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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474814/method-for-simple-and-rapid-concentration-of-zika-virus-particles-from-infected-cell-culture-supernatants
#1
Vaea Richard, Maite Aubry
Experimental studies on Zika virus (ZIKV) may require improvement of infectious titers in viral stocks obtained by cell culture amplification. We highlight here the use of centrifugal filter devices to increase infectious titers of ZIKV from cell-culture supernatants. A mean gain of 2.33 ± 0.12 log10 DICT50 /mL was easily and rapidly obtained with this process. This efficient method of ultrafiltration may be applied to other viruses and be useful in various experimental studies requiring high viral titers...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471566/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-chronic-inflammatory-liver-disease
#2
Fabian J Bolte, Barbara Rehermann
The broadening field of microbiome research has led to a substantial reappraisal of the gut-liver axis and its role in chronic liver disease. The liver is a central immunologic organ that is continuously exposed to food and microbial-derived antigens from the gastrointestinal tract. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the human liver and can be activated by inflammatory cytokines and microbial antigens. In chronic inflammatory liver disease, MAIT cells are depleted suggesting an impaired MAIT cell-dependent protection against bacterial infections...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470597/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-malignancies-a-faithful-friend-or-formidable-foe
#3
REVIEW
S M Mansour Haeryfar, Christopher R Shaler, Patrick T Rudak
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a subset of innate-like T lymphocytes known for their ability to respond to MHC-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted stimuli and select cytokine signals. They are abundant in humans and especially enriched in mucosal layers, common sites of neoplastic transformation. MAIT cells have been found within primary and metastatic tumors. However, whether they promote malignancy or contribute to anticancer immunity is unclear. On the one hand, MAIT cells produce IL-17A in certain locations and under certain circumstances, which could in turn facilitate neoangiogenesis, intratumoral accumulation of immunosuppressive cell populations, and cancer progression...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469805/c-ebp%C3%AE-drives-interactions-between-human-mait-cells-and-endothelial-cells-that-are-important-for-extravasation
#4
Chang Hoon Lee, Hongwei H Zhang, Satya P Singh, Lily Koo, Juraj Kabat, Hsinyi Tsang, Tej Pratap Singh, Joshua M Farber
Many mediators and regulators of extravasation by bona fide human memory-phenotype T cells remain undefined. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like, anti-bacterial cells that we found excelled at crossing inflamed endothelium. They displayed abundant selectin ligands, with high expression of FUT7 and ST3GAL4 , and expressed CCR6, CCR5, and CCR2, which played non-redundant roles in trafficking on activated endothelial cells. MAIT cells selectively expressed CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ)...
February 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451704/mait-cells-and-microbial-immunity
#5
Erin W Meermeier, Melanie J Harriff, Elham Karamooz, David M Lewinsohn
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, the most abundant T cell subset in humans, are increasingly being recognized for their importance in microbial immunity. MAIT cells accumulate in almost every mucosal tissue examined, including the lung, liver, and intestinal tract, where they can be activated through T cell receptor (TCR) triggering as well as cytokine stimulation in response to a host of microbial products. In this review, we specifically discuss MAIT cell responses to bacterial and fungal infections, with a focus on responses that are both MR1-dependent and -independent, the evidence for diversity in MAIT TCR usage in response to discrete microbial products, protective immunity induced by MAIT cells, and MAIT cell antimicrobial functions in the context of these infections...
February 16, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437263/human-blood-mait-cell-subsets-defined-using-mr1-tetramers
#6
Nicholas A Gherardin, Michael N T Souter, Hui-Fern Koay, Kirstie M Mangas, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear, Sidonia B G Eckle, Stuart P Berzins, Yves d'Udekem, Igor E Konstantinov, David P Fairlie, David S Ritchie, Paul J Neeson, Daniel G Pellicci, Adam P Uldrich, James McCluskey, Dale I Godfrey
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent up to 10% of circulating human T-cells. They are usually defined using combinations of non-lineage-specific (surrogate) markers such as anti-TRAV1-2, CD161, IL-18Rα and CD26. The development of MR1-Ag tetramers now permits the specific identification of MAIT cells based on TCR specificity. Here, we compare these approaches for identifying MAIT cells and show that surrogate markers are not always accurate in identifying these cells, particularly the CD4 + fraction...
February 13, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436180/sweet-vector-for-gene-delivery-the-sugar-decoration-of-polyplexes-reduces-cytotoxicity-with-a-balanced-effect-on-gene-expression
#7
Lindomar J C Albuquerque, Alex C Alavarse, Maria C Carlan da Silva, Morgana S Zilse, Maitê T Barth, Ismael C Bellettini, Fernando C Giacomelli
The use of sugar-functionalized polyplexes as a nonviral gene delivery vector with lower cytotoxicity than the well-known polymeric carrier branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) is investigated. The substitution of primary amine groups in the BPEI chains with lactose residues leads to larger polyplexes, presumably due to the higher amount of polymer required to complete DNA condensation. Nevertheless, the sugar functionalization substantially reduces the cytotoxicity of the assemblies. The nanocomplexes are taken up by the cells to a greater extent, whereas the levels of gene expression are maintained compared to those obtained using BPEI, which is known for its excellent transfection efficiency...
February 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431692/development-of-asthma-in-inner-city-children-possible-roles-of-mait-cells-and-variation-in-the-home-environment
#8
Shilpi Chandra, Gerhard Wingender, Jason A Greenbaum, Archana Khurana, Amin M Gholami, Anusha-Preethi Ganesan, Michael Rosenbach, Katy Jaffee, James E Gern, Robert Wood, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Meyer Kattan, Leonard Bacharier, Alkis Togias, Anthony A Horner, Mitchell Kronenberg
Humans have populations of innate-like T lymphocytes with an invariant TCR α-chain that recognize nonpeptide Ags, including invariant NKT (iNKT) cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. iNKT cell involvement in human asthma is controversial, whereas there has been little analysis of MAIT cells. Using peripheral blood cells from 110 participants from the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) birth cohort study, these cells were analyzed for number and function. We determined whether iNKT cell or MAIT cell frequency at 1 y is correlated with the cytokine polarization of mainstream CD4+ T cells and/or the development of asthma by age 7 y...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429758/the-immunobiology-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cell-mait-function-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-regulation-by-cholic-acid-induced-interleukin-7
#9
Xiang Jiang, Min Lian, Yanmei Li, Weici Zhang, Qixia Wang, Yiran Wei, Jun Zhang, Weihua Chen, Xiao Xiao, Qi Miao, Zhaolian Bian, Dekai Qiu, Jingyuan Fang, Aftab A Ansari, Patrick S C Leung, Ross L Coppel, Ruqi Tang, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are novel innate-like T cells constituting a significant proportion of circulating and hepatic T cells. Herein, we extensively examine the phenotypical and functional alterations of MAIT cells and their regulation in a cohort of 56 patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) and 53 healthy controls (HC). Additionally alterations of MAIT cells were assessed before and after UDCA treatment. Finally the localization of MAIT cell in liver was examined using specific tetramer staining and the underlying mechanisms of these alterations in PBC were explored...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423939/human-mait-cells-show-metabolic-quiescence-with-rapid-glucose-dependent-upregulation-of-granzyme-b-upon-stimulation
#10
Madeleine E Zinser, Andrew J Highton, Ayako Kurioka, Barbara Kronsteiner, Joachim Hagel, Tianqi Leng, Emanuele Marchi, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Chris B Willberg, Susanna J Dunachie, Paul Klenerman
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a well-characterized innate-like T cell population abundant in the human liver, peripheral tissues and blood. MAIT cells serve in the first line of defense against infections, through engagement of their T cell receptor, which recognizes microbial metabolites presented on MR1, and through cytokine-mediated triggering. Typically, they show a quiescent memory phenotype but can undergo rapid up-regulation of effector functions including cytolysis upon stimulation...
February 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414888/mass-spectrometry-based-proteomic-profiling-of-thrombotic-material-obtained-by-endovascular-thrombectomy-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#11
Roberto Muñoz, Enrique Santamaría, Idoya Rubio, Karina Ausín, Aiora Ostolaza, Alberto Labarga, Miren Roldán, Beatriz Zandio, Sergio Mayor, Rebeca Bermejo, Mónica Mendigaña, María Herrera, Nuria Aymerich, Jorge Olier, Jaime Gállego, Maite Mendioroz, Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen
Thrombotic material retrieved from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients represents a valuable source of biological information. In this study, we have developed a clinical proteomics workflow to characterize the protein cargo of thrombi derived from AIS patients. To analyze the thrombus proteome in a large-scale format, we developed a workflow that combines the isolation of thrombus by endovascular thrombectomy and peptide chromatographic fractionation coupled to mass-spectrometry. Using this workflow, we have characterized a specific proteomic expression profile derived from four AIS patients included in this study...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405379/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-autoimmune-and-immune-mediated-diseases
#12
Ophélie Rouxel, Agnès Lehuen
Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases have complex etiologies not fully understood. Both innate and adaptive immune cells are involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Mucosal-associated invariant (MAI)T cells express an invariant TCRα chain (Vα7.2-Jα33 in humans and Vα19-Jα33 in mice) and recognize the conserved MHC-I related molecule MR1 presenting bacterial metabolites derived from the synthesis of vitamin B. MAIT cells harbor tissue homing properties and produce inflammatory cytokines suggesting that MAIT cells may play a key role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases...
February 6, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401462/synthesis-stabilization-and-characterization-of-the-mr1-ligand-precursor-5-amino-6-d-ribitylaminouracil-5-a-ru
#13
Kelin Li, Charles K Vorkas, Ashutosh Chaudhry, Donielle L Bell, Richard A Willis, Alexander Rudensky, John D Altman, Michael S Glickman, Jeffrey Aubé
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an abundant class of innate T cells restricted by the MHC I-related molecule MR1. MAIT cells can recognize bacterially-derived metabolic intermediates from the riboflavin pathway presented by MR1 and are postulated to play a role in innate antibacterial immunity through production of cytokines and direct bacterial killing. MR1 tetramers, typically stabilized by the adduct of 5-amino-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (5-A-RU) and methylglyoxal (MeG), are important tools for the study of MAIT cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395832/combinatorial-transcriptional-control-of-plant-specialized-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
Maite Colinas, Alain Goossens
Plants produce countless specialized compounds of diverse chemical nature and biological activities. Their biosynthesis often exclusively occurs either in response to environmental stresses or is limited to dedicated anatomical structures. In both scenarios, regulation of biosynthesis appears to be mainly controlled at the transcriptional level, which is generally dependent on a combined interplay of DNA-related mechanisms and the activity of transcription factors that may act in a combinatorial manner. How environmental and developmental cues are integrated into a coordinated cell type-specific stress response has only partially been unraveled so far...
January 29, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393543/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cell-receptor-recognition-of-small-molecules-presented-by-mr1
#15
REVIEW
Wael Awad, Jérôme Le Nours, Lars Kjer-Nielsen, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I related molecule MR1 is a monomorphic and evolutionary conserved antigen (Ag)-presenting molecule that shares the overall architecture of MHC-I and CD1 proteins. However, in contrast to MHC-I and the CD1 family that present peptides and lipids, respectively, MR1 specifically presents small organic molecules. During microbial infection of mammalian cells, MR1 captures and presents vitamin B precursors, derived from the microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin, on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs)...
February 2, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382302/clinical-management-and-outcome-of-patients-with-advanced-nsclc-carrying-egfr-mutations-in-spain
#16
Edurne Arriola, Ramón García Gómez, Pilar Diz, Margarita Majem, Maite Martínez Aguillo, Javier Valdivia, Alfredo Paredes, José Miguel Sánchez-Torres, Sergio Peralta Muñoz, Isidoro Barneto, Vanesa Gutierrez, Jesús Manuel Andrade Santiago, Francisco Aparisi, Dolores Isla, Santiago Ponce, David Vicente Baz, Angel Artal, Mariluz Amador, Mariano Provencio
BACKGROUND: Although the benefit of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) over chemotherapy has been demonstrated in several clinical trials, data from clinical practice is lacking and the optimal EGFR TKI to be used remains unclear. This study aims to assess the real-life diagnostic and clinical management and outcome of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying EGFR mutations in Spain. METHODS: All consecutive patients recently diagnosed with advanced or metastatic NSCLC from April 2010 to December 2011 in 18 Spanish hospitals and carrying EGFR mutations were retrospectively evaluated...
January 30, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381689/geriatric-assessment-may-help-decision-making-in-elderly-patients-with-inoperable-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Maite Antonio, Juana Saldaña, Jennifer Linares, José C Ruffinelli, Ramón Palmero, Arturo Navarro, Maria Dolores Arnaiz, Isabel Brao, Samantha Aso, Susana Padrones, Valentí Navarro, Jesús González-Barboteo, Josep Maria Borràs, Felipe Cardenal, Ernest Nadal
BACKGROUND: Although concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) increases survival in patients with inoperable, locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there is no consensus on the treatment of elderly patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and its ability to predict toxicity in this setting. METHODS: We enrolled 85 consecutive elderly (⩾75 years) participants, who underwent CGA and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13)...
January 30, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378910/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-augment-immunopathology-and-gastritis-in-chronic-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#18
Criselle D'Souza, Troi Pediongco, Huimeng Wang, Jean-Pierre Y Scheerlinck, Lyudmila Kostenko, Robyn Esterbauer, Andrew W Stent, Sidonia B G Eckle, Bronwyn S Meehan, Richard A Strugnell, Hanwei Cao, Ligong Liu, Jeffrey Y W Mak, George Lovrecz, Louis Lu, David P Fairlie, Jamie Rossjohn, James McCluskey, Alison L Every, Zhenjun Chen, Alexandra J Corbett
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells produce inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic granzymes in response to by-products of microbial riboflavin synthesis. Although MAIT cells are protective against some pathogens, we reasoned that they might contribute to pathology in chronic bacterial infection. We observed MAIT cells in proximity to Helicobacter pylori bacteria in human gastric tissue, and so, using MR1-tetramers, we examined whether MAIT cells contribute to chronic gastritis in a mouse H. pylori SS1 infection model...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369165/il-7-treatment-supports-cd8-mait-cell-restoration-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-on-art
#19
Ornella Sortino, Elizabeth Richards, Joana Dias, Edwin Leeansyah, Johan K Sandberg, Irini Sereti
: Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with lower frequencies and functional impairment of mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. We evaluated IL-7 treatment to restore MAIT cells in peripheral blood of chronically HIV-1 infected individuals on ART. IL-7 led to increased relative and absolute levels of MAIT cells and this expansion occurred primarily in the CD8+ subset. These results suggest that IL-7 may represent a therapeutic intervention for the restoration of MAIT cells in chronic HIV-1 infection...
January 23, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363173/mait-cells-an-historical-and-evolutionary-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Olivier Lantz, François Legoux
In humans, MAIT cells represent the most abundant T-cell subset reacting against bacteria. MAIT cells belong to the evolutionarily conserved family of "preset" T cells that includes also NKT cells. Both subsets are selected by double positive thymocytes leading to common features such as PLZF expression. Preset T cells correspond to subsets prepositioned in specific tissue locations with preprogrammed versatile effector functions such as antimicrobial functions and possibly also metabolic control and tissue repair activity...
December 27, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
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