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perceptual illusion

Hulusi Kafaligonul, Thomas D Albright, Gene R Stoner
The timing of brief stationary sounds has been shown to alter the perceived speed of visual apparent motion (AM), presumably by altering the perceived timing of the individual frames of the AM stimuli and/or the duration of the inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) between those frames. To investigate the neural correlates of this "temporal ventriloquism" illusion, we recorded spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity from area MT (the middle temporal area) in awake, fixating macaques. We found that the spiking activity of most MT neurons (but not the LFP) was tuned for the ISI/speed (these parameters co-varied) of our AM stimuli but that auditory timing had no effect on that tuning...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Helen Blank, Marlene Spangenberg, Matthew H Davis
Humans use prior expectations to improve perception, especially of sensory signals that are degraded or ambiguous. However, if sensory input deviates from prior expectations, correct perception depends on adjusting or rejecting prior expectations. Failure to adjust or reject the prior leads to perceptual illusions especially if there is partial overlap (hence partial mismatch) between expectations and input. With speech, "Slips of the ear" occur when expectations lead to misperception. For instance, a entomologist, might be more susceptible to hear "The ants are my friends" for "The answer, my friend" (in the Bob Dylan song "Blowing in the Wind")...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Noa Zitron-Emanuel, Tzvi Ganel
Hunger, caused by mild amount of food deprivation, is an everyday physiological state familiar to us all. Ongoing research has pinpointed the way hunger affects peoples' physiological functions as well as their attitudes and allocation of attention toward domain-specific, food-related objects. Yet, little is known about the way food deprivation affects basic perceptual abilities. Here, we utilized size-contrast visual illusions commonly associated with food to explore the way deprivation affects relative processing of food size...
June 6, 2018: Appetite
Laurie Geers, Mauro Pesenti, Michael Andres
How does the eye guide the hand in an ever-changing world? The perception-action model posits that visually-guided actions rely on object size estimates that are computed from an egocentric perspective independently of the visual context. Accordingly, adjusting grip aperture to object size should be resistant to illusions emerging from the contrast between a target and surrounding elements. However, experimental studies gave discrepant results that have remained difficult to explain so far. Visual and proprioceptive information of the acting hand are potential sources of ambiguity in previous studies because the on-line corrections they allow may contribute to masking the illusory effect...
June 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Cassandra J Brooks, Yu Man Chan, Andrew J Anderson, Allison M McKendrick
Within each sensory modality, age-related deficits in temporal perception contribute to the difficulties older adults experience when performing everyday tasks. Since perceptual experience is inherently multisensory, older adults also face the added challenge of appropriately integrating or segregating the auditory and visual cues present in our dynamic environment into coherent representations of distinct objects. As such, many studies have investigated how older adults perform when integrating temporal information across audition and vision...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tal Makovski
In many daily activities, we need to form and retain temporary representations of an object's size. Typically, such visual short-term memory (VSTM) representations follow perception and are considered reliable. Here, participants were asked to hold in mind a single simple object for a short duration and to reproduce its size by adjusting the length and width of a test probe. Experiment 1 revealed two powerful findings: First, similar to a recently reported perceptual illusion, participants greatly overestimated the size of open objects - ones with missing boundaries - relative to the same-size fully closed objects...
May 29, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Hiroshi Nitta, Haruto Tomita, Yi Zhang, Xinxin Zhou, Yuki Yamada
Heightened experience of disgust is a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), particularly contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). Previous studies of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) reported that the sense of body ownership is related to the interaction between vision, touch, and proprioception. One recent study demonstrated a link between the RHI and disgust, suggesting that there is an interaction between these three perceptual modalities and disgust (Jalal et al., PLOS ONE 10:e0139159, 2015). However, there have been no direct replications of this initial study...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Alberta Ipser, Maayan Karlinski, Elliot D Freeman
Sight and sound are out of synch in different people by different amounts for different tasks. But surprisingly, different concurrent measures of perceptual asynchrony correlate negatively (Freeman et al., 2013). Thus, if vision subjectively leads audition in one individual, the same individual might show a visual lag in other measures of audiovisual integration (e.g., McGurk illusion, Stream-Bounce illusion). This curious negative correlation was first observed between explicit temporal order judgments and implicit phoneme identification tasks, performed concurrently as a dual task, using incongruent McGurk stimuli...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Bat Sheva Hadad
This study examined the development of the utilization of contextual information in visuospatial integration during childhood. We examined four contextual size illusions in children and adults asking whether young children's sensitivity to context is reduced or varies with the perceptual mechanisms or the levels of integration involved. We tested susceptibility to contextual illusions in four-year-olds, seven-year-olds, and adults, employing two psychophysical paradigms, perceptual estimation and a 2AFC discrimination task...
April 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Meredith Lanska, Deanne Westerman
Stimuli that are fluently processed are more likely to be called "old" on a recognition memory test compared with less fluently processed stimuli. The goal of the current study was to investigate how the perceived diagnostic value of fluency is affected by a match between encoding and test conditions. During the encoding phase, participants engaged in different tasks designed to reflect different phonological processing requirements. On a later recognition test, the phonological fluency of some of the items was enhanced...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Manoj K Doss, Jamila K Picart, David A Gallo
It is widely assumed that context reinstatement benefits memory, but our experiments revealed that context reinstatement can systematically distort memory. Participants viewed pictures of objects superimposed over scenes, and we later tested their ability to differentiate these old objects from similar new objects. Context reinstatement was manipulated by presenting objects on the reinstated or switched scene at test. Not only did context reinstatement increase correct recognition of old objects, but it also consistently increased incorrect recognition of similar objects as old ones...
June 2018: Psychological Science
Claudia S Lüttke, Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Floris P de Lange
The human brain can quickly adapt to changes in the environment. One example is phonetic recalibration: a speech sound is interpreted differently depending on the visual speech and this interpretation persists in the absence of visual information. Here, we examined the mechanisms of phonetic recalibration. Participants categorized the auditory syllables /aba/ and /ada/, which were sometimes preceded by the so-called McGurk stimuli (in which an /aba/ sound, due to visual /aga/ input, is often perceived as 'ada')...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Matthew T Carlson
Language-specific restrictions on sound sequences in words can lead to automatic perceptual repair of illicit sound sequences. As an example, no Spanish words begin with /s/-consonant sequences ([#sC]), and where necessary (e.g., foreign loanwords) [#sC] is repaired by inserting an initial [e], (e.g. foreign loanwords, cf., esnob, from English snob). As a result, Spanish speakers tend to perceive an illusory [e] before [#sC] sequences. Interestingly, this perceptual illusion is weaker in early Spanish-English bilinguals, whose other language, English, allows [#sC]...
April 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Mikkel Thøgersen, John Hansen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Herta Flor, Laura Petrini
The purpose of the present study was to assess changes in body perception when visual feedback was removed from the hand and arm with the purpose of resembling the visual deprivation arising from amputation. The illusion was created by removing the visual feedback from the participants' own left forearm using a mixed reality (MR) and green screen environment. Thirty healthy persons (15 female) participated in the study. Each subject experienced two MR conditions, one with and one without visual feedback from the left hand, and a baseline condition with normal vision of the limb (no MR)...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Sirui Liu, Peter Ulric Tse, Patrick Cavanagh
When a Gabor patch moves along a path in one direction while its internal texture drifts orthogonally to this path, it can appear to deviate from its physical path by 45 ̊ or more. This double-drift illusion is different from other motion-induced position shift effects in several ways: it has an integration period of over a second; the illusory displacement that accumulates over a second or more is orthogonal to rather than along the motion path; the perceptual deviations are much larger; and they have little or no effect on eye movements to the target...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Giulia Parovel, Alan Costall
The leaning tower illusion is a perceptual illusion in which two identical images of a tower photographed from below appear to diverge when juxtaposed. We manipulated the perceived obliqueness of the (upright) St Mark bell tower in Venice by modifying two parameters both related to the position of the camera with respect to the tower: (a) increasing the peripherality of the tower and (b) reducing the distance between the camera and the tower. The resulting images clearly show that the illusory leaning effect increases as a function of the obliqueness...
January 2018: I-Perception
Kai Siedenburg
Recent research has described strong effects of prior context on the perception of ambiguous pitch shifts of Shepard tones [Chambers, Akram, Adam, Pelofi, Sahani, Shamma, and Pressnitzer (2017). Nat. Commun. 8, 15027]. Here, similar effects are demonstrated for brightness shift judgments of harmonic complexes with cyclic spectral envelope components and fixed fundamental frequency. It is shown that frequency shifts of the envelopes are perceived as systematic shifts of brightness. Analogous to the work of Chambers et al...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Dobromir Rahnev, Rachel N Denison
Human perceptual decisions are often described as optimal. Critics of this view have argued that claims of optimality are overly flexible and lack explanatory power. Meanwhile, advocates for optimality have countered that such criticisms single out a few selected papers. To elucidate the issue of optimality in perceptual decision making, we review the extensive literature on suboptimal performance in perceptual tasks. We discuss eight different classes of suboptimal perceptual decisions, including improper placement, maintenance, and adjustment of perceptual criteria, inadequate tradeoff between speed and accuracy, inappropriate confidence ratings, misweightings in cue combination, and findings related to various perceptual illusions and biases...
February 27, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Stefania S Moro, Jennifer K E Steeves
Previously, we have shown that people who have had one eye surgically removed early in life during visual development have enhanced sound localization [1] and lack visual dominance, commonly observed in binocular and monocular (eye-patched) viewing controls [2]. Despite these changes, people with one eye integrate auditory and visual components of multisensory events optimally [3]. The current study investigates how people with one eye perceive the McGurk effect, an audiovisual illusion where a new syllable is perceived when visual lip movements do not match the corresponding sound [4]...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Anja Gieseler, Maike A S Tahden, Christiane M Thiel, Hans Colonius
There is converging evidence for altered audiovisual integration abilities in hearing-impaired individuals and those with profound hearing loss who are provided with cochlear implants, compared to normal-hearing adults. Still, little is known on the effects of hearing aid use on audiovisual integration in mild hearing loss, although this constitutes one of the most prevalent conditions in the elderly and, yet, often remains untreated in its early stages. This study investigated differences in the strength of audiovisual integration between elderly hearing aid users and those with the same degree of mild hearing loss who were not using hearing aids, the non-users, by measuring their susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion...
April 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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