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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679647/a-new-micro-holder-device-for-local-drug-delivery-during-in-vivo-whole-cell-recordings
#1
María Sáez, Maya Ketzef, Javier Alegre-Cortés, Ramón Reig, Gilad Silberberg
Focal administration of pharmacological agents during in vivo recordings is a useful technique to study the functional properties of neural microcircuits. However, the lack of visual control makes this task difficult and inaccurate, especially when targeting small and deep regions where spillover to neighboring regions is likely to occur. An additional problem with recording stability arises when combining focal drug administration with in vivo intracellular recordings, which are highly sensitive to mechanical vibrations...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678950/mapping-interaction-sites-on-human-chemokine-receptors-by-deep-mutational-scanning
#2
Jeremiah D Heredia, Jihye Park, Riley J Brubaker, Steven K Szymanski, Kevin S Gill, Erik Procko
Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 regulate WBC trafficking and are engaged by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 during infection. We combine a selection of human CXCR4 and CCR5 libraries comprising nearly all of ∼7000 single amino acid substitutions with deep sequencing to define sequence-activity landscapes for surface expression and ligand interactions. After consideration of sequence constraints for surface expression, known interaction sites with HIV-1-blocking Abs were appropriately identified as conserved residues following library sorting for Ab binding, validating the use of deep mutational scanning to map functional interaction sites in G protein-coupled receptors...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675905/transient-left-anterior-and-septal-fascicular-blocks-after-self-expandable-percutaneous-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#3
Andrés R Pérez-Riera, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, Mariana F Cabral de Oliveira, Rodrigo Daminello-Raimundo, Luiz C de Abreu, Kjell Nikus
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is indicated in severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, when there is intermediate-high surgical risk, or a condition considered inoperable, as in the case of "porcelain aorta" that could turn clamping or cannulation of the ascending aorta hazardous in open-heart surgery. Among the complications of this less invasive procedure, intraventricular conduction disorders subsequent to the procedure stand out. TAVI causes worsening of intraventricular dromotropic disorders in more than 75% of the cases, with the presence of preexisting right bundle branch block and first-degree atrioventricular block, deep prosthesis implant, male gender, size of the aortic annulus smaller than the prosthesis, and porcelain aorta being predictive of requirement for permanent pacemaker implant...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672351/femoral-artery-blood-flow-and-microcirculatory-perfusion-during-acute-low-level-functional-electrical-stimulation-in-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Thomas J Barton, David A Low, Thomas W J Janssen, Maurits Sloots, Christof A J Smit, Dick H J Thijssen
OBJECTIVE: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may help to reduce the risk of developing macro- and microvascular complications in people with SCI. Low-intensity FES has significant clinical potential since this can be applied continuously throughout the day. This study examines the acute effects of low intensity FES using wearable clothing garment on vascular blood flow and oxygen consumption in people with SCI. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observation study METHODS: Eight participants with a motor complete SCI received 4x3 minutes of unilateral FES to the gluteal and hamstring muscles...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672054/correlated-molecular-structural-motions-for-photoprotection-after-deep-uv-irradiation
#5
Longteng Tang, Yanli Wang, Liangdong Zhu, Che Lee, Chong Fang
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light could cause photodamage to biomolecular systems and degrade optoelectronic devices. To mitigate such detrimental effects from the bottom up, we strategically select a photosensitive molecule pyranine and implement femtosecond electronic and Raman spectroscopies to elucidate its ultrafast photoprotection mechanisms in solution. Our results show that pyranine undergoes excited state proton transfer (ESPT) in water while this process is blocked in methanol regardless of excitation wavelengths (267, 400 nm)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670347/alpcs-4-pdt-for-gastric-cancer-therapy-using-gold-nanorod-cationic-liposome-and-pluronic-%C3%A2-f127-nanomicellar-drug-carriers
#6
Jing Xin, Sijia Wang, Bing Wang, Jiazhuang Wang, Jing Wang, Luwei Zhang, Bo Xin, Lijian Shen, Zhenxi Zhang, Cuiping Yao
Purpose: As a promising photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent, Al(III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid (AlPcS4 ) provides deep penetration into tissue, high quantum yields, good photostability, and low photobleaching. However, its low delivery efficiency and high binding affinity to serum albumin cause its low penetration into cancer cells, further limiting its PDT effect on gastric cancer. In order to improve AlPcS4 /PDT effect, the AlPcS4 delivery sys tems with different drug carriers were synthesized and investigated...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670163/contrasting-catastrophic-eruptions-predicted-by-different-intrusion-and-collapse-scenarios
#7
M Rincón, A Márquez, R Herrera, A Alonso-Torres, J L Granja-Bruña, B van Wyk de Vries
Catastrophic volcanic eruptions triggered by landslide collapses can jet upwards or blast sideways. Magma intrusion is related to both landslide-triggered eruptive scenarios (lateral or vertical), but it is not clear how such different responses are produced, nor if any precursor can be used for forecasting them. We approach this problem with physical analogue modelling enhanced with X-ray Multiple Detector Computed Tomography scanning, used to track evolution of internal intrusion, and its related faulting and surface deformation...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668508/ultrasound-and-plastic-surgery-clinical-applications-of-the-newest-technology
#8
John P Miller, Martin J Carney, Soobin Lim, John T Lindsey
BACKGROUND: Color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) has not been routinely used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Barriers to use have included large, cumbersome equipment, low-definition images, cost, and availability. In addition, programs in plastic surgery have not included training with ultrasound (US); thus, many current-day practitioners are unfamiliar with and reluctant to use this technology. Nevertheless, recent studies have demonstrated the utility of US in surgical planning. With the miniaturization, clearer imaging, and decreased costs of the latest US technology, previous barriers to use have largely been eliminated...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629201/anesthesia-and-fast-track-in-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-vats-from-evidence-to-practice
#9
REVIEW
Marzia Umari, Stefano Falini, Matteo Segat, Michele Zuliani, Marco Crisman, Lucia Comuzzi, Francesco Pagos, Stefano Lovadina, Umberto Lucangelo
In thoracic surgery, the introduction of video-assisted thoracoscopic techniques has allowed the development of fast-track protocols, with shorter hospital lengths of stay and improved outcomes. The perioperative management needs to be optimized accordingly, with the goal of reducing postoperative complications and speeding recovery times. Premedication performed in the operative room should be wisely administered because often linked to late discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Inhalatory anesthesia, when possible, should be preferred based on protective effects on postoperative lung inflammation...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622042/engineering-crispr-interference-system-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-for-attenuating-lactic-acid-synthesis
#10
Jingxuan Wang, Peng Zhao, Ying Li, Lida Xu, Pingfang Tian
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a promising industrial species for bioproduction of bulk chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). However, lactic acid is a troublesome by-product when optimizing for 3-HP production. Therefore, it is highly desirable to minimize lactic acid. RESULTS: Here, we show that lactic acid synthesis can be largely blocked by an engineered CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system in K. pneumoniae...
April 5, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614430/a-novel-wavelet-sequences-based-on-deep-bidirectional-lstm-network-model-for-ecg-signal-classification
#11
Özal Yildirim
Long-short term memory networks (LSTMs), which have recently emerged in sequential data analysis, are the most widely used type of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) architecture. Progress on the topic of deep learning includes successful adaptations of deep versions of these architectures. In this study, a new model for deep bidirectional LSTM network-based wavelet sequences called DBLSTM-WS was proposed for classifying electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. For this purpose, a new wavelet-based layer is implemented to generate ECG signal sequences...
March 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609515/jaw-opening-decreases-window-to-the-deep-parotid-lobe
#12
Yu-Jin Lee, Uchechukwu Megwalu, Erick Melara, Vasu Divi, Vinay T Fernandes, Davud Sirjani
To describe the relationship between jaw opening and access to the deep parotid window, we identified the following distances in 10 human skulls: symphysis to angle of mandible, mastoid tip to angle of mandible, angle of mandible to condylar process, and mastoid tip to condylar process. With the jaw closed and open, these distances were measured with 1 to 3 wooden blocks, each measuring 1 cm, between the upper and lower incisors. The triangular deep parotid area formed by the last 3 distances was calculated...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604391/macular-corneal-dystrophy-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Shruti Aggarwal, Travis Peck, Jeffrey Golen, Zeynel A Karcioglu
Macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) is a corneal stromal dystrophy which leads to progressive vision loss. MCD is an autosomal recessive condition in which there is abnormality of proteoglycan synthesis. Mutations in the carbohydrate sulphotransferase gene (CHST6) prevent normal sulfation of corneal keratan. Different immunophenotypes have been described depending on the presence of keratan sulfate in cornea and or serum. The deposition of abnormal proteoglycans leads to loss of corneal transparency and decreased vision...
March 28, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603278/deep-nets-vs-expert-designed-features-in-medical-physics-an-imrt-qa-case-study
#14
Yannet Interian, Vincent Rideout, Vasant P Kearney, Gennatas Efstathios, Olivier Morin, Joey Cheung, Timothy Solberg, Gilmer Valdes
PURPOSE: To compare the performance of Deep Neural Networks against a technique designed by domain experts in the prediction of gamma passing rates for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance (IMRT QA). METHOD: 498 IMRT plans across all treatment sites were planned in Eclipse version 11 and delivered using a dynamic sliding window technique on Clinac iX or TrueBeam Linacs. Measurements were performed using a commercial 2D diode array, and passing rates for 3%/3 mm local dose/distance-to-agreement (DTA) were recorded...
March 30, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588649/classification-of-cites-listed-and-other-neotropical-meliaceae-wood-images-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#15
Prabu Ravindran, Adriana Costa, Richard Soares, Alex C Wiedenhoeft
Background: The current state-of-the-art for field wood identification to combat illegal logging relies on experienced practitioners using hand lenses, specialized identification keys, atlases of woods, and field manuals. Accumulation of this expertise is time-consuming and access to training is relatively rare compared to the international demand for field wood identification. A reliable, consistent and cost effective field screening method is necessary for effective global scale enforcement of international treaties such as the Convention on the International Trade in Endagered Species (CITES) or national laws (e...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583134/super-resolution-reconstruction-of-mr-image-with-a-novel-residual-learning-network-algorithm
#16
Jun Shi, Qingping Liu, Chaofeng Wang, Qi Zhang, Shihui Ying, Haoyu Xu
Spatial resolution is one of the key parameters of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The image super-resolution (SR) technique offers an alternative approach to improve the spatial resolution of MRI due to its simplicity. The convolutional neural networks (CNN)-based SR algorithms have achieved state-of-the-art performance, in which the global residual learning (GRL) strategy is now commonly used due to its effectiveness for learning image details for SR. However, the partial loss of image details usually happens in a very deep network due to the degradation problem...
March 27, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569445/adversarial-threshold-neural-computer-for-molecular-de-novo-design
#17
Evgeny Putin, Arip Asadulaev, Quentin Vanhaelen, Yan Ivanenkov, Anastasiya Aladinskaya, Alex Aliper, Alex Zhavoronkov
In this paper, we propose the deep neural network Adversarial Threshold Neural Computer (ATNC). The ATNC model is intended for the de novo design of novel small-molecule organic structures. The model is based on generative adversarial net- work architecture and reinforcement learning. ATNC uses a Differentiable Neural Com- puter as a generator and has a new specific block, called adversarial threshold (AT). AT acts as a filter between the agent (generator) and the environment (discriminator + objective reward functions)...
March 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555683/structure-function-analyses-reveal-the-molecular-architecture-and-neutralization-mechanism-of-a-bacterial-hepn-mnt-toxin-antitoxin
#18
Xuanyan Jia, Jianyun Yao, Zengqiang Gao, Guangfeng Liu, Yuhui Dong, Xiaoxue Wang, Heng Zhang
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci in bacteria are small genetic modules that regulate various cellular activities, including cell growth and death. The two-gene module encoding a HEPN (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding) domain and a cognate MNT (minimal nucleotidyltransferase) domain has been predicted to represent a novel type II TA system prevalent in archaea and bacteria. However, the neutralization mechanism and cellular targets of the TA family remain unclear. The toxin SO_3166 having a HEPN domain and its cognate antitoxin SO_3165 with an MNT domain constitute a typical type II TA system that regulates cell motility and confers plasmid stability in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549527/in-vitro-efficacy-of-arq-092-an-allosteric-akt-inhibitor-on-primary-fibroblast-cells-derived-from-patients-with-pik3ca-related-overgrowth-spectrum-pros
#19
C Ranieri, S Di Tommaso, D C Loconte, V Grossi, P Sanese, R Bagnulo, F C Susca, G Forte, A Peserico, A De Luisi, A Bartuli, A Selicorni, D Melis, M Lerone, A D Praticò, G Abbadessa, Y Yu, B Schwartz, Martino Ruggieri, Cristiano Simone, Nicoletta Resta
Postzygotic mutations of the PIK3CA [phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha] gene constitutively activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) patients, causing congenital mosaic tissue overgrowth that even multiple surgeries cannot solve. mTOR inhibitors are empirically tested and given for compassionate use in these patients. PROS patients could be ideal candidates for enrolment in trials with PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitors, considering the "clean" cellular setting in which a unique driver, a PIK3CA mutation, is present...
March 16, 2018: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540589/fingolimod-effect-on-gray-matter-thalamus-and-white-matter-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
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