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Deep block

M Gao, M M Mohiuddin, W F Hartsell, M Pankuch
PURPOSE: GRID therapy is an effective treatment for bulky tumors. Linear accelerator (Linac)-produced photon beams collimated through blocks or multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) are the most common methods used to deliver this therapy. Utilizing the newest proton delivery method of pencil beam scanning (PBS) can further improve the efficacy of GRID therapy. In this study, we developed a method of delivering GRID therapy using proton PBS, evaluated the dosimetry of this novel technique and applied this method in two clinical cases...
February 12, 2018: Medical Physics
Dhanalaxmi Karre, Radhika Muppa, Mahesh Kumar Duddu, Sreenivas Nallachakrava
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare relatively less explored fragment reattachment methods following traumatic injury. Materials and Methods: Eighty sound permanent maxillary incisors were selected and mounted in acrylic blocks. Teeth were sectioned using the diamond disc and randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20), Group A, B, C, D. In Group A, after reattachment with composite, a 1 mm-depth circumferential chamfer was placed in the fracture line using a diamond disc bur and filled with composite...
November 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Hyosim Yang, Dai-Sik Kim, Richard H Joon-Yeon Kim, Jae Sung Ahn, Taehee Kang, Jeeyoon Jeong, Dukhyung Lee
Slot antennas have been exploited as important building blocks of optical magnetism because their radiations are invoked by the magnetic fields along the axes, as vectorial Babinet principle predicts. However, optical magnetism of a few-nanometer-width slit, for which fascinating applications are found due to the colossal field enhancement but Babinet principle fails due to the nonnegligible thickness, has not been investigated. In this paper, we demonstrated that the magnetic field plays a dominant role in light transmission through a 5-nm slit on a 150-nm-thick gold film...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mahsa Malekmohammadi, Nicholas AuYong, Joni Ricks-Oddie, Yvette Bordelon, Nader Pouratian
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) are equally efficacious in the management of Parkinson disease (PD). Studies of STN-DBS have revealed a therapeutic reduction in excessive cortical β-γ phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). It is unclear whether this is specific to STN-DBS and potentially mediated by modulation of the hyperdirect pathway or if it is a generalizable mechanism seen with DBS of other targets. Moreover, it remains unclear how cortical signals are differentially modulated by movement versus therapy...
January 31, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Penglong Wang, Rui Zhao, Wenqiang Yan, Xinyu Zhang, Huazheng Zhang, Bing Xu, Fuhao Chu, Yaotian Han, Guoliang Li, Wei Liu, Yuzhong Zhang, Haimin Lei
A new series of ligustrazine-cinnamon acid derivatives had been designed and synthesized as potential neuro-protective agents. Among the derivatives, 3a exhibited the promising neuroprotective activity (EC50 = 3.68 μM). Moreover, with the deep research of the drug pathway, it (the further mechanism researches) suggested compound 3a could inhibit the apoptosis of injured PC12 cells via blocking the mitochondria apoptosis pathway including up-regulation the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, down-regulation the expression of cytochrome-c (Cyt-c) and inhibition of the activity of caspase-9 and -3...
February 2, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Bin-Fei Zhang, Yu-Xuan Cong, Peng-Fei Wang, Hai Huang, Hu Wang, Yan Zhuang
INTRODUCTION: Complications involving vascular injuries after hip fracture are rare, and the diagnosis and management of deep femoral artery (DFA) injuries are challenging. We reported 4 cases of DFA injuries after hip fracture surgery and aimed to discuss their early detection, treatment, and prevention. METHODS: We reviewed 4 cases of deep femoral injury after hip fracture. Case 1: a 71-year-old woman suffered a fracture around a prosthesis. Cases 2-4: 2 men and 1 woman suffered subtrochanteric or intertrochanteric fracture...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vamsi K Ithapu, Risi Kondor, Sterling C Johnson, Vikas Singh
Multiresolution analysis and matrix factorization are foundational tools in computer vision. In this work, we study the interface between these two distinct topics and obtain techniques to uncover hierarchical block structure in symmetric matrices - an important aspect in the success of many vision problems. Our new algorithm, the incremental multiresolution matrix factorization, uncovers such structure one feature at a time, and hence scales well to large matrices. We describe how this multiscale analysis goes much farther than what a direct "global" factorization of the data can identify...
July 2017: Proceedings
Suk W Yoon, Vadim Tsvankin, Zachary Shrock, Boyu Meng, Xiaofeng Zhang, Mark Dewhirst, Peter Fecci, Justus Adamson, Mark Oldham
PURPOSE: This work investigates a new approach to enhance radiotherapy through a photo therapeutic agent activated by Cherenkov light produced from the megavoltage photon beam. The process is termed Radiotherapy Enhanced with Cherenkov photo-Activation (RECA). RECA is compatible with various photo-therapeutics, but here we focus on use with psoralen, an ultraviolet activated therapeutic with extensive history of application in superficial and extracorporeal settings. RECA has potential to extend the scope of psoralen treatments beyond superficial to deep seated lesions...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Cristina Fornaguera, Miguel Ángel Lázaro, Pau Brugada-Vilà, Irene Porcar, Ingrid Morera, Marta Guerra-Rebollo, Cristina Garrido, Núria Rubio, Jerónimo Blanco, Anna Cascante, Salvador Borrós
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most devastating primary brain tumor due to its infiltrating and diffuse growth characteristics, a situation compounded by the lack of effective treatments. Currently, many efforts are being devoted to find novel formulations to treat this disease, specifically in the nanomedicine field. However, due to the lack of comprehensive characterization that leads to insufficient data on reproducibility, only a reduced number of nanomedicines have reached clinical phases. In this context, the aim of the present study was to use a cascade of assays that evaluate from physical-chemical and structural properties to biological characteristics, both in vitro and in vivo, and also to check the performance of nanoparticles for glioma therapy...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Xin Yuan, Yunchen Pu
We report a parallel lensless compressive imaging system, which enjoys real-time reconstruction using deep convolutional neural networks. A prototype composed of a low-cost LCD, 16 photo-diodes and isolation chambers, has been built. Each of these 16 channels captures a fraction of the scene with 16×16 pixels and they are performing in parallel. An efficient inversion algorithm based on deep convolutional neural networks is developed to reconstruct the image. We have demonstrated encouraging results using only 2% (relative to pixel numbers, e...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Cristina Puzzarini, Vincenzo Barone
The prediction and interpretation of structural properties are the starting points for a deep understanding of thermochemistry, kinetics, and spectroscopic signatures of molecular systems. To give an example, detailed knowledge of the conformational behavior of the main building blocks of biomolecules in the gas phase (i.e., without the perturbing effect of the environment) is a mandatory prerequisite toward the understanding of the role played by different interactions in determining the biological activity in terms of structure-activity relationships...
February 5, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ana Beatriz M L A Tavares, José X Lima Neto, Umberto L Fulco, Eudenilson L Albuquerque
Much of the recent excitement in the cancer immunotherapy approach has been generated by the recognition that immune checkpoint proteins, like the receptor PD-1, can be blocked by antibody-based drugs with profound effects. Promising clinical data have already been released pointing to the efficiency of the drug pembrolizumab to block the PD-1 pathway, triggering the T-lymphocytes to destroy the cancer cells. Thus, a deep understanding of this drug/receptor complex is essential for the improvement of new drugs targeting the protein PD-1...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ying-Yi Huo, Shu-Ling Jian, Hong Cheng, Zhen Rong, Heng-Lin Cui, Xue-Wei Xu
BACKGROUND: The deep-sea environment harbors a vast pool of novel enzymes. Owing to the limitations of cultivation, cultivation-independent has become an effective method for mining novel enzymes from the environment. Based on a deep-sea sediment metagenomics library, lipolytic-positive clones were obtained by activity-based screening methods. RESULTS: Two novel esterases, DMWf18-543 and DMWf18-558, were obtained from a deep-sea metagenomic library through activity-based screening and high-throughput sequencing methods...
January 30, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Yoko Mizuta, Tetsuya Higashiyama
Pollen tube guidance is a unique navigating system that is required for the successful sexual reproduction of plants. As plant sperm cells are non-motile and egg cells are embedded deep inside the female tissues, a pollen tube delivers the two sperm cells that it contains by growing towards the ovule, in which the egg cell resides. Pollen tube growth towards the ovule is precisely controlled and divided into two stages, preovular and ovular guidance. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we provide a comprehensive overview of pollen tube guidance and highlight some of the attractant peptides used during ovular guidance...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Dajie Wang
Chronic pain is a common medical condition. Patients who suffer uncontrolled chronic pain may require interventions including spinal injections and various nerve blocks. Interventional procedures have evolved and improved over time since epidural injection was first introduced for low back pain and sciatica in 1901. One of the major contributors in the improvement of these interventions is the advancement of imaging guidance technologies. The utilization of image guidance has dramatically improved the accuracy and safety of these interventions...
January 26, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Özge Yüzgeç, Mario Prsa, Robert Zimmermann, Daniel Huber
During wakefulness, pupil diameter can reflect changes in attention, vigilance, and cortical states. How pupil size relates to cortical activity during sleep, however, remains unknown. Pupillometry during natural sleep is inherently challenging since the eyelids are usually closed. Here, we present a novel head-fixed sleep paradigm in combination with infrared back-illumination pupillometry (iBip) allowing robust tracking of pupil diameter in sleeping mice. We found that pupil size can be used as a reliable indicator of sleep states and that cortical activity becomes tightly coupled to pupil size fluctuations during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep...
January 11, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Stephan Sinn, Liulin Yang, Frank Biedermann, Di Wang, Christian Kübel, Jeroen J L M Cornelissen, Luisa De Cola
Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been created from luminescent Pt(II)-complex amphiphiles, able to form supramolecular structures in water solutions, that can be encapsulated or act as templates of cowpea chlorotic mottle viruses (CCMV) capsid proteins. By virtue of a bottom-up molecular design, icosahedral and non-icosahedral (rod-like) VLPs have been constructed through diverse pathways and a relationship between the molecular structure of the complexes and the shape and size of the VLPs has been ob-served...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yaqi Lv, Chaoran Xu, Xiangmei Zhao, Chenshi Lin, Xin Yang, Xiaofei Xin, Li Zhang, Chao Qin, Xiaopeng Han, Lei Yang, Wei He, Lifang Yin
The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a critical role in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, a therapy that combines chemotherapeutic drugs with a TME modulator could be a promising route for cancer treatment. This paper reports a nanoplatform self-assembled from a hyaluronic acid (HA)-paclitaxel (PTX) (HA-PTX) prodrug and marimastat (MATT)-loaded thermosensitive liposomes (LTSLs) (MATT-LTSLs) for the dual targeting of the TME and cancer cells. Interestingly, the prodrug HA-PTX can self-assemble on both positively and negatively charged liposomes, forming hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs, 100 nm)...
January 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Pai Peng, Xiaojin Zhao, Xiaofang Pan, Wenbin Ye
In this work, we propose a novel Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) tailored for gas classification. Inspired by the great success of DCNN in the field of computer vision, we designed a DCNN with up to 38 layers. In general, the proposed gas neural network, named GasNet, consists of: six convolutional blocks, each block consist of six layers; a pooling layer; and a fully-connected layer. Together, these various layers make up a powerful deep model for gas classification. Experimental results show that the proposed DCNN method is an effective technique for classifying electronic nose data...
January 8, 2018: Sensors
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