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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807929/human-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-mait-cells-possess-capacity-for-b-cell-help
#1
Michael S Bennett, Shubhanshi Trivedi, Anita S Iyer, J Scott Hale, Daniel T Leung
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate-like T-cell subset, restricted by the nonclassic MHC class I-related protein MR1 and enriched at mucosal sites. Human studies have shown an association between MAIT cells and pathogen-specific antibody responses. In this study, we investigate the effect of human MAIT cells on B cells ex vivo. We found that supernatants from microbe- or cytokine-stimulated MAIT cells, when added to purified autologous B cells, increase frequencies of plasmablasts and promote IgA, IgG, and IgM production...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798979/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-infiltrate-hepatic-metastases-in-patients-with-colorectal-carcinoma-but-are-rendered-dysfunctional-within-and-adjacent-to-tumor-microenvironment
#2
Christopher R Shaler, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Anton I Skaro, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Alexandra J Corbett, Tina Mele, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that are unusually abundant in the human liver, a common site of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) metastasis. However, whether they contribute to immune surveillance against colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) is essentially unexplored. In addition, whether MAIT cell functions can be impacted by chemotherapy is unclear. These are important questions given MAIT cells' potent immunomodulatory and inflammatory properties. Herein, we examined the frequencies and functions of peripheral blood, healthy liver tissue, tumor-margin and tumor-infiltrating MAIT cells in 21 CRLM patients who received no chemotherapy, FOLFOX, or a combination of FOLFOX and Avastin before they underwent liver resection...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792648/mait-cell-frequency-and-function-in-blood-and-liver-of-hcv-mono-and-hcv-hiv-co-infected-patients-with-advanced-fibrosis
#3
Boris J B Beudeker, Gertine W van Oord, Joop E Arends, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Marieke S van der Heide, Robert J de Knegt, Annelies Verbon, Andre Boonstra, Mark A A Claassen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are important innate T-cells with anti-microbial and immunoregulatory activity, recently found to be depleted in blood of patients with HIV and HCV mono-infections. In this study, we assessed the impact of HIV, HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection on circulating and intrahepatic MAIT-cells and correlations with liver fibrosis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 9 healthy subjects, 9 HIV, 20 HCV and 22 HCV/HIV co-infected patients were included...
August 9, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789524/glucuronidated-flavonoids-in-neurological-protection-structural-analysis-and-approaches-for-chemical-and-biological-synthesis
#4
Maite Docampo, Adiji Olubu, Xiaoqiang Wang, Giulio Pasinetti, Richard A Dixon
Both plant and mammalian cells express glucuronosyltransferases that catalyze glucuronidation of polyphenols such as flavonoids and other small molecules. Oral administration of select polyphenolic compounds leads to the accumulation of the corresponding glucuronidated metabolites at μM and sub-μM concentrations in the brain, associated with amelioration of a range of neurological symptoms. Determining the mechanisms whereby botanical extracts impact cognitive wellbeing and psychological resiliency will require investigation of the modes of action of the brain-targeted metabolites...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780074/intra-hepatic-depletion-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-liver-inflammation
#5
Fabian J Bolte, Ashley C O'Keefe, Lauren M Webb, Elisavet Serti, Elenita Rivera, T Jake Liang, Marc Ghany, Barbara Rehermann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic hepatitis affects phenotypes of innate and adaptive immune cells. Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the liver as compared to the blood, respond to intra-hepatic cytokines, and (via the semi-invariant T-cell receptor) to bacteria translocated from the gut. Little is known about the role of MAIT cells in livers of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and their fate after antiviral therapy. METHODS: We collected blood samples from 42 patients with chronic HCV infection who achieved a sustained virologic response after 12 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir...
August 2, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761175/rock1-is-a-novel-rac1-effector-to-regulate-tubular-endocytic-membrane-formation-during-clathrin-independent-endocytosis
#6
David Soriano-Castell, Albert Chavero, Carles Rentero, Marta Bosch, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Albert Pol, Carlos Enrich, Francesc Tebar
Clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways contribute for β1-integrin endocytosis. This study defines a tubular membrane clathrin-independent endocytic network, induced with the calmodulin inhibitor W13, for β1-integrin internalization. This pathway is dependent on increased phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels and dynamin activity at the plasma membrane. Exogenous addition of PI(4,5)P2 or phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) expression mimicked W13-generated-tubules which are inhibited by active Rac1...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756336/tnf%C3%AE-and-il-1%C3%AE-in-the-synovial-fluid-facilitate-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-mait-cell-migration
#7
Miok Kim, Su-Jin Yoo, Seong Wook Kang, Jaeyul Kwon, Inpyo Choi, Chang Hoon Lee
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that primarily affect the joints and inflammatory cell migration into inflamed articular sites contribute to this disease. Among the inflammatory cells, human mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells were recently recognized as critical cellular component with a pathological role in RA. However, their migratory characteristics are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether human MAIT cells preferentially traffick to inflamed synovial sites in rheumatoid arthritis patients and to elucidate the underlying mechanism...
July 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750261/mait-cells-in-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Marion Salou, Katarzyna Franciszkiewicz, Olivier Lantz
In humans, MAIT cells represent the most abundant T cell subset reacting against bacteria. Their frequency in the blood is decreased in a large variety of infectious diseases of either bacterial or viral origin. MAIT cells accumulate at the site of bacterial infection and are protective in experimental infection models. Recent epidemiological evidence supports an implication of MAIT cells in protecting against tuberculosis. MAIT cells can be activated either through direct recognition of microbial ligands or by inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-18...
July 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742082/bacterial-deception-of-mait-cells-in-a-cloud-of-superantigen-and-cytokines
#9
Johan K Sandberg, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Edwin Leeansyah
The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of the life-threatening condition toxic shock syndrome in humans. Bacterial toxins known as superantigens (SAgs) generate this illness by acting as broad activators of a substantial fraction of all T lymphocytes, bypassing the normally highly stringent T-cell receptor antigen specificity to cause a systemic inflammatory cytokine storm in the host. In a new study, Shaler et al. found that immune cells called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells make an unexpectedly large contribution to the SAg response in a largely T-cell receptor-independent, cytokine-driven manner...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733576/mait-cells-accumulate-in-placental-intervillous-space-and-display-a-highly-cytotoxic-phenotype-upon-bacterial-stimulation
#10
Martin Solders, Laia Gorchs, Tom Erkers, Anna-Carin Lundell, Silvia Nava, Sebastian Gidlöf, Eleonor Tiblad, Isabelle Magalhaes, Helen Kaipe
During pregnancy, the maternal immune system must tolerate the developing foetus, and yet retain a potent antimicrobial response to prevent infections. Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells recognize microbial-derived vitamin B metabolites presented on the MR1 molecule, but their presence and function at the foetal-maternal interface is not known. We here isolated mononuclear cells from paired samples of peripheral blood (PB), intervillous blood (IVB), and decidua parietalis (DP) following uncomplicated term pregnancies...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727155/mucosal-associated-invariant-mait-cells-are-deficient-in-systemic-sclerosis
#11
Arsène Mekinian, Thibaut Mahevas, Mohamad Mohty, Vincent Jachiet, Sébastien Rivière, Olivier Fain, Béatrice Gaugler
OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by fibrosis of the skin and other organs, vascular impairment and deficient immune responses. Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT) cells have been involved in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of MAIT cells in the blood of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to compare their distribution in the different types of SSc. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples from SSc patients and healthy controls were examined by flow cytometer to analyze the frequencies of MAIT and γδ T cells...
July 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722722/mait-cell-heterogeneity
#12
Zoltan Fehervari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711627/vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-and-mast-cells-regulate-increased-passage-of-colonic-bacteria-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
Olga Bednarska, Susanna A Walter, Maite Casado-Bedmar, Magnus Ström, Eloísa Salvo-Romero, Maria Vicario, Emeran A Mayer, Åsa V Keita
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and symptoms of IBS develop following gastroenteritis. We aimed to study passage of live bacteria through the colonic epithelium, and determine the role of mast cells and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in barrier regulation in IBS and healthy individuals. METHODS: Colon biopsies from 32 women with IBS and 15 age-matched healthy women (controls) were mounted in Ussing chambers; we measured numbers of fluorescently labeled Escherichia coli HS and Salmonella typhimurium that passed through from the mucosal side to the serosal side of the tissue...
July 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701771/myosin-1b-and-f-actin-are-involved-in-the-control-of-secretory-granule-biogenesis
#14
Charlène Delestre-Delacour, Ophélie Carmon, Fanny Laguerre, Catherine Estay-Ahumada, Maïté Courel, Salah Elias, Lydie Jeandel, Margarita Villar Rayo, Juan R Peinado, Lucie Sengmanivong, Stéphane Gasman, Evelyne Coudrier, Youssef Anouar, Maité Montero-Hadjadje
Hormone secretion relies on secretory granules which store hormones in endocrine cells and release them upon cell stimulation. The molecular events leading to hormone sorting and secretory granule formation at the level of the TGN are still elusive. Our proteomic analysis of purified whole secretory granules or secretory granule membranes uncovered their association with the actomyosin components myosin 1b, actin and the actin nucleation complex Arp2/3. We found that myosin 1b controls the formation of secretory granules and the associated regulated secretion in both neuroendocrine cells and chromogranin A-expressing COS7 cells used as a simplified model of induced secretion...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688841/how-mr1-presents-a-pathogen-metabolic-signature-to-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-mait-cells
#15
REVIEW
Hamish E G McWilliam, Jose A Villadangos
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes restricted by the antigen (Ag)-presenting molecule MHC class I (MHC I)-related protein 1 (MR1). The Ags presented by MR1 are vitamin B-related Ags (VitBAgs), 'building-block' metabolites of riboflavin that are synthesized by a range of microbes. MR1 presentation is thus a unique mechanism for the immune detection of a pathogen metabolic signature. While the full picture of how MR1 accomplishes this remains incomplete, recent data show that, unlike other MHC molecules, MR1 operates by a presentation-on-demand mechanism...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671343/inactivation-of-zika-virus-in-platelet-components-using-amotosalen-and-ultraviolet-a-illumination
#16
Felicia Santa Maria, Andrew Laughhunn, Marion C Lanteri, Maite Aubry, Didier Musso, Adonis Stassinopoulos
BACKGROUND: Concerned over the risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) transfusion transmission, public health agencies recommended the implementation of mitigation strategies for its prevention. Those strategies included the use of pathogen inactivation for the treatment of plasma and platelets. The efficacy of amotosalen/ultraviolet A to inactivate ZIKV in plasma had been previously demonstrated, and the efficacy of inactivation in platelets with the same technology was assumed. These studies quantify ZIKV inactivation in platelet components using amotosalen/ultraviolet A...
August 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#17
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
August 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#18
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630305/multiple-layers-of-heterogeneity-and-subset-diversity-in-human-mait-cell-responses-to-distinct-microorganisms-and-to-innate-cytokines
#19
Joana Dias, Edwin Leeansyah, Johan K Sandberg
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a large innate-like T-cell subset in humans defined by invariant TCR Vα7.2 use and expression of CD161. MAIT cells recognize microbial riboflavin metabolites of bacterial or fungal origin presented by the monomorphic MR1 molecule. The extraordinary level of evolutionary conservation of MR1 and the limited known diversity of riboflavin metabolite antigens have suggested that MAIT cells are relatively homogeneous and uniform in responses against diverse microbes carrying the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617821/supplementation-with-small-extracellular-vesicles-from-ovarian-follicular-fluid-during-in-vitro-production-modulates-bovine-embryo-development
#20
Juliano C da Silveira, Gabriella M Andrade, Maite Del Collado, Rafael V Sampaio, Juliano R Sangalli, Luciano A Silva, Fábio V L Pinaffi, Izabelle B Jardim, Marcelo C Cesar, Marcelo F G Nogueira, Aline S M Cesar, Luiz L Coutinho, Rinaldo W Pereira, Felipe Perecin, Flávio V Meirelles
Pregnancy success results from the interaction of multiple factors, among them are folliculogenesis and early embryonic development. Failure during these different processes can lead to difficulties in conception. Alternatives to overcome these problems are based on assisted reproductive techniques. Extracellular vesicles are cell-secreted vesicles present in different body fluids and contain bioactive materials, such as messenger RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), and proteins. Thus, our hypothesis is that extracellular vesicles from follicular fluid from 3-6 mm ovarian follicles can modulate bovine embryo development in vitro...
2017: PloS One
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