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perceptual illusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450832/perceptual-modification-of-the-built-environment-to-influence-behavior-associated-with-physical-activity-quasi-experimental-field-studies-of-a-stair-banister-illusion
#1
Rich Masters, Catherine Capio, Jamie Poolton, Liis Uiga
BACKGROUND: Re-engineering the built environment to influence behaviors associated with physical activity potentially provides an opportunity to promote healthier lifestyles at a population level. Here we present evidence from two quasi-experimental field studies in which we tested a novel, yet deceptively simple, intervention designed to alter perception of, and walking behavior associated with, stairs in an urban area. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine whether adjusting a stair banister has an influence on perceptions of stair steepness or on walking behavior when approaching the stairs...
February 15, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447183/a-mass-density-model-can-account-for-the-size-weight-illusion
#2
Christian Wolf, Wouter M Bergmann Tiest, Knut Drewing
When judging the heaviness of two objects with equal mass, people perceive the smaller and denser of the two as being heavier. Despite the large number of theories, covering bottom-up and top-down approaches, none of them can fully account for all aspects of this size-weight illusion and thus for human heaviness perception. Here we propose a new maximum-likelihood estimation model which describes the illusion as the weighted average of two heaviness estimates with correlated noise: One estimate derived from the object's mass, and the other from the object's density, with estimates' weights based on their relative reliabilities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431259/the-snow-tire-illusion-different-levels-of-perceptual-assimilation-across-a-single-stimulus-configuration
#3
Tanja Gulan, Pavle Valerjev, Marin Dujmović
While observing a specific traffic sign in the field, we noticed an apparent distortion of size and shape of the circle that contained the sign. This novel illusion manifests as a distortion of the horizontal compared to the vertical dimension of the sign. The illusion seems to be underlined by similar mechanisms to those in the Delboeuf illusion. The aim of our study was to determine the existence and magnitude of the snow tire illusion. We conducted two experiments using the method of constant stimuli. The first experiment was conducted on the standard sign, while in the second, the stimuli were rotated 90° counterclockwise...
February 12, 2018: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430753/reduced-low-frequency-power-and-phase-locking-reflect-restoration-in-the-auditory-continuity-illusion
#4
Mathis Kaiser, Daniel Senkowski, Yadira Roa Romero, Lars Riecke, Julian Keil
Interruptions in auditory input can be perceptually restored if they coincide with a masking sound, resulting in a continuity illusion. Previous studies have shown that this continuity illusion is associated with reduced low-frequency neural oscillations in the auditory cortex. However, the precise contribution of oscillatory amplitude changes and phase alignment to auditory restoration remains unclear. Using electroencephalography, we investigated induced power changes and phase locking in response to 3 Hz amplitude-modulated tones during the interval of an interrupting noise...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426819/offenders-become-the-victim-in-virtual-reality-impact-of-changing-perspective-in-domestic-violence
#5
S Seinfeld, J Arroyo-Palacios, G Iruretagoyena, R Hortensius, L E Zapata, D Borland, B de Gelder, M Slater, M V Sanchez-Vives
The role of empathy and perspective-taking in preventing aggressive behaviors has been highlighted in several theoretical models. In this study, we used immersive virtual reality to induce a full body ownership illusion that allows offenders to be in the body of a victim of domestic abuse. A group of male domestic violence offenders and a control group without a history of violence experienced a virtual scene of abuse in first-person perspective. During the virtual encounter, the participants' real bodies were replaced with a life-sized virtual female body that moved synchronously with their own real movements...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407592/spontaneous-imitative-movements-induced-by-an-illusory-embodied-fake-hand
#6
Satoshi Shibuya, Satoshi Unenaka, Takuro Zama, Sotaro Shimada, Yukari Ohki
In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), individuals perceive a fake hand as their own when the hidden real hand and visible fake hand are synchronously stroked. Several RHI studies have reported that visual manipulation of the embodied fake hand inversely affects the perceptual processing of the observer's own hand (e.g., thermal or pain sensitivity). In this study, we examined whether motor manipulation of the fake hand similarly affects the observer's motor system. Our study employed a novel RHI paradigm wherein stroking was interrupted by unexpected movement of the fake hand (i...
February 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398218/a-perceptual-inference-mechanism-for-hallucinations-linked-to-striatal-dopamine
#7
Clifford M Cassidy, Peter D Balsam, Jodi J Weinstein, Rachel J Rosengard, Mark Slifstein, Nathaniel D Daw, Anissa Abi-Dargham, Guillermo Horga
Hallucinations, a cardinal feature of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, are known to depend on excessive striatal dopamine. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine dysregulation and the experience of hallucinatory percepts remains elusive. Bayesian models explain perception as an optimal combination of prior expectations and new sensory evidence, where perceptual distortions such as illusions and hallucinations may occur if prior expectations are afforded excessive weight. Such excessive weight of prior expectations, in turn, could stem from a gain-control process controlled by neuromodulators such as dopamine...
February 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369683/tool-use-changes-the-spatial-extension-of-the-magnetic-touch-illusion
#8
Arvid Guterstam, Joanna Szczotka, Hugo Zeberg, H Henrik Ehrsson
Characterizing the brain mechanisms that allow humans to use tools to interact with the environment is a major goal in neuroscience. It has been proposed that handheld tools are incorporated into the multisensory representation of the body and its surrounding (peripersonal) space, underlying our remarkable tool use ability. One single-cell recording study in tool-using monkeys provided qualitative support for this hypothesis, and the results from a vast number of human studies employing different experimental paradigms have been ambiguous...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358371/tactile-distance-illusions-reflect-a-coherent-stretch-of-tactile-space
#9
Federico Fiori, Matthew R Longo
Illusions of the perception of distance between two touches on the skin have been described since the classic work of Weber in the 19th century. The perceptual mechanisms underlying such spatial distortions, however, remain poorly understood. One potential interpretation is that the representational space of touch is related to the true structure of the skin by a geometrically simple stretch. If distortions of tactile distance perception reflect a simple stretch of tactile space, perceived distance should vary predictably as a function of the orientation of the stimulus on the skin, showing a sinusoidal pattern...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289928/tool-use-produces-a-size-illusion-revealing-action-specific-perceptual-mechanisms
#10
Jihyun Suh, Richard A Abrams
In four experiments, participants estimated the sizes of target objects that were either out of reach, or that could be reached by a tool (a stylus or laser pointer). Objects reachable with the aid of a tool were perceived to be smaller than identical objects without a tool. Participants' responses to questioning rule out demand characteristics as an explanation. This new size illusion may reflect a direct impact of tool use on perceived size, or it may stem from the effects of tool use on perceived distance...
December 28, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289094/musical-and-linguistic-listening-modes-in-the-speech-to-song-illusion-bias-timing-perception-and-absolute-pitch-memory
#11
Emily Graber, Rhimmon Simchy-Gross, Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis
The speech-to-song (STS) illusion is a phenomenon in which some spoken utterances perceptually transform to song after repetition [Deutsch, Henthorn, and Lapidis (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 2245-2252]. Tierney, Dick, Deutsch, and Sereno [(2013). Cereb. Cortex. 23, 249-254] developed a set of stimuli where half tend to transform to perceived song with repetition and half do not. Those that transform and those that do not can be understood to induce a musical or linguistic mode of listening, respectively...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282487/temporal-ventriloquism-along-the-path-of-apparent-motion-speed-perception-under-different-spatial-grouping-principles
#12
Cansu Ogulmus, Merve Karacaoglu, Hulusi Kafaligonul
The coordination of intramodal perceptual grouping and crossmodal interactions plays a critical role in constructing coherent multisensory percepts. However, the basic principles underlying such coordinating mechanisms still remain unclear. By taking advantage of an illusion called temporal ventriloquism and its influences on perceived speed, we investigated how audiovisual interactions in time are modulated by the spatial grouping principles of vision. In our experiments, we manipulated the spatial grouping principles of proximity, uniform connectedness, and similarity/common fate in apparent motion displays...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280049/attention-without-awareness-attentional-modulation-of-perceptual-grouping-without-awareness
#13
Shih-Yu Lo
Perceptual grouping is the process through which the perceptual system combines local stimuli into a more global perceptual unit. Previous studies have shown attention to be a modulatory factor for perceptual grouping. However, these studies mainly used explicit measurements, and, thus, whether attention can modulate perceptual grouping without awareness is still relatively unexplored. To clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping, the present study aims to explore how attention interacts with perceptual grouping without awareness...
December 26, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277305/stability-of-kinesthetic-perception-in-efferent-afferent-spaces-the-concept-of-iso-perceptual-manifold
#14
Mark L Latash
The main goal of this paper is to introduce the concept of iso-perceptual manifold for perception of body configuration and related variables (kinesthetic perception) and to discuss its relation to the equilibrium-point hypothesis and the concepts of reference coordinate and uncontrolled manifold. Hierarchical control of action is postulated with abundant transformations between sets of spatial reference coordinates for salient effectors at different levels. Iso-perceptual manifold is defined in the combined space of afferent and efferent variables as the subspace corresponding to a stable percept...
February 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250857/theta-oscillations-reflect-conflict-processing-in-the-perception-of-the-mcgurk-illusion
#15
Luis Morís Fernández, Mireia Torralba Cuello, Salvador Soto-Faraco
The McGurk illusion is one of the most famous illustrations of cross-modal integration in human perception. It has been often used as a proxy of audiovisual integration and to infer the properties of the integration process in natural (congruent) audiovisual conditions. Nonetheless, a blatant difference between McGurk stimuli and natural, congruent, audiovisual speech is the conflict between the auditory and the visual information in the former. Here we hypothesized that McGurk stimuli (and any audiovisual incongruency) engage brain responses similar to those found in more general cases of perceptual conflict (e...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243136/recalibration-of-hand-position-sense-during-unconscious-active-and-passive-movement
#16
Zakaryah Abdulkarim, H Henrik Ehrsson
Precise knowledge of one's limbs' position in space is fundamental for goal-directed action. The brain's representation of the body in space is thought to be generated through a process of multisensory integration of visual, tactile and proprioceptive signals. In this study, we devised a setup that allowed us to displace participants' right hand without their subjective awareness. We accomplished this task by instructing the participants to view a live video feed of their hand from the first-person perspective...
December 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213057/a-catch-up-illusion-arising-from-a-distance-dependent-perception-bias-in-judging-relative-movement
#17
Tobias Meilinger, Bärbel Garsoffky, Stephan Schwan
The perception of relative target movement from a dynamic observer is an unexamined psychological three body problem. To test the applicability of explanations for two moving bodies participants repeatedly judged the relative movements of two runners chasing each other in video clips displayed on a stationary screen. The chased person always ran at 3 m/s with an observer camera following or leading at 4.5, 3, 1.5 or 0 m/s. We harmonized the chaser speed in an adaptive staircase to determine the point of subjective equal movement speed between runners and observed (i) an underestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved towards the viewer, and (ii) an overestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved away from the viewer, leading to a catch-up illusion in case of equidistant runners...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167368/perception-of-contextual-size-illusions-by-honeybees-in-restricted-and-unrestricted-viewing-conditions
#18
Scarlett R Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair E Garcia, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adrian G Dyer
How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears to vary dramatically among vertebrate species, and even populations, but this may depend on whether the viewing distance is restricted. We tested whether honeybees perceive contextual size illusions, and whether errors in perception of size differed under restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151098/the-alice-in-wonderland-syndrome
#19
Douglas J Lanska, John R Lanska
In 1955, English psychiatrist John Todd defined the Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) as self-experienced paroxysmal body-image illusions involving distortions of the size, mass, or shape of the patient's own body or its position in space, often accompanied by depersonalization and/or derealization. AIWS had been described by American Neurologist Caro Lippman in 1952, but Todd's report was the most influential. Todd named the syndrome for the perceptual disorder of altered body image experienced by the protagonist in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151088/cotard-syndrome
#20
Sebastian Dieguez
Cotard's syndrome is often described as the delusional belief that one is dead or non-existent. However, Jules Cotard's initial description (1880) of the "delusion of negations" was much richer and also involved delusions and claims of immortality and enormity, feelings of damnation, and illusions of bodily dissolution and transformation. Alternatively conceived as an extreme case of depression, hypochondria, or psychosis, the condition is considered rare and remains poorly understood. Cotard himself provided a taxonomy and several explanations for the condition, focusing on its distinction from classical persecutory delusions and suggesting that it could be a kind of reversed grandiosity...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
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