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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213057/a-catch-up-illusion-arising-from-a-distance-dependent-perception-bias-in-judging-relative-movement
#1
Tobias Meilinger, Bärbel Garsoffky, Stephan Schwan
The perception of relative target movement from a dynamic observer is an unexamined psychological three body problem. To test the applicability of explanations for two moving bodies participants repeatedly judged the relative movements of two runners chasing each other in video clips displayed on a stationary screen. The chased person always ran at 3 m/s with an observer camera following or leading at 4.5, 3, 1.5 or 0 m/s. We harmonized the chaser speed in an adaptive staircase to determine the point of subjective equal movement speed between runners and observed (i) an underestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved towards the viewer, and (ii) an overestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved away from the viewer, leading to a catch-up illusion in case of equidistant runners...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167368/perception-of-contextual-size-illusions-by-honeybees-in-restricted-and-unrestricted-viewing-conditions
#2
Scarlett R Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair E Garcia, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adrian G Dyer
How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears to vary dramatically among vertebrate species, and even populations, but this may depend on whether the viewing distance is restricted. We tested whether honeybees perceive contextual size illusions, and whether errors in perception of size differed under restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151098/the-alice-in-wonderland-syndrome
#3
Douglas J Lanska, John R Lanska
In 1955, English psychiatrist John Todd defined the Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) as self-experienced paroxysmal body-image illusions involving distortions of the size, mass, or shape of the patient's own body or its position in space, often accompanied by depersonalization and/or derealization. AIWS had been described by American Neurologist Caro Lippman in 1952, but Todd's report was the most influential. Todd named the syndrome for the perceptual disorder of altered body image experienced by the protagonist in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151088/cotard-syndrome
#4
Sebastian Dieguez
Cotard's syndrome is often described as the delusional belief that one is dead or non-existent. However, Jules Cotard's initial description (1880) of the "delusion of negations" was much richer and also involved delusions and claims of immortality and enormity, feelings of damnation, and illusions of bodily dissolution and transformation. Alternatively conceived as an extreme case of depression, hypochondria, or psychosis, the condition is considered rare and remains poorly understood. Cotard himself provided a taxonomy and several explanations for the condition, focusing on its distinction from classical persecutory delusions and suggesting that it could be a kind of reversed grandiosity...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136409/neural-representation-of-form-contingent-color-filling-in-in-the-early-visual-cortex
#5
Sang Wook Hong, Frank Tong
Perceptual filling-in exemplifies the constructive nature of visual processing. Color, a prominent surface property of visual objects, can appear to spread to neighboring areas that lack any color. We investigated cortical responses to a color filling-in illusion that effectively dissociates perceived color from the retinal input (van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009). Observers adapted to a star-shaped stimulus with alternating red- and cyan-colored points to elicit a complementary afterimage. By presenting an achromatic outline that enclosed one of the two afterimage colors, perceptual filling-in of that color was induced in the unadapted central region...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117288/dynamic-network-communication-in-the-human-functional-connectome-predicts-perceptual-variability-in-visual-illusion
#6
Zhiwei Wang, Kristina Zeljic, Qinying Jiang, Yong Gu, Wei Wang, Zheng Wang
Ubiquitous variability between individuals in visual perception is difficult to standardize and has thus essentially been ignored. Here we construct a quantitative psychophysical measure of illusory rotary motion based on the Pinna-Brelstaff figure (PBF) in 73 healthy volunteers and investigate the neural circuit mechanisms underlying perceptual variation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We acquired fMRI data from a subset of 42 subjects during spontaneous and 3 stimulus conditions: expanding PBF, expanding modified-PBF (illusion-free) and expanding modified-PBF with physical rotation...
November 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103810/subjective-behavioral-and-physiological-responses-to-the-rubber-hand-illusion-do-not-vary-with-age-in-the-adult-phase
#7
Priscila Palomo, Adrián Borrego, Ausiàs Cebolla, Roberto Llorens, Marcelo Demarzo, Rosa M Baños
The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20-30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20-35 years old, N = 41; 36-60 years old, N = 28; and 61-80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures...
November 3, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100659/the-sander-parallelogram-illusion-dissociates-action-and-perception-despite-control-for-the-litany-of-past-confounds
#8
Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale, Kate E Merritt, James T Enns
The two visual systems hypothesis proposes that human vision is supported by a occipito-temporal network for the conscious visual perception of the world, and a fronto-parietal network for visually-guided, object-directed actions. Two specific claims about the fronto-parietal network's role in sensorimotor control have generated much data and controversy: (1) the network relies primarily on the absolute metrics of target objects, which it rapidly transforms into effector-specific frames of reference to guide the fingers, hands, and limbs, and (2) the network is largely unaffected by scene-based information extracted by the occipito-temporal network for those same targets...
October 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071104/how-does-plate-size-affect-estimated-satiation-and-intake-for-individuals-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-groups
#9
M Peng
OBJECTIVE: Manipulating plate sizes could possibly introduce perceptual biases for judging food satiation and intake, which is thought to be related to the Delbeouf illusion - a visual illusion based on the perceived size of one object related to another. This study was to investigate whether an association exists between an individual's susceptibility to the plate-size-effect and their weight status (i.e. normal-weight versus overweight). METHODS: The study assessed the effect of plate size amongst normal-weight (N = 124) and overweight (N = 79) New Zealand Europeans...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030557/heading-representations-in-primates-are-compressed-by-saccades
#10
Frank Bremmer, Jan Churan, Markus Lappe
Perceptual illusions help to understand how sensory signals are decoded in the brain. Here we report that the opposite approach is also applicable, i.e., results from decoding neural activity from monkey extrastriate visual cortex correctly predict a hitherto unknown perceptual illusion in humans. We record neural activity from monkey medial superior temporal (MST) and ventral intraparietal (VIP) area during presentation of self-motion stimuli and concurrent reflexive eye movements. A heading-decoder performs veridically during slow eye movements...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982176/affective-vocalizations-influence-body-ownership-as-measured-in-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#11
Tahnée Engelen, Rebecca Watson, Francesco Pavani, Beatrice de Gelder
Emotional signals, like threatening sounds, automatically ready the perceiver to prepare an appropriate defense behavior. Conjecturing that this would manifest itself in extending the safety zone around the body we used the rubber hand illusion (RHI) to test this prediction. The RHI is a perceptual illusion in which body ownership is manipulated by synchronously stroking a rubber hand and real hand occluded from view. Many factors, both internal and external, have been shown to influence the strength of the illusion, yet the effect of emotion perception on body ownership remains unexplored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976045/electrophysiological-evidence-for-differences-between-fusion-and-combination-illusions-in-audiovisual-speech-perception
#12
Martijn Baart, Alma Lindborg, Tobias S Andersen
Incongruent audiovisual speech stimuli can lead to perceptual illusions such as fusions or combinations. Here, we investigated the underlying audiovisual integration process by measuring ERPs. We observed that visual speech-induced suppression of P2 amplitude (which is generally taken as a measure of audiovisual integration) for fusions was similar to suppression obtained with fully congruent stimuli, whereas P2 suppression for combinations was larger. We argue that these effects arise because the phonetic incongruency is solved differently for both types of stimuli...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964712/strange-face-illusions-during-interpersonal-gazing-and-personality-differences-of-spirituality
#13
Giovanni B Caputo
Strange-face illusions are produced when two individuals gaze at each other in the eyes in low illumination for more than a few minutes. Usually, the members of the dyad perceive numinous apparitions, like the other's face deformations and perception of a stranger or a monster in place of the other, and feel a short lasting dissociation. In the present experiment, the influence of the spirituality personality trait on strength and number of strange-face illusions was investigated. Thirty participants were preliminarily tested for superstition (Paranormal Belief Scale, PBS) and spirituality (Spiritual Transcendence Scale, STS); then, they were randomly assigned to 15 dyads...
September 1, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954892/memory-guided-saccades-show-effect-of-perceptual-illusion-whereas-visually-guided-saccades-do-not
#14
Delphine Massendari, Matteo Lisi, Thérèse Collins, Patrick Cavanagh
The double-drift stimulus (a drifting Gabor with orthogonal internal motion) generates a large discrepancy between its physical and perceived path. Surprisingly, saccades directed to the double-drift stimulus land along the physical, and not perceived, path (Lisi & Cavanagh, 2015). Here we asked whether memory-guided saccades exhibited the same dissociation from perception. Participants were asked to keep their gaze centered on a fixation dot while the double-drift stimulus moved back and forth on a linear path in the periphery...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949035/a-biologically-inspired-neurocomputational-model-for-audio-visual-integration-and-causal-inference
#15
Cristiano Cuppini, Ladan Shams, Elisa Magosso, Mauro Ursino
Recently, experimental and theoretical research has focused on the brain's abilities to extract information from a noisy sensory environment and how cross-modal inputs are processed to solve the causal inference problem to provide the best estimate of external events. Despite the empirical evidence suggesting that the nervous system uses a statistically optimal and probabilistic approach in addressing these problems, little is known about the brain's architecture needed to implement these computations. The aim of this work is to realize a mathematical model, based on physiologically plausible hypotheses, to analyze the neural mechanisms underlying multisensory perception and causal inference...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923963/mistiming-of-thought-and-perception-predicts-delusionality
#16
Adam Bear, Rebecca G Fortgang, Michael V Bronstein, Tyrone D Cannon
The timing of thoughts and perceptions plays an essential role in belief formation. Just as people can experience in-the-moment perceptual illusions, however, they can also be deceived about how events unfold in time. Here, we consider how a particular type of temporal distortion, in which the apparent future influences "earlier" events in conscious awareness, might affect people's most fundamental beliefs about themselves and the world. Making use of a task that has been shown to elicit such reversals in the temporal experience of prediction and observation, we find that people who are more prone to think that they predicted an event that they actually already observed are also more likely to report holding delusion-like beliefs...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900289/spatiotemporal-brain-dynamics-of-auditory-temporal-assimilation
#17
Naruhito Hironaga, Takako Mitsudo, Mariko Hayamizu, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Hiroshige Takeichi, Shozo Tobimatsu
Time is a fundamental dimension, but millisecond-level judgments sometimes lead to perceptual illusions. We previously introduced a "time-shrinking illusion" using a psychological paradigm that induces auditory temporal assimilation (ATA). In ATA, the duration of two successive intervals (T1 and T2), marked by three auditory stimuli, can be perceived as equal when they are not. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal profile of human temporal judgments using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Behavioural results showed typical ATA: participants judged T1 and T2 as equal when T2 - T1 ≤ +80 ms...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900225/the-neural-basis-of-spatial-vision-losses-in-the-dysfunctional-visual-system
#18
Jinfeng Huang, Yifeng Zhou, Caiyuan Liu, Zhongjian Liu, Chunmeng Luan, Tzvetomir Tzvetanov
Human vision relies on correct information processing from the eye to various visual areas. Disturbances in the visual perception of simple features are believed to come from low-level network (e.g., V1) disruptions. In the present study, we modelled monocular losses in spatial vision through plausible multiple network modifications in early visual coding. We investigated perceptual deficits in anisometropic amblyopia and used the monocular tilt illusion as a probe of primary visual cortex orientation coding and inhibitory interactions...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887785/bioplausible-multiscale-filtering-in-retino-cortical-processing-as-a-mechanism-in-perceptual-grouping
#19
Nasim Nematzadeh, David M W Powers, Trent W Lewis
Why does our visual system fail to reconstruct reality, when we look at certain patterns? Where do Geometrical illusions start to emerge in the visual pathway? How far should we take computational models of vision with the same visual ability to detect illusions as we do? This study addresses these questions, by focusing on a specific underlying neural mechanism involved in our visual experiences that affects our final perception. Among many types of visual illusion, 'Geometrical' and, in particular, 'Tilt Illusions' are rather important, being characterized by misperception of geometric patterns involving lines and tiles in combination with contrasting orientation, size or position...
September 8, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878068/a-metacognitive-illusion-in-monkeys
#20
Stephen Ferrigno, Nate Kornell, Jessica F Cantlon
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something is to see) when making metacognitive judgements...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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