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Stratified medicine

Qin Xiao, Lianzhou Chen, Haiqing Luo, Hongmei Li, Qingming Kong, Fei Jiao, Shifeng Pang, Ming Zhang, Feifei Lan, Wenguo Fan, Hui Luo, Tao Tao, Xiao Zhu
BACKGROUND: CHD5 is a conventional tumour-suppressing gene in many tumours. The aim of this study was to determine whether CHD5 variants contribute to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Gene variants were identified using next-generation sequencing targeted on referenced mutations followed by TaqMan genotyping in two case-control studies. RESULTS: We discovered a rare variant (haplotype AG) in CHD5 (rs12564469-rs9434711) that was markedly associated with the risk of HCC in a Chinese population...
June 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
Adam M Chaker
Sinunasale Erkrankungen zählen mit zu den häufigsten chronischen Erkrankungen und führen zu einer erheblichen Störung der Lebensqualität, ein komorbides Asthma ist häufig. Trotz leitliniengerechter Therapie ist anzunehmen, dass mind. 20% der Patienten ihre Erkrankungssymptome nicht adäquat kontrollieren können. Neben den etablierten chirurgischen und konservativen Therapieoptionen finden sich nun vielversprechende Therapieansätze, die bspw. mittels therapeutischer Antikörper mechanistisch gezielt in die Pathophysiologie der Erkrankungen eingreifen können...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Rui P Guerra, Alexandra M Carvalho, Paulo Mateus
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmacokinetics comprises the study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion over time. Clinical pharmacokinetics, focusing on therapeutic management, offers important insights towards personalised medicine through the study of efficacy and toxicity of drug therapies. This study is hampered by subject's high variability in drug blood concentration, when starting a therapy with the same drug dosage. Clustering of pharmacokinetics responses has been addressed recently as a way to stratify subjects and provide different drug doses for each stratum...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Filippo Sean Giorgi, Seung Hyun Kim, Herman Depypere, Manuela Graziani, Amira Saidi, Robert Nisticò, Simone Lista
Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are among the leading causes of disability and mortality. Considerable sex differences exist in the occurrence of the various manifestations leading to cognitive decline. Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits substantial sexual dimorphisms and disproportionately affects women.Women have a higher life expectancy compared to men and, consequently, have more lifespan to develop AD. The emerging precision medicine and pharmacology concepts - taking into account the individual genetic and biological variability relevant for disease risk, prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment - are expected to substantially enhance our knowledge and management of AD...
June 11, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Holger Fröhlich, Sabyasachi Patjoshi, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Christina Kehrer, Walther Kuhn, Olga Golubnitschaja
Background: The breast cancer (BC) epidemic is a multifactorial disease attributed to the early twenty-first century: about two million of new cases and half a million deaths are registered annually worldwide. New trends are emerging now: on the one hand, with respect to the geographical BC prevalence and, on the other hand, with respect to the age distribution. Recent statistics demonstrate that young populations are getting more and more affected by BC in both Eastern and Western countries...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
Kevan M A Gartland, Jill S Gartland
Strategies for biotechnology must take account of opportunities for research, innovation and business growth. At a regional level, public-private collaborations provide potential for such growth and the creation of centres of excellence. By considering recent progress in areas such as genomics, healthcare diagnostics, synthetic biology, gene editing and bio-digital technologies, opportunities for smart, strategic and specialised investment are discussed. These opportunities often involve convergent or disruptive technologies, combining for example elements of pharma-science, molecular biology, bioinformatics and novel device development to enhance biotechnology and the life sciences...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Asif Sandhu, Naeem Liaqat, Khadija Waheed, Sara Ejaz, Amna Khanum, Ambreen Butt, Fawad Ahmad Randhawa, Sajid Hameed Dar
The objective of this study was to determine the level of educational environment among residents working in our hospital using Post graduate hospital educational environment measure (PHEEM). This cross-sectional study was conducted at services hospital, Lahore. All the Post-graduate residents (PGR's) working at Services hospital, Lahore were asked to fill a proforma having 2 parts: Bio-data and PHEEM. Out of 110 PGR's, 87 completed questionnaires, of which majority labelled education environment into level 3 (71%)...
May 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Robert M Rossi, Emily A DeFranco
OBJECTIVE:  Preterm birth before 23 weeks of gestation typically results in neonatal death (5% survival). Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists published consensus guidelines recommending cesarean delivery (CD) not be performed for fetal indications between 20 and 226/7 weeks given the lack of proven benefit. We sought to quantify the previable CD rate and identify characteristics associated with previable CD. METHODS:  We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of all live births in Ohio (2006-2015)...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Roshen Borkar, James Rizkalla, Youngmin Kwon, Paul Salama, Maher Rizkalla
Diabetic foot ulcers are systemic diseases that affect all blood vessels within the human body. From major blood vessels to microvasculature, hardening, thickening, and narrowing of blood vessels ultimately results to diminished blood flow to end organs. The detrimental effects of peripheral vascular disease are well recognized across medicine, particularly with regards to diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are common across all fields of medicine, including but not limited to: orthopedics, vascular surgery, podiatry, general internal medicine, and infectious disease...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Kristin Banek, Emily L Webb, Samuel Juana Smith, Daniel Chandramohan, Sarah G Staedke
BACKGROUND: Prompt, effective treatment of confirmed malaria cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is a cornerstone of malaria control. Maximizing adherence to ACT medicines is key to ensuring treatment effectiveness. METHODS: This open-label, randomized trial evaluated caregiver adherence to co-formulated artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and fixed-dose amodiaquine-artesunate (AQAS) in Sierra Leone. Children aged 6-59 months diagnosed with malaria were recruited from two public clinics, randomized to receive AL or AQAS, and visited at home the day after completing treatment...
June 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
John P Morgan, Moses Isyagi, Joseph Ntaganira, Agnes Gatarayiha, Sarah E Pagni, Tamar C Roomian, Matthew Finkelman, Jane E M Steffensen, Jane R Barrow, Chrispinus H Mumena, Donna M Hackley
BACKGROUND: Oral health affects quality of life and is linked to overall health. Enhanced oral health research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to develop strategies that reduce the burden of oral disease, improve oral health and inform oral health workforce and infrastructure development decisions. OBJECTIVE: To implement the first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda to assess the oral disease burden and inform oral health promotion strategies. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, sample size and site selection were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Surveys Pathfinder stratified cluster methodologies...
2018: Global Health Action
Deepak R Jadon, Vinod Chandran, Carmel Stober, Alexis Ogdie, April W Armstrong, Kristina Callis Duffin, Dafna D Gladman, Philip S Helliwell, Denis O'Sullivan, Maarten de Wit, Oliver FitzGerald, Christopher T Ritchlin
The Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) Collaborative Research Network (CRN) is an endeavor that aims to address gaps in the knowledge of the etiopathogenesis and management of psoriatic disease by best using the large community of experienced investigators who are already collecting rich clinical phenotype data and biologic samples using validated techniques. Exemplar rheumatology and dermatology projects will inform strategies to implement the CRN, while input and funding from government organizations, charities, and industry will shape the CRN...
June 2018: Journal of Rheumatology. Supplement
Alessandro Villa, Eric T Stoopler, Joel Napenas
With fewer oral medicine (OM) specialists than members of other dental specialties, growing the profession to meet patient needs depends on demonstrating to dental educators, students, and practitioners the value and variety of career opportunities in this specialty. The aim of this study was to investigate the type of employment and career satisfaction of current OM specialists. An electronic survey was distributed to all 393 active members of the American Academy of Oral Medicine in May 2016. The questionnaire assessed respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, type of OM training received, workplace setting, type of OM practice, and career satisfaction...
June 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Wen-Chi Chen, San-Yuan Wu, Po-Chi Liao, Tzu-Yang Chou, Huey-Yi Chen, Jen-Huai Chiang, Yuan-Chih Su, Kee-Ming Man, Ming-Yen Tsai, Yung-Hsiang Chen
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), a common medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine, has been tested effectively to prevent urolithiasis in animals; nevertheless, the clinical application for urolithiasis remains unclear. We thus investigated the clinical effect of Danshen by analyzing the database from the Taiwan National Institute of Health. The cohort "Danshen-users" was prescribed Chinese herb medicine Danshen after the initial diagnosis of calculus. The control group (non-Danshen-users) was not given Danshen after the initial diagnosis of calculus...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Yinshen Wee, Amanda N Moore, Shihai Jia, Jing Zhou, John S Colombo, Rena N D'Souza
Hydrogels are homogenous materials that are limited in their ability to form oriented multilayered architecture in three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs. Current techniques have led to advancements in this area. Such techniques often require extra devices and/or involve complex processes that are inaccessible to many laboratories. Here is described a one-step methodology that permits reliable alignment of cells into multiple layers using a self-assembling multidomain peptide (MDP) hydrogels. We characterized the structural features, viability, and molecular properties of dental pulp cells fabricated with MDP and demonstrated that manipulation of the layering of cells in the scaffolds was achieved by decreasing the weight by volume percentage (w/v%) of MDP contained within the scaffold...
May 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
Tianle Ma, Aidong Zhang
Defining subtypes of complex diseases such as cancer and stratifying patient groups with the same disease but different subtypes for targeted treatments is important for personalized and precision medicine. Approaches that incorporate multi-omic data are more advantageous to those using only one data type for patient clustering and disease subtype discovery. However, it is challenging to integrate multi-omic data as they are heterogeneous and noisy. In this paper, we present Affinity Network Fusion (ANF) to integrate multi-omic data for patient clustering...
May 25, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Louise E Bartlett, Nicole L Pratt, Elizabeth E Roughead
Purpose: Many studies of persistence involving fixed dose combinations (FDCs) of cardiovascular medicines have not adequately accounted for a user's prior experience with similar medicines. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of prior medicine experience on persistence to combination therapy. Patients and methods: Two retrospective cohort studies were conducted in the complete Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme prescription claims dataset. Initiation and cessation rates were determined for combinations of: ezetimibe/statin; and amlodipine/statin...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Thomas J Ford, David Corcoran, Keith G Oldroyd, Margaret McEntegart, Paul Rocchiccioli, Stuart Watkins, Katriona Brooksbank, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Naveed Sattar, Andrew Briggs, Alex McConnachie, Rhian Touyz, Colin Berry
BACKGROUND: Coronary angiography is performed to assess for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), but "nonobstructive CAD" is a common finding. Microvascular or vasospastic angina may be relevant, but routine confirmatory testing is not evidence based and thus rarely performed. AIM: The aim was to assess the effect of stratified medicine guided by coronary function testing on the diagnosis, treatment, and well-being of patients with angina and nonobstructive CAD...
April 3, 2018: American Heart Journal
Kevin M Duignan, Laura C Lamb, Monica M DiFiori, John Quinlavin, James M Feeney
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate tourniquet use in the Hartford prehospital setting during a 34-month period after the Hartford Consensus was published, which encouraged increasing tourniquet use in light of military research. DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of patients with bleeding from a serious extremity injury to determine appropriateness of tourniquet use or omission. SETTING: Level II trauma center between April 2014 and January 2017...
January 2018: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Ziquan Guo, Yong Huang, Hua Jiang, Wenbin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of early acupuncture intervention on brain edema in patients with traumatic intracerebral hematoma and explore its mechanism on the basis of conventional western medicine. METHODS: With stratified block randomization, sixty-four patients with glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 6 to 12 were divided into an acupuncture combined with medicine group (a combination group) and a western medication group, 32 cases in each one. In the western medication group, dehydration to reduce intracranial pressure and nutritional nerves were given as the basic treatment...
May 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
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