increases drought tolerance and if so, which are the underlying mechanisms...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196148/circulating-il-17-producing-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-mait-are-associated-with-symptoms-in-children-with-asthma
#5
Guillaume Lezmi, Rola Abou Taam, Céline Dietrich, Lucienne Chatenoud, Jacques de Blic, Maria Leite-de-Moraes
IL-17 and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been involved in asthma pathogenesis. However, IL-17-producing MAIT cells (MAIT-17) were not evidenced. We aimed to determine whether circulating MAIT-17 were detectable in children with asthma, and whether they correlated with asthma symptoms or lung function. Children from the SPASM cohort of preschoolers with severe wheeze were reassessed for asthma at school age, and categorized as exacerbators (1 or more severe exacerbations in the previous 12months) or non-exacerbators...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187338/effects-of-interleukin-17a-il-17a-neutralization-on-murine-hepatitis-virus-mhv-a59-infection
#6
José L Aparicio, Macarena Ottobre, Maite Duhalde Vega, Jean-Paul Coutelier, Jacques Van Snick, Lilia A Retegui
Mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus A59 (MHV-A59) develop hepatitis and autoantibodies (autoAb) to liver and kidney fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), a fact closely related to the release of alarmins such as uric acid and/or high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1). We studied the effect of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against IL-17A in our model of mouse MHV-A59-infection. MAb anti-IL-17F and anti-IFNγ were used to complement the study. Results showed that transaminase levels markedly decreased in MHV-A59-infected mice treated with MAb anti-IL-17A whereas plasmatic Ig concentration sharply increased...
September 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179729/deficiency-of-innate-like-t-lymphocytes-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Mariann Szabó, Veronika Sárosi, Zoltán Balikó, Kornélia Bodó, Nelli Farkas, Tímea Berki, Péter Engelmann
BACKGROUND: Based on the phenotypic and functional characteristics unconventional T-lymphocytes such as invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells link the innate and adaptive immune responses. Up to now data are scarce about their involvement in pulmonary disorders including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study explores simultaneously the frequencies of iNKT and MAIT cells in the peripheral blood and sputum of stable and exacerbating COPD patients...
November 28, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176983/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-new-insights-into-antigen-recognition-and-activation
#8
REVIEW
Xingxing Xiao, Jianping Cai
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a novel subpopulation of innate-like T cells that express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR)α chain and a diverse TCRβ chain, can recognize a distinct set of small molecules, vitamin B metabolites, derived from some bacteria, fungi but not viruses, in the context of an evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex-related molecule 1 (MR1). This implies that MAIT cells may play unique and important roles in host immunity. Although viral antigens are not recognized by this limited TCR repertoire, MAIT cells are known to be activated in a TCR-independent mechanism during some viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus and influenza virus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167178/mait-cells-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-alcoholic-liver-disease
#9
EDITORIAL
Bin Gao, Jing Ma, Xiaogang Xiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144503/mait-cells-in-type-1-diabetes-a-good-friend-turned-bad
#10
Lina Petersone, Lucy S K Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119385/intestinal-permeabiliy-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#11
REVIEW
M C Buscarinu, S Romano, R Mechelli, R Pizzolato Umeton, M Ferraldeschi, A Fornasiero, R Reniè, B Cerasoli, E Morena, C Romano, N D Loizzo, R Umeton, M Salvetti, G Ristori
Changes of intestinal permeability (IP) have been extensively investigated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease (CD), underpinned by a known unbalance between microbiota, IP and immune responses in the gut. Recently the influence of IP on brain function has greatly been appreciated. Previous works showed an increased IP that preceded experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development and worsened during disease with disruption of TJ. Moreover, studying co-morbidity between Crohn's disease and MS, a report described increased IP in a minority of cases with MS...
November 8, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106304/role-of-mait-cells-in-the-immunopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-diseases-new-players-in-old-game
#12
Vijay Kumar, Ali Ahmad
Current advances in immunology have led to the identification of a population of novel innate immune T cells, called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. The cells in humans express an invariant TCRα chain (Vα7.2-Jα33) paired with a limited subset of TCRβ chains (Vβ2, 13 and 22), are restricted by the MHC class I (MH1)-related (MR)-1, and recognize molecules that are produced in the bacterial riboflavin (vitamin B2) biosynthetic pathway. They are present in the circulation, liver and at various mucosal sites (i...
November 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097439/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-link-intestinal-immunity-with-antibacterial-immune-defects-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#13
Antonio Riva, Vishal Patel, Ayako Kurioka, Hannah C Jeffery, Gavin Wright, Sarah Tarff, Debbie Shawcross, Jennifer M Ryan, Alexander Evans, Sarah Azarian, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Vinood Patel, Kosha Mehta, Carlos Lopez, Marieta Simonova, Krum Katzarov, Tanya Hadzhiolova, Slava Pavlova, Julia A Wendon, Ye Htun Oo, Paul Klenerman, Roger Williams, Shilpa Chokshi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestinal permeability with systemic distribution of bacterial products are central in the immunopathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), yet links with intestinal immunity remain elusive. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in liver, blood and intestinal mucosa and are a key component of antibacterial host defences. Their role in ALD is unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: We analysed frequency, phenotype, transcriptional regulation and function of blood MAIT cells in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC) and healthy controls (HC)...
November 2, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078818/the-human-lncrna-linc-pint-inhibits-tumor-cell-invasion-through-a-highly-conserved-sequence-element
#14
Oskar Marín-Béjar, Aina M Mas, Jovanna González, Dannys Martinez, Alejandro Athie, Xabier Morales, Mikel Galduroz, Ivan Raimondi, Elena Grossi, Shuling Guo, Ana Rouzaut, Igor Ulitsky, Maite Huarte
BACKGROUND: It is now obvious that the majority of cellular transcripts do not code for proteins, and a significant subset of them are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Many lncRNAs show aberrant expression in cancer, and some of them have been linked to cell transformation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and it is unknown how the sequences of lncRNA dictate their function. RESULTS: Here we characterize the function of the p53-regulated human lncRNA LINC-PINT in cancer...
October 27, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075255/il-17-production-from-t-helper-17-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cells-in-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease
#15
Felicity Coulter, Amy Parrish, Declan Manning, Beate Kampmann, Joseph Mendy, Mathieu Garand, David M Lewinsohn, Eleanor M Riley, Jayne S Sutherland
IL-17-producing cells have been shown to be important in the early stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in animal models. However, there are very little data on the role of IL-17 in human studies of tuberculosis (TB). We recruited TB patients and their highly exposed contacts who were further categorized based on results from an IFN-γ-release assay (IGRA): (1) IGRA positive (IGRA(+)) at recruitment (latently TB infected), (2) IGRA negative (IGRA(-)) at recruitment and 6 months [non-converters (NC)], and (3) IGRA(-) at recruitment and IGRA(+) at 6 months (converters)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052767/acute-regulation-of-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-2-localization-and-activity-by-camp-and-estradiol-17%C3%AE-d-glucuronide-in-rat-intestine-and-caco-2-cells
#16
Guillermo Nicolás Tocchetti, Agostina Arias, Maite Rocío Arana, Juan Pablo Rigalli, Camila Juliana Domínguez, Felipe Zecchinati, María Laura Ruiz, Silvina Stella Maris Villanueva, Aldo Domingo Mottino
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) is an ATP-dependent transporter expressed at the brush border membrane of the enterocyte that confers protection against absorption of toxicants from foods or bile. Acute, short-term regulation of intestinal MRP2 activity involving changes in its apical membrane localization was poorly explored. We evaluated the effects of dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP), a permeable analog of cAMP, and estradiol-17β-D-glucuronide (E217G), an endogenous derivative of estradiol, on MRP2 localization and activity using isolated rat intestinal sacs and Caco-2 cells, a model of human intestinal epithelium...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046484/t-cells-expressing-chimeric-antigen-receptor-promote-immune-tolerance
#17
Antonio Pierini, Bettina P Iliopoulou, Heshan Peiris, Magdiel Pérez-Cruz, Jeanette Baker, Katie Hsu, Xueying Gu, Ping-Ping Zheng, Tom Erkers, Sai-Wen Tang, William Strober, Maite Alvarez, Aaron Ring, Andrea Velardi, Robert S Negrin, Seung K Kim, Everett H Meyer
Cellular therapies based on permanent genetic modification of conventional T cells have emerged as a promising strategy for cancer. However, it remains unknown if modification of T cell subsets, such as Tregs, could be useful in other settings, such as allograft transplantation. Here, we use a modular system based on a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that binds covalently modified mAbs to control Treg activation in vivo. Transient expression of this mAb-directed CAR (mAbCAR) in Tregs permitted Treg targeting to specific tissue sites and mitigated allograft responses, such as graft-versus-host disease...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042861/corrigendum-natural-killer-cells-from-patients-with-recombinase-activating-gene-and-non-homologous-end-joining-gene-defects-comprise-a-higher-frequency-of-cd56-bright-nkg2a-cells-and-yet-display-increased-degranulation-and-higher-perforin-content
#18
Kerry Dobbs, Giovanna Tabellini, Enrica Calzoni, Ornella Patrizi, Paula Martinez, Silvia Clara Giliani, Daniele Moratto, Waleed Al-Herz, Caterina Cancrini, Morton Cowan, Jacob Bleesing, Claire Booth, David Buchbinder, Siobhan O Burns, Talal A Chatila, Janet Chou, Vanessa Daza-Cajigal, Lisa M Ott de Bruin, Maite Teresa de la Morena, Gigliola Di Matteo, Andrea Finocchi, Raif Geha, Rakesh K Goyal, Anthony Hayward, Steven Holland, Chiung-Hui Huang, Maria G Kanariou, Alejandra King, Blanka Kaplan, Anastasiya Kleva, Taco W Kuijpers, Bee Wah Lee, Vassilios Lougaris, Michel Massaad, Isabelle Meyts, Megan Morsheimer, Benedicte Neven, Sung-Yun Pai, Nima Parvaneh, Alessandro Plebani, Susan Prockop, Ismail Reisli, Jian Yi Soh, Raz Somech, Troy R Torgerson, Yae-Jean Kim, Jolan E Walter, Andrew R Gennery, Sevgi Keles, John P Manis, Emanuela Marcenaro, Alessandro Moretta, Silvia Parolini, Luigi D Notarangelo
[This corrects the article on p. 798 in vol. 8, PMID: 28769923.].
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024803/graft-derived-reconstitution-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#19
Abir Bhattacharyya, Laïla-Aïcha Hanafi, Alyssa Sheih, Jonathan L Golob, Sujatha Srinivasan, Michael J Boeckh, Steven A Pergam, Sajid Mahmood, Kelsey K Baker, Ted A Gooley, Filippo Milano, David N Fredricks, Stanley R Riddell, Cameron J Turtle
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express a semi-invariant Vα7.2(+) TCR that recognizes ligands from distinct bacterial and fungal species. In neonates, MAIT cells proliferate coincident with gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial colonization. In contrast, under noninflammatory conditions adult MAIT cells remain quiescent because of acquired regulation of TCR signaling. Effects of inflammation and the altered GI microbiota after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on MAIT cell reconstitution have not been described...
October 9, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022498/atp-binding-cassette-exporters-structure-and-mechanism-with-a-focus-on-p-glycoprotein-and-mrp1
#20
Maite Rocío Arana, Guillermo Altenberg
The majority of proteins that belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily are transporters that mediate the efflux of substrates from cells. These exporters include multidrug resistance proteins of the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and MRP1, respectively. These proteins are not only involved in the resistance of cancer to cytotoxic agents, but also in the protection from endo and xenobiotics, and the determination of drug pharmacokinetics, as well as in the pathophysiology of a variety of disorders...
October 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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