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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030557/heading-representations-in-primates-are-compressed-by-saccades
#1
Frank Bremmer, Jan Churan, Markus Lappe
Perceptual illusions help to understand how sensory signals are decoded in the brain. Here we report that the opposite approach is also applicable, i.e., results from decoding neural activity from monkey extrastriate visual cortex correctly predict a hitherto unknown perceptual illusion in humans. We record neural activity from monkey medial superior temporal (MST) and ventral intraparietal (VIP) area during presentation of self-motion stimuli and concurrent reflexive eye movements. A heading-decoder performs veridically during slow eye movements...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982176/affective-vocalizations-influence-body-ownership-as-measured-in-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#2
Tahnée Engelen, Rebecca Watson, Francesco Pavani, Beatrice de Gelder
Emotional signals, like threatening sounds, automatically ready the perceiver to prepare an appropriate defense behavior. Conjecturing that this would manifest itself in extending the safety zone around the body we used the rubber hand illusion (RHI) to test this prediction. The RHI is a perceptual illusion in which body ownership is manipulated by synchronously stroking a rubber hand and real hand occluded from view. Many factors, both internal and external, have been shown to influence the strength of the illusion, yet the effect of emotion perception on body ownership remains unexplored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976045/electrophysiological-evidence-for-differences-between-fusion-and-combination-illusions-in-audiovisual-speech-perception
#3
Martijn Baart, Alma Lindborg, Tobias S Andersen
Incongruent audiovisual speech stimuli can lead to perceptual illusions such as fusions or combinations. Here, we investigated the underlying audiovisual integration process by measuring ERPs. We observed that visual speech-induced suppression of P2 amplitude (which is generally taken as a measure of audiovisual integration) for fusions was comparable to suppression obtained with fully congruent stimuli, whereas P2 suppression for combinations was larger. We argue that these effects arise because the phonetic incongruency is solved differently for both types of stimuli...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964712/strange-face-illusions-during-interpersonal-gazing-and-personality-differences-of-spirituality
#4
Giovanni B Caputo
Strange-face illusions are produced when two individuals gaze at each other in the eyes in low illumination for more than a few minutes. Usually, the members of the dyad perceive numinous apparitions, like the other's face deformations and perception of a stranger or a monster in place of the other, and feel a short lasting dissociation. In the present experiment, the influence of the spirituality personality trait on strength and number of strange-face illusions was investigated. Thirty participants were preliminarily tested for superstition (Paranormal Belief Scale, PBS) and spirituality (Spiritual Transcendence Scale, STS); then, they were randomly assigned to 15 dyads...
September 1, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954892/memory-guided-saccades-show-effect-of-perceptual-illusion-whereas-visually-guided-saccades-do-not
#5
Delphine Massendari, Matteo Lisi, Thérèse Collins, Patrick Cavanagh
The double-drift stimulus (a drifting Gabor with orthogonal internal motion) generates a large discrepancy between its physical and perceived path. Surprisingly, saccades directed to the double-drift stimulus land along the physical, and not perceived, path (Lisi & Cavanagh, 2015). Here we asked whether memory-guided saccades exhibited the same dissociation from perception. Participants were asked to keep their gaze centered on a fixation dot while the double-drift stimulus moved back and forth on a linear path in the periphery...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949035/a-biologically-inspired-neurocomputational-model-for-audio-visual-integration-and-causal-inference
#6
Cristiano Cuppini, Ladan Shams, Elisa Magosso, Mauro Ursino
Recently, experimental and theoretical research has focused on the brain's abilities to extract information from a noisy sensory environment and how cross-modal inputs are processed to solve the causal inference problem to provide the best estimate of external events. Despite the empirical evidence suggesting that the nervous system uses a statistically optimal and probabilistic approach in addressing these problems, little is known about the brain's architecture needed to implement these computations. The aim of this work is to realize a mathematical model, based on physiologically plausible hypotheses, to analyze the neural mechanisms underlying multisensory perception and causal inference...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923963/mistiming-of-thought-and-perception-predicts-delusionality
#7
Adam Bear, Rebecca G Fortgang, Michael V Bronstein, Tyrone D Cannon
The timing of thoughts and perceptions plays an essential role in belief formation. Just as people can experience in-the-moment perceptual illusions, however, they can also be deceived about how events unfold in time. Here, we consider how a particular type of temporal distortion, in which the apparent future influences "earlier" events in conscious awareness, might affect people's most fundamental beliefs about themselves and the world. Making use of a task that has been shown to elicit such reversals in the temporal experience of prediction and observation, we find that people who are more prone to think that they predicted an event that they actually already observed are also more likely to report holding delusion-like beliefs...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900289/spatiotemporal-brain-dynamics-of-auditory-temporal-assimilation
#8
Naruhito Hironaga, Takako Mitsudo, Mariko Hayamizu, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Hiroshige Takeichi, Shozo Tobimatsu
Time is a fundamental dimension, but millisecond-level judgments sometimes lead to perceptual illusions. We previously introduced a "time-shrinking illusion" using a psychological paradigm that induces auditory temporal assimilation (ATA). In ATA, the duration of two successive intervals (T1 and T2), marked by three auditory stimuli, can be perceived as equal when they are not. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal profile of human temporal judgments using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Behavioural results showed typical ATA: participants judged T1 and T2 as equal when T2 - T1 ≤ +80 ms...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900225/the-neural-basis-of-spatial-vision-losses-in-the-dysfunctional-visual-system
#9
Jinfeng Huang, Yifeng Zhou, Caiyuan Liu, Zhongjian Liu, Chunmeng Luan, Tzvetomir Tzvetanov
Human vision relies on correct information processing from the eye to various visual areas. Disturbances in the visual perception of simple features are believed to come from low-level network (e.g., V1) disruptions. In the present study, we modelled monocular losses in spatial vision through plausible multiple network modifications in early visual coding. We investigated perceptual deficits in anisometropic amblyopia and used the monocular tilt illusion as a probe of primary visual cortex orientation coding and inhibitory interactions...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887785/bioplausible-multiscale-filtering-in-retino-cortical-processing-as-a-mechanism-in-perceptual-grouping
#10
Nasim Nematzadeh, David M W Powers, Trent W Lewis
Why does our visual system fail to reconstruct reality, when we look at certain patterns? Where do Geometrical illusions start to emerge in the visual pathway? How far should we take computational models of vision with the same visual ability to detect illusions as we do? This study addresses these questions, by focusing on a specific underlying neural mechanism involved in our visual experiences that affects our final perception. Among many types of visual illusion, 'Geometrical' and, in particular, 'Tilt Illusions' are rather important, being characterized by misperception of geometric patterns involving lines and tiles in combination with contrasting orientation, size or position...
September 8, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878068/a-metacognitive-illusion-in-monkeys
#11
Stephen Ferrigno, Nate Kornell, Jessica F Cantlon
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something is to see) when making metacognitive judgements...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856962/do-delayed-judgments-of-learning-reduce-metamemory-illusions-a-meta-analysis
#12
Karlos Luna, Beatriz Martín-Luengo, Pedro B Albuquerque
Past research has shown that the perceptual characteristics of studied items (e.g., font size) leads to a metamemory illusion, and that delayed JOLs are better predictors of memory performance than immediate JOLs. Here, we tested whether delayed JOLs could reduce or eliminate the effect of perceptual characteristics on JOLs and restudy decisions. We adopted a meta-analytic approach and analysed the results of 28 experiments in which participants studied items presented in either large or small font. JOLs and, sometimes, restudy decisions, were collected either immediately or after a delay...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853037/does-visuomotor-adaptation-contribute-to-illusion-resistant-grasping
#13
Evan Cesanek, Carlo Campagnoli, Jordan A Taylor, Fulvio Domini
Do illusory distortions of perceived object size influence how wide the hand is opened during a grasping movement? Many studies on this question have reported illusion-resistant grasping, but this finding has been contradicted by other studies showing that grasping movements and perceptual judgments are equally susceptible. One largely unexplored explanation for these contradictions is that illusion effects on grasping can be reduced with repeated movements. Using a visuomotor adaptation paradigm, we investigated whether an adaptation model could predict the time course of Ponzo illusion effects on grasping...
August 29, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843995/what-s-left-of-the-mirror-illusion-when-the-mirror-can-no-longer-be-seen-bilateral-integration-of-proprioceptive-afferents
#14
Marie Chancel, Anne Kavounoudias, Michel Guerraz
Recent data suggest that manipulating the muscle afferents of one arm affects both ipsilateral and contralateral perceptual estimates. Here, we used the mirror paradigm to study the bimanual integration of kinesthetic muscle afferents. The reflection of a moving hand in a mirror positioned in the sagittal plane creates an illusion of symmetrical bimanual movement. Although vision clearly has a role in kinesthesia, its role in the mirror illusion might have been overestimated. Conversely, the role of bimanual integration of muscle afferents might have been underestimated...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835809/effects-of-lip-color-on-perceived-lightness-of-human-facial-skin
#15
Yuki Kobayashi, Soyogu Matsushita, Kazunori Morikawa
Whereas geometric illusions in human faces have been reported by several studies, illusions of color or lightness in faces have seldom been explored. Here, we psychophysically investigated whether lip color influences facial skin's perceived lightness. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that redder lips lightened and darker lips darkened the perceived complexion. These lightness or darkness inducing effects differ from the classical illusion of lightness contrast in nonface objects for two reasons. First, illusory effects are more assimilative than contrastive...
July 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832672/white-noise-speech-illusion-and-psychosis-expression-an-experimental-investigation-of-psychosis-liability
#16
Lotta-Katrin Pries, Sinan Guloksuz, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Dina Collip, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nele Jacobs, Marieke Wichers, Claudia J P Simons, Bart P F Rutten, Jim van Os
BACKGROUND: An association between white noise speech illusion and psychotic symptoms has been reported in patients and their relatives. This supports the theory that bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes are involved in the mechanisms underlying perceptual abnormalities. However, findings in nonclinical populations have been conflicting. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between white noise speech illusion and subclinical expression of psychotic symptoms in a nonclinical sample...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821653/human-occipital-and-parietal-gaba-selectively-influence-visual-perception-of-orientation-and-size
#17
Chen Song, Kristian Sandberg, Lau Møller Andersen, Jakob Udby Blicher, Geraint Rees
GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803877/face-pareidolia-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#18
Jessica Taubert, Susan G Wardle, Molly Flessert, David A Leopold, Leslie G Ungerleider
Face perception in humans and nonhuman primates is rapid and accurate [1-4]. In the human brain, a network of visual-processing regions is specialized for faces [5-7]. Although face processing is a priority of the primate visual system, face detection is not infallible. Face pareidolia is the compelling illusion of perceiving facial features on inanimate objects, such as the illusory face on the surface of the moon. Although face pareidolia is commonly experienced by humans, its presence in other species is unknown...
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792094/audiovisual-integration-as-conflict-resolution-the-conflict-of-the-mcgurk-illusion
#19
Luis Morís Fernández, Emiliano Macaluso, Salvador Soto-Faraco
There are two main behavioral expressions of multisensory integration (MSI) in speech; the perceptual enhancement produced by the sight of the congruent lip movements of the speaker, and the illusory sound perceived when a speech syllable is dubbed with incongruent lip movements, in the McGurk effect. These two models have been used very often to study MSI. Here, we contend that, unlike congruent audiovisually (AV) speech, the McGurk effect involves brain areas related to conflict detection and resolution. To test this hypothesis, we used fMRI to measure blood oxygen level dependent responses to AV speech syllables...
August 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769830/spatial-alignment-and-response-hand-in-geometric-and-motion-illusions
#20
Lisa Scocchia, Michela Paroli, Natale A Stucchi, Anna Sedda
Perception of visual illusions is susceptible to manipulation of their spatial properties. Further, illusions can sometimes affect visually guided actions, especially the movement planning phase. Remarkably, visual properties of objects related to actions, such as affordances, can prime more accurate perceptual judgements. In spite of the amount of knowledge available on affordances and on the influence of illusions on actions (or lack of thereof), virtually nothing is known about the reverse: the influence of action-related parameters on the perception of visual illusions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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