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Fetal Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208940/neurological-disorders-complicating-pregnancy-focus-on-obstetric-outcome
#1
Sandya Renukesh, Lavanya Rai
INTRODUCTION: Neurological disorders in pregnancy can be pregnancy related or can be caused by exacerbation of a pre-existing neurological condition or sometimes may even be detected for the first time during pregnancy in which it might be an incidental finding. The diagnosis and management of the neurological disorders in pregnancy is always a challenging task due to varied symptomatology and risks to the fetus. The evaluation and management should be performed in a stepwise fashion and requires multidisciplinary approach...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134669/prenatal-imaging-findings-in-fetal-zika-virus-infection
#2
Edward Araujo Júnior, Francisco H C Carvalho, Gabriele Tonni, Heron Werner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to report the most recent observations concerning intrauterine Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and associated neuroimaging. RECENT FINDINGS: ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015 was associated with an impressive registration of cases of congenital microcephaly in women with symptoms suggestive of ZIKV infection. Clinical and laboratory testing for ZIKV and hypothetic etiopathogenetic mechanisms are described. Diagnostic tests on blood, urine and amniotic fluid should be performed in all mothers with symptoms suggestive of intrauterine ZIKV infection...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114647/clinical-characteristics-risk-factors-and-outcomes-associated-with-neonatal-hemorrhagic-stroke-a-population-based-case-control-study
#3
Lauran Cole, Deborah Dewey, Nicole Letourneau, Bonnie J Kaplan, Kathleen Chaput, Clare Gallagher, Jacquie Hodge, Amalia Floer, Adam Kirton
Importance: Hemorrhage into the brain of term newborns often results in major injury and lifelong disability. The clinical epidemiology of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (NHS) remains undefined, hindering the development of strategies to improve outcomes. Objective: To characterize the incidence, types, presentations, associated factors, and outcomes of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based, nested case-control study...
January 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111188/the-emergence-of-functional-architecture-during-early-brain-development
#4
Kristin Keunen, Serena J Counsell, Manon J N L Benders
Early human brain development constitutes a sequence of intricate processes resulting in the ontogeny of functionally operative neural circuits. Developmental trajectories of early brain network formation are genetically programmed and can be modified by epigenetic and environmental influences. Such alterations may exert profound effects on neurodevelopment, potentially persisting throughout the lifespan. This review focuses on the critical period of fetal and early postnatal brain development. Here we collate findings from neuroimaging studies, with a particular focus on functional MRI research that interrogated early brain network development in both health and high-risk or disease states...
January 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960197/birth-defects-among-fetuses-and-infants-of-us-women-with-evidence-of-possible-zika-virus-infection-during-pregnancy
#5
Margaret A Honein, April L Dawson, Emily E Petersen, Abbey M Jones, Ellen H Lee, Mahsa M Yazdy, Nina Ahmad, Jennifer Macdonald, Nicole Evert, Andrea Bingham, Sascha R Ellington, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Titilope Oduyebo, Anne D Fine, Catherine M Brown, Jamie N Sommer, Jyoti Gupta, Philip Cavicchia, Sally Slavinski, Jennifer L White, S Michele Owen, Lyle R Petersen, Coleen Boyle, Dana Meaney-Delman, Denise J Jamieson
Importance: Understanding the risk of birth defects associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy may help guide communication, prevention, and planning efforts. In the absence of Zika virus, microcephaly occurs in approximately 7 per 10 000 live births. Objective: To estimate the preliminary proportion of fetuses or infants with birth defects after maternal Zika virus infection by trimester of infection and maternal symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: Completed pregnancies with maternal, fetal, or infant laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and outcomes reported in the continental United States and Hawaii from January 15 to September 22, 2016, in the US Zika Pregnancy Registry, a collaboration between the CDC and state and local health departments...
3, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959513/expression-of-hdac2-but-not-hdac1-transcript-is-reduced-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Frederick A Schroeder, Tonya M Gilbert, Ningping Feng, Brendan D Taillon, Nora D Volkow, Robert B Innis, Jacob M Hooker, Barbara K Lipska
Postmortem brain studies support dysregulated expression of the histone deacetylase enzymes, HDAC1 and HDAC2, as a central feature in diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Our objective was to investigate HDAC expression in a large postmortem sample set representing healthy and disease brains. We used >700 well-characterized samples from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 175), major depressive disorder (n = 135), and bipolar disorder (n = 61) to measure HDAC1 and HDAC2 transcript levels by quantitative real-time PCR in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and caudate compared to control samples...
December 13, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829499/botallo-s-error-or-the-quandaries-of-the-universality-assumption
#7
REVIEW
Paolo Bartolomeo, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Stefania de Vito
One of the founding principles of human cognitive neuroscience is the so-called universality assumption, the postulate that neurocognitive mechanisms do not show major differences among individuals. Without negating the importance of the universality assumption for the development of cognitive neuroscience, or the importance of single-case studies, here we aim at stressing the potential dangers of interpreting the pattern of performance of single patients as conclusive evidence concerning the architecture of the intact neurocognitive system...
January 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760663/-the-prognosis-of-monochorionic-co-twin-after-single-intrauterine-fetal-demise
#8
Y Wang, Y Wei, P B Yuan, X J Wang, Y Y Zhao
Objective: To analyze the prognosis of surviving monochorionic co-twin after single intrauterine fetal demise (sIUFD). Methods: Retrospectively analyzed the twin pregnancy cases admitted in Peking University Third Hospital between Jan 2008 and Feb 2015. We recorded perinatal characteristics, neuroimage in co-twin, and followed up the neonatal outcome. Results: 47 cases were found, including 45 cases of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) and 2 cases of monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA). Median gestational age at sIUFD was 27 weeks...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726416/zika-virus-associated-micrencephaly-a-thorough-description-of-neuropathologic-findings-in-the-fetal-central-nervous-system
#9
Peter Štrafela, Alenka Vizjak, Jerica Mraz, Jernej Mlakar, Jože Pižem, Nataša Tul, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Mara Popović
CONTEXT: -The 2015 outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil resulted in a 20-times increased prevalence of congenital microcephaly in stillborns and neonates and was instrumental in raising the suspicion of a causal association between Zika virus and microcephaly. OBJECTIVE: -To provide a comprehensive description of the neuropathologic features of congenital Zika virus infection. DESIGN: -Autopsy evaluation of the brain from a fetus of 32 weeks and 6 days of gestation, with a prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly associated with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, fetal, Zika virus infection...
January 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671884/development-of-de-novo-arteriovenous-malformation-following-ischemic-stroke-case-report-and-review-of-current-literature
#10
Aqueel H Pabaney, Richard A Rammo, Rizwan A Tahir, Donald Seyfried
BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are hypothesized to be static, congenital lesions developing as early as 4 weeks of fetal life. New literature has shown that AVMs may represent dynamic and reactive vascular lesions arising from cerebral infarction, inflammation, or trauma. A literature search reveals 17 previously reported cases of new AVM formation after previous negative imaging studies. This reactive development or "second hit" theory suggests that at a molecular level, growth factors may play a vital role in aberrant angiogenesis and maturation of an arteriovenous fistula into an AVM...
September 23, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659738/scn8a-epileptic-encephalopathy-detection-of-fetal-seizures-guides-multidisciplinary-approach-to-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
Melanie A McNally, Julia Johnson, Thierry A Huisman, Andrea Poretti, Kristin W Baranano, Ahmet A Baschat, Carl E Stafstrom
BACKGROUND: SCN8A mutations are rare and cause a phenotypically heterogeneous early onset epilepsy known as early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 13 (EIEE13, OMIM #614558). There are currently no clear genotype-phenotype correlations to help guide patient counseling and management. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a patient with EIEE13 (de novo heterozygous pathogenic mutation in SCN8A - p.Ile240Val (ATT>GTT)) who presented prenatally with maternally reported intermittent, rhythmic movements that, when observed on ultrasound, were concerning for fetal seizures...
November 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638326/seizures-and-electroencephalography-findings-in-61-patients-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#12
S Boronat, M Vicente, E Lainez, A Sánchez-Montañez, E Vázquez, L Mangado, L Martínez-Ribot, M Del Campo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) cause neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, publications about epilepsy and electroencephalographic features are scarce. In this study, we prospectively performed electroencephalography (EEG) and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 61 patients with diagnosis of FASD. One patient had multiple febrile seizures with normal EEGs. Fourteen children showed EEG anomalies, including slow background activity and interictal epileptiform discharges, focal and/or generalized, and 3 of them had epilepsy...
January 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623126/-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-bisphenol-a-is-serotonin-the-lacking-link-in-the-chain
#13
D Sarrouilhe, C Dejean
The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620364/correlation-between-morphological-mri-findings-and-specific-diagnostic-categories-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#14
S Boronat, A Sánchez-Montañez, N Gómez-Barros, C Jacas, L Martínez-Ribot, E Vázquez, M Del Campo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include physical and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to prenatal alcohol exposure. Some neuroimaging findings have been clearly related to FASD, including corpus callosum and cerebellar anomalies. However, detailed studies correlating with specific FASD categories, that is, the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS) and alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND), are lacking. We prospectively performed clinical assessment and brain MR imaging to 72 patients with suspected FASD, and diagnosis was confirmed in 62...
January 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550733/impact-of-maternal-serotonin-transporter-genotype-on-placental-serotonin-fetal-forebrain-serotonin-and-neurodevelopment
#15
Christopher L Muller, Allison Mj Anacker, Tiffany D Rogers, Nick Goeden, Elizabeth H Keller, C Gunnar Forsberg, Travis M Kerr, Carly LA Wender, George M Anderson, Gregg D Stanwood, Randy D Blakely, Alexandre Bonnin, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Biomarker, neuroimaging, and genetic findings implicate the serotonin transporter (SERT) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, we found that adult male mice expressing the autism-associated SERT Ala56 variant have altered central serotonin (5-HT) system function, as well as elevated peripheral blood 5-HT levels. Early in gestation, before midbrain 5-HT projections have reached the cortex, peripheral sources supply 5-HT to the forebrain, suggesting that altered maternal or placenta 5-HT system function could impact the developing embryo...
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539165/the-natural-history-of-fetal-long-qt-syndrome
#16
Bettina F Cuneo, Janette F Strasburger, Ronald T Wakai
INTRODUCTION: Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG), the magnetic analog of ECG, has provided invaluable insight into the mechanisms of fetal arrhythmias. In the past 15years, we have evaluated over 300 fetuses with arrhythmia by fMCG. We review the unique characteristics and natural history of the long QT syndrome (LQTS) rhythms. METHODS: We reviewed the fMCGs of subjects referred with suspected LQTS based on either a positive family history or echo diagnosis of the LQTS rhythms (sinus bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, or 2:1 AV conduction) to the Biomagnetism laboratory in the Department of Medical Physics, UW-Madison...
November 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491635/associated-ultrasonographic-findings-in-fetuses-with-microcephaly-because-of-suspected-zika-virus-zikv-infection-during-pregnancy
#17
Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho, Kárita Melo Cordeiro, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Gabriele Tonni, Antonio Fernandes Moron, Francisco Edson Lucena Feitosa, Helvécio Neves Feitosa, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: To describe fetal ultrasonographic findings and outcomes in a series of cases of fetal microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection. METHODS: Retrospective case series of microcephaly with definite (laboratory evidence) or highly probable (specific neuroimaging findings and negative laboratory results) maternal Zika virus infection. Microcephaly was graded as mild if the head circumference was between 2 and 3 standard deviation (SD) below the mean, and severe if 3 or more SD below the mean...
September 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473650/fellowship-training-in-the-emerging-fields-of-fetal-neonatal-neurology-and-neonatal-neurocritical-care
#18
REVIEW
Christopher D Smyser, Emily W Y Tam, Taeun Chang, Janet S Soul, Steven P Miller, Hannah C Glass
BACKGROUND: Neonatal neurocritical care is a growing and rapidly evolving medical subspecialty, with increasing numbers of dedicated multidisciplinary clinical, educational, and research programs established at academic institutions. The growth of these programs has provided trainees in neurology, neonatology, and pediatrics with increased exposure to the field, sparking interest in dedicated fellowship training in fetal-neonatal neurology. OBJECTIVES: To meet this rising demand, increasing numbers of training programs are being established to provide trainees with the requisite knowledge and skills to independently deliver care for infants with neurological injury or impairment from the fetal care center and neonatal intensive care unit to the outpatient clinic...
October 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446888/pre-adult-mri-of-brain-cancer-and-neurological-injury-multivariate-analyses
#19
REVIEW
Jacob Levman, Emi Takahashi
Brain cancer and neurological injuries, such as stroke, are life-threatening conditions for which further research is needed to overcome the many challenges associated with providing optimal patient care. Multivariate analysis (MVA) is a class of pattern recognition technique involving the processing of data that contains multiple measurements per sample. MVA can be used to address a wide variety of neuroimaging challenges, including identifying variables associated with patient outcomes; understanding an injury's etiology, development, and progression; creating diagnostic tests; assisting in treatment monitoring; and more...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438023/the-cisternal-segments-of-the-oculomotor-nerve-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Juan Carlos Fernandez Miranda, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: The cisternal segments of the oculomotor nerve (OMN), which courses through the interpeduncular and oculomotor cisterns (OMC) have not been well delineated on neuroimages. The present study aimed to explore the cisternal segments of the OMN using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHODS: A total of 92 patients were enrolled in this study. A constructive interference in steady-state sequence was performed in coronal and axial sections. RESULTS: On coronal images, cisternal portions of the OMN were entirely delineated in 97 % on the right and in 98...
July 20, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
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