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Fetal Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760680/disruption-in-thyroid-signaling-pathway-a-mechanism-for-the-effect-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-child-neurodevelopment
#1
REVIEW
Akhgar Ghassabian, Leonardo Trasande
Thyroid hormones are crucial in normal brain development. Transient and mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in pregnancy is also associated with impaired neurodevelopment in the offspring (e.g., 3-4 IQ score loss in association with maternal free thyroxine in the lowest fifth percentile). While inadequate iodine intake remains the most common underlying cause of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in vulnerable populations including pregnant women, other factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants have recently attracted increasing attention, in particular in interaction with iodine deficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687161/obstetric-patients-perspectives-on-functional-magnetic-neuroimaging-research-in-pregnant-women
#2
Rebecca L Newmark, Michelle L Zaydlin, Amy Yang, Kelcie Kuchenrither, Katherine L Wisner, Suena H Massey
Magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) studies of healthy pregnant women could identify key mechanisms of spontaneous health behavior changes observed in expectant mothers as novel intervention targets, but are currently unprecedented. As balancing potential benefits of research with unknown risks, including participant perceptions of risk, is foundational to ethical conduct, we surveyed a convenience obstetric sample to understand pregnant women's perspectives on this issue. Respondents were 76 pregnant women (modal age of 30-39 years; 64% multiparous) presenting for obstetric care from April to June 2016 at privately and publicly funded clinics at an urban academic medical center in the Midwestern USA...
April 23, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682148/neuroembryology-of-the-acupuncture-principal-meridians-part-3-the-head-and-neck
#3
Peter T Dorsher, Poney Chiang
Background: Accumulating evidence from anatomical, physiologic, and neuroimaging research shows that Classical acupuncture points stimulate nerve trunks or their branches in the head, trunk, and extremities. The first part of this series revealed that phenomenon in the extremities. Principal meridian distributions mirror those of major peripheral nerves there and Classical acupuncture points are proximate to peripheral nerves there. These relationships were shown to be consistent with the linear neuroembryologic development of the extremities...
April 1, 2018: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674196/clinical-and-imaging-profile-of-patients-with-new-onset-seizures-a-presumptive-diagnosis-of-eclampsia-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Vandana Bojja, Anish Keepanasseril, Pradeep P Nair, V C Sunitha
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and imaging profile of patients with new-onset seizures with a presumptive diagnosis of eclampsia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital, on pregnant women presenting with new onset seizures with presumptive diagnosis of eclampsia excluding those with pre-existing neurological conditions. Demographic details, medical and obstetric examination findings were noted. All women underwent neuroimaging within 5 days of onset seizures...
February 25, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550864/fetal-neuroimaging-an-update-on-technical-advances-and-clinical-findings
#5
REVIEW
Ashley J Robinson, M Ashraf Ederies
This paper is based on a literature review from 2011 to 2016. The paper is divided into two main sections. The first section relates to technical advances in fetal imaging techniques, including fetal motion compensation, imaging at 3.0 T, 3-D T2-weighted MRI, susceptibility-weighted imaging, computed tomography, morphometric analysis, diffusion tensor imaging, spectroscopy and fetal behavioral assessment. The second section relates to clinical updates, including cerebral lamination, migrational anomalies, midline anomalies, neural tube defects, posterior fossa anomalies, sulcation/gyration and hypoxic-ischemic insults...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530279/air-pollution-exposure-during-fetal-life-brain-morphology-and-cognitive-function-in-school-age-children
#6
Mònica Guxens, Małgorzata J Lubczyńska, Ryan L Muetzel, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Gerard Hoek, Aad van der Lugt, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Bert Brunekreef, Henning Tiemeier, Hanan El Marroun
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure during fetal life has been related to impaired child neurodevelopment, but it is unclear if brain structural alterations underlie this association. The authors assessed whether air pollution exposure during fetal life alters brain morphology and whether these alterations mediate the association between air pollution exposure during fetal life and cognitive function in school-age children. METHODS: We used data from a population-based birth cohort set up in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (2002-2006)...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528928/gottesfeld-hohler-memorial-foundation-zika-virus-think-tank-summary
#7
John C Hobbins, Lawrence D Platt, Joshua A Copel, Anna G Euser, Yalda Afshar, Roxanna A Irani, Deborah Levine, Magda Sanz Cortes, Alfred Abuhamad, Stephanie L Gaw, Karen Harris, Mauricio Herrera, Lauren Lynch, Adriana Melo, Lisa Noguchi, Renato Aguiar, Jeanne S Sheffield, Katherine K Minton
At a think tank bringing together experts on fetal neuroimaging, obstetric infectious diseases, and public health, we discussed trends in all of these areas for Zika virus. There is a wide variety of imaging findings in affected fetuses, influenced by timing of infection and probably host factors. The resources for diagnosis and interventions also vary by location with the hardest hit areas often having the fewest resources. We identified potential areas for both research and clinical collaboration as the Zika virus epidemic continues to evolve...
April 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484745/the-fourth-ventricle-index-a-sonographic-marker-for-severe-fetal-vermian-dysgenesis-agenesis
#8
Karina Krajden Haratz, Sharon Leshem Shulevitz, Zvi Leibovitz, Dorit Lev, Shalev Josef, Mordechai Tomarkin, Gustavo Malinger, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Liat Gindes
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal diagnosis of midbrain-hindbrain malformations rely primarily on abnormal size and shape of the cerebellum and retrocerebellar space. The aim of this study was to present the 4th ventricle index (4VI), and to evaluate its role as a marker of severe vermian dysgenesis / agenesis cases without an open 4th ventricle (4v). METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included 384 healthy fetuses between 14 to 37 gestational weeks. Axial images of the 4v were obtained and the 4VI was calculated as the ratio between the latero-lateral and anteroposterior diameters...
February 26, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448128/hubs-in-the-human-fetal-brain-network
#9
Marion I van den Heuvel, Elise Turk, Janessa H Manning, Jasmine Hect, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Sonia S Hassan, Roberto Romero, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Moriah E Thomason
Advances in neuroimaging and network analyses have lead to discovery of highly connected regions, or hubs, in the connectional architecture of the human brain. Whether these hubs emerge in utero, has yet to be examined. The current study addresses this question and aims to determine the location of neural hubs in human fetuses. Fetal resting-state fMRI data (N = 105) was used to construct connectivity matrices for 197 discrete brain regions. We discovered that within the connectional functional organization of the human fetal brain key hubs are emerging...
February 6, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405479/persistent-extreme-hyperextension-of-the-fetal-neck-clinical-and-neuroimaging-findings
#10
Shai Shrot, Clark T Johnson, W Christopher Golden, Ahmet A Baschat, Janine E Bullard, Aylin Tekes, Andrea Poretti, Emily Dunn, Thierry A G M Huisman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Persistent hyperextension of the fetal craniocervical junction or neck is one of several fetal positions commonly observed on prenatal imaging. Underlying fetal structural etiologies such as fetal neck masses and iniencephaly can be detected as causes of hyperextension. Caesarean delivery is considered in cases of vaginal delivery or obstructed labor for fear of cervical spinal cord injury. In this case series, we describe the prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and their potential role in obstetric management and discuss postnatal outcomes in fetuses demonstrating prenatal imaging findings of persistent extreme hyperextension of the neck...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353032/clinical-assessment-and-brain-findings-in-a-cohort-of-mothers-fetuses-and-infants-infected-with-zika-virus
#11
Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera, Mayel Yepez, Carolina V Guimaraes, Israel Diaz Yunes, Alexander Zarutskie, Ivan Davila, Anil Shetty, Arun Mahadev, Saray Maria Serrano, Nicolas Castillo, Wesley Lee, Gregory Valentine, Michael Belfort, Guido Parra, Carrie Mohila, Kjersti Aagaard, Miguel Parra Saavedra
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be detected in both the presence and absence of microcephaly and manifests as a number of signs and symptoms that are detected clinically and by neuroimaging. However, to date, qualitative and quantitative measures for the purpose of diagnosis and prognosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: Main objectives of this study conducted on fetuses and infants with confirmed congenital Zika virus infection and detected brain abnormalities were (1) to assess the prevalence of microcephaly and the frequency of the anomalies that include a detailed description based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses and ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography imaging postnatally, (2) to provide quantitative measures of fetal and infant brain findings by magnetic resonance imaging with the use of volumetric analyses and diffusion-weighted imaging, and (3) to obtain additional information from placental and fetal histopathologic assessments and postnatal clinical evaluations...
April 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341015/in-utero-mri-of-mouse-embryos
#12
Jiangyang Zhang, Dan Wu, Daniel H Turnbull
Genetically engineered mouse models are used extensively as models of human development and developmental diseases. Conventional histological approaches are static and two-dimensional, and do not provide a full understanding of the dynamic, spatiotemporal changes in developing mouse embryos. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a noninvasive and longitudinal approach for three-dimensional in utero imaging of normal and mutant mouse embryos. In this chapter, we describe MRI approaches that have been developed for imaging the living embryonic mouse brain and vasculature...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167058/neuroimaging-findings-in-normocephalic-newborns-with-intrauterine-zika-virus-exposure
#13
Sarah B Mulkey, Gilbert Vezina, Dorothy I Bulas, Zarir Khademian, Anna Blask, Youssef Kousa, Caitlin Cristante, Lindsay Pesacreta, Adre J du Plessis, Roberta L DeBiasi
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika infection can result in a spectrum of neurological abnormalities in the newborn. Newborns exposed to Zika virus in utero often have neuroimaging as part of their clinical evaluation. METHODS: Through the Congenital Zika Program at Children's National Health System in Washington DC, we performed fetal or neonatal neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, on over 70 fetuses or neonates with intrauterine Zika exposure...
January 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161699/patterns-of-detection-of-fetal-posterior-fossa-anomalies-analysis-of-81-cases-in-the-second-half-of-gestation
#14
Stéphanie Friszer, Ferdinand Dhombres, Eléonore Blondiaux, Marie-Laure Moutard, Catherine Garel, Jean-Marie Jouannic
OBJECTIVE: To establish which characteristics of fetal ultrasound screening lead to the diagnosis of posterior fossa (PF) anomalies. METHODS: A total of 81 fetuses with PF anomalies diagnosed after dedicated neuroimaging between July 1, 2007, and January 1, 2013, were included. The ultrasound characteristics of the fetal cerebellum categorized according to an anatomical approach to the PF, associated fetal anomalies, gestational age at diagnosis, and the potential benefits from systematic measurement of the transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) were analyzed...
November 21, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074280/premature-brain-aging-in-humans-exposed-to-maternal-nutrient-restriction-during-early-gestation
#15
Katja Franke, Christian Gaser, Susanne R de Rooij, Matthias Schwab, Tessa J Roseboom
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to undernutrition is widespread in both developing and industrialized countries, causing irreversible damage to the developing brain, resulting in altered brain structure and decreased cognitive function during adulthood. The Dutch famine in 1944/45 was a humanitarian disaster, now enabling studies of the effects of prenatal undernutrition during gestation on brain aging in late adulthood. METHODS: We hypothesized that study participants prenatally exposed to maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) would demonstrate altered brain structure resembling premature brain aging in late adulthood, expecting the effect being stronger in men...
October 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966590/tubb2b-mutation-in-an-adult-patient-with-myoclonus-dystonia
#16
Joshua T Geiger, Alice B Schindler, Cornelis Blauwendraat, Harvey S Singer, Sonja W Scholz
BACKGROUND: Tubulin mutations are a cause of neuronal migrational disorders referred to as tubulinopathies. Mutations in tubulin genes can have a severe impact on microtubule function and result in heterogeneous clinical presentations. Current understanding of the clinical spectrum of tubulinopathies is predominantly based on research in fetal tissue and early-childhood cases. METHODS: Testing of candidate genes followed by whole-exome sequencing was performed in an adult woman with a neurodevelopmental, hyperkinetic movement disorder, to identify the underlying genetic cause...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959702/symptomatic-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-with-prenatal-and-postnatal-neuroimaging
#17
Mati Pulver, Kristiina Juhkami, Dagmar Loorits, Pilvi Ilves, Jaanika Kuld, Eve Õiglane-Šlik, Tuuli Metsvaht, Rael Laugesaar
The authors report a girl born at term via planned cesarean delivery. Three days earlier, an antenatal magnetic resonance imaging study, showing no cerebral lesions in the fetus, was performed. Ten minutes after delivery, signs of progressive respiratory failure developed and the infant was transferred to the intensive care unit. On the next day, a computed tomography (CT) scan showed acute ischemic lesions in the areas of the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. The exact mechanism of stroke remained unidentified...
January 2017: Child Neurology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780216/neuroimaging-findings-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-cytomegalovirus-and-zika-virus-infections-a-comparison-of-three-cases
#18
Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Tatiana Fazecas, Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are among the common infectious agents that may infect the fetuses vertically. Clinical presentations of these congenital infections overlap significantly, and it is usually impossible to determine the causative agent clinically. The objective was the comparison of neuroimaging findings in three fetuses who underwent intrauterine infection by toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV. METHODS: Three confirmed cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV infections were included in the study over 7 months prospectively...
December 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763065/genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-common-variants-influencing-infant-brain-volumes
#19
K Xia, J Zhang, M Ahn, S Jha, J J Crowley, J Szatkiewicz, T Li, F Zou, H Zhu, D Hibar, P Thompson, P F Sullivan, M Styner, J H Gilmore, R C Knickmeyer
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of adolescents and adults are transforming our understanding of how genetic variants impact brain structure and psychiatric risk, but cannot address the reality that psychiatric disorders are unfolding developmental processes with origins in fetal life. To investigate how genetic variation impacts prenatal brain development, we conducted a GWAS of global brain tissue volumes in 561 infants. An intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in IGFBP7 (rs114518130) achieved genome-wide significance for gray matter volume (P=4...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678704/auto-context-convolutional-neural-network-auto-net-for-brain-extraction-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Seyed Sadegh Mohseni Salehi, Deniz Erdogmus, Ali Gholipour
Brain extraction or whole brain segmentation is an important first step in many of the neuroimage analysis pipelines. The accuracy and the robustness of brain extraction, therefore, are crucial for the accuracy of the entire brain analysis process. The state-of-the-art brain extraction techniques rely heavily on the accuracy of alignment or registration between brain atlases and query brain anatomy, and/or make assumptions about the image geometry, and therefore have limited success when these assumptions do not hold or image registration fails...
November 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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