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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079733/-a-tale-of-two-planes-deep-versus-superficial-serratus-plane-block-for-postmastectomy-pain-syndrome
#1
Mohammad M Piracha, Stephen L Thorp, Vinay Puttanniah, Amitabh Gulati
INTRODUCTION: Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a significant burden for breast cancer survivors. Although multiple therapies have been described, an evolving field of serratus anterior plane blocks has been described in this population. We describe the addition of the deep serratus anterior plane block (DSPB) for PMPS. METHODS: Four patients with history of PMPS underwent DSPB for anterior chest wall pain. A retrospective review of these patients' outcomes was obtained through postprocedure interviews...
January 10, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076686/small-molecule-hiv-1-entry-inhibitors-targeting-gp120-and-gp41-a-patent-review-2010-2015
#2
Wen Li, Lu Lu, Weihua Li, Shibo Jiang
It is essential to discover and develop small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors with suitable pharmaceutical properties. Areas covered: We review the development of small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors as evidenced in patents, patent applications, and related research articles published between 2010 and 2015. Expert opinion: HIV-1 Env gp120 and gp41 are important targets for development of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. The Phe43 pocket in gp120 and the highly conserved hydrophobic pocket on gp41 NHR-trimer are important targets for identification of HIV-1 attachment and fusion inhibitors, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058845/ultrasensitive-phototriggered-local-anesthesia
#3
Changyou Zhan, Weiping Wang, Claudia Santamaria, Bruce Wang, Alina Rwei, Brian P Timko, Daniel S Kohane
An injectable local anesthetic producing repeatable on-demand nerve block would be desirable for pain management. Here we present a phototriggerable device to achieve repeatable and adjustable on-demand local anesthesia in superficial or deep tissues, consisting of gold nanorods attached to low temperature sensitive liposomes (LTSL). The particles were loaded with tetrodotoxin and dexmedetomidine. Near-infrared light (NIR, 808 nm, continuous wave) could heat gold nanorods at low fluence (short duration and low irradiance), leading to rapid release of payload...
January 6, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049628/initiation-of-mtdna-transcription-is-followed-by-pausing-and-diverge-across-human-cell-types-and-during-evolution
#4
Amit Blumberg, Edward J Rice, Anshul Kundaje, Charles G Danko, Dan Mishmar
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes are long known to be co-transcribed in polycistrones, yet it remains impossible to study nascent mtDNA transcripts quantitatively in vivo using existing tools. To this end we used deep sequencing (GRO-seq and PRO-seq) and analyzed nascent mtDNA-encoded RNA transcripts in diverse human cell lines and metazoan organisms. Surprisingly, accurate detection of human mtDNA transcription initiation sites (TIS) in the heavy and light strands revealed a novel conserved transcription pausing site near the light strand TIS...
January 3, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048587/tu-h-brc-07-therapeutic-benefit-in-spatially-fractionated-radiotherapy-grid-using-helical-tomotherapy
#5
G Narayanasamy, X Zhang, A Meigooni, X Liang, N Paudel, S Morrill, S Maraboyina, L Peacock, J Penagaricano
PURPOSE: The aim of this project is to study the therapeutic ratio (TR) for helical Tomotherapy (HT) based spatially fractionated radiotherapy (GRID). Estimation of TR was based on the linear-quadratic cell survival model by comparing the normal cell survival in a HT GRID to that of a uniform dose delivery in an open-field for the same tumor survival. METHODS: HT GRID plan was generated using a patient specific virtual GRID block pattern of non-divergent, cylinder shaped holes using MLCs...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047467/su-f-t-143-implementation-of-a-correction-based-output-model-for-a-compact-passively-scattered-proton-therapy-system
#6
S Ferguson, S Ahmad, Y Chen, C Ferreira, M Islam, V Keeling, A Lau, H Jin
PURPOSE: To commission and investigate the accuracy of an output (cGy/MU) prediction model for a compact passively scattered proton therapy system. METHODS: A previously published output prediction model (Sahoo et al, Med Phys, 35, 5088-5097, 2008) was commissioned for our Mevion S250 proton therapy system. This model is a correction-based model that multiplies correction factors (d/MUwnc=ROFxSOBPF xRSFxSOBPOCFxOCRxFSFxISF). These factors accounted for changes in output due to options (12 large, 5 deep, and 7 small), modulation width M, range R, off-center, off-axis, field-size, and off-isocenter...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046982/su-c-207b-07-deep-convolutional-neural-network-image-matching-for-ultrasound-guidance-in-radiotherapy
#7
N Zhu, M Najafi, S Hancock, D Hristov
PURPOSE: Robust matching of ultrasound images is a challenging problem as images of the same anatomy often present non-trivial differences. This poses an obstacle for ultrasound guidance in radiotherapy. Thus our objective is to overcome this obstacle by designing and evaluating an image blocks matching framework based on a two channel deep convolutional neural network. METHODS: We extend to 3D an algorithmic structure previously introduced for 2D image feature learning [1]...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044346/technical-note-issues-related-to-external-marker-block-placement-for-deep-inspiration-breath-hold-breast-radiotherapy
#8
Leigh Conroy, Alexandra Guebert, Wendy L Smith
PURPOSE: It has been suggested that the Real-time Position Management (RPM) marker block should be placed directly on the breast or sternum to verify deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) level for breast radiotherapy. We explore three potential issues with this practice: (a) surface dose effect of placing the marker block in the primary beam; (b) effect of marker block tilt on the accuracy of the RPM system; and (c) correlation between marker block positions on the patient surface and internal chest wall position...
November 21, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038985/exploring-the-mechanism-by-which-accumbal-deep-brain-stimulation-attenuates-morphine-induced-reinstatement-through-manganese-enhanced-mri-and-pharmacological-intervention
#9
Lei Zhang, Ying Cui, Ying-Chun Wang, Hong Yin, Jian-Min Zheng, Lu Huang, Zhen-Wei Zhao, Jiang Li
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been applied to attenuate drug relapses in animal studies and clinical treatments. However, the mechanisms by which DBS produces its therapeutic effects remain largely unknown. This study is the first to combine manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with DBS to explore the effects of accumbal DBS on the relapse pathway of rats. The images suggested that DBS produced an antidromic activation of the cortico-accumbal afferents. To verify the activating effects of DBS, the expression levels of the protein encoded by the immediate early gene c-Fos following DBS were measured using immunochemical methods...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018196/changes-in-motor-related-cortical-activity-following-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease-detected-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-pilot-study
#10
Takashi Morishita, Masa-Aki Higuchi, Kazuya Saita, Yoshio Tsuboi, Hiroshi Abe, Tooru Inoue
It remains unclear how deep brain stimulation (DBS) modulates the global neuronal network involving cortical activity. We aimed to evaluate changes in cortical activity in six (two men; four women) patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who underwent unilateral globus pallidus interna (GPI) DBS surgery using a multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. As five of the patients were right-handed, DBS was performed on the left in these five cases. The mean age was 66.8 ± 4.0 years. The unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor scores were evaluated at baseline and 1- and 6-month follow-up...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013056/matrix-metalloproteinase-14-promotes-lung-cancer-by-cleavage-of-heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor
#11
Marcin Stawowczyk, Max D Wellenstein, Sharrell B Lee, Shira Yomtoubian, Anna Durrans, Hyejin Choi, Navneet Narula, Nasser K Altorki, Dingcheng Gao, Vivek Mittal
Molecularly targeted therapies benefit approximately 15-20% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carrying specific drug-sensitive mutations. Thus, there is a clinically unmet need for the identification of novel targets for drug development. Here, we performed RNA-deep sequencing to identify altered gene expression between malignant and non-malignant lung tissue. Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14), a membrane-bound proteinase, was significantly up-regulated in the tumor epithelial cells and intratumoral myeloid compartments in both mouse and human NSCLC...
December 22, 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009283/calcium-imaging-reveals-coordinated-simple-spike-pauses-in-populations-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#12
Jorge E Ramirez, Brandon M Stell
The brain's control of movement is thought to involve coordinated activity between cerebellar Purkinje cells. The results reported here demonstrate that somatic Ca(2+) imaging is a faithful reporter of Na(+)-dependent "simple spike" pauses and enables us to optically record changes in firing rates in populations of Purkinje cells in brain slices and in vivo. This simultaneous calcium imaging of populations of Purkinje cells reveals a striking spatial organization of pauses in Purkinje cell activity between neighboring cells...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004174/altered-patterns-of-displacement-within-the-achilles-tendon-following-surgical-repair
#13
Åsa Fröberg, Ann-Sophie Cissé, Matilda Larsson, Mattias Mårtensson, Michael Peolsson, Tomas Movin, Anton Arndt
PURPOSE: Ultrasound speckle tracking was used to compare tendon deformation patterns between uninjured and surgically repaired Achilles tendons at 14-27-month follow-up. The hypothesis was that the non-homogenous displacement pattern previously described in uninjured tendons, where displacement within deep layers of the tendons exceeds that of superficial layers, is altered following tendon rupture and subsequent surgical repair. METHODS: In the first part of this study, an in-house-developed block-matching speckle tracking algorithm was evaluated for assessment of displacement on porcine flexor digitorum tendons...
December 21, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003001/molecular-cellular-and-pharmaceutical-aspects-of-bone-grafting-materials-and-membranes-during-maxillary-sinus-lift-procedures-part-1-a-general-overview
#14
Adriano Piatelli, Giovanna Iezzi, Alessandra Giuliani, Carlo Mangano, Licia Manzon, Marco Degidi, Flavia Iaculli, Antonio Scarano, Antonella Filippone, Vittoria Perrotti
Sinus augmentation procedure has been demonstrated to be a highly predictable treatment in posterior maxilla atrophy. All the surgical interventions in the maxillary region require deep knowledge of anatomy and possible anatomical variations. In this article pre-operative and post- operative assessments of sinus cavity as well as novel approaches to deepen our knowledge of the behavior of bone substitute materials are described. The awareness of the patient's morphologic conditions enables exact planning of invasive surgery and aids to avoid complications...
December 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002992/molecular-cellular-and-pharmaceutical-aspects-of-bone-grafting-materials-and-membranes-during-maxillary-sinus-lift-procedures-part-1-a-general-overview
#15
Adriano Piatelli, Giovanna Iezzi, Alessandra Giuliani, Carlo Mangano, Licia Manzon, Marco Degidi, Flavia Iaculli, Antonio Scarano, Antonella Filippone, Vittoria Perrotti
Sinus augmentation procedure has been demonstrated to be a highly predictable treatment in posterior maxilla atrophy. All the surgical interventions in the maxillary region require deep knowledge of anatomy and possible anatomical variations. In this article pre-operative and post- operative assessments of sinus cavity as well as novel approaches to deepen our knowledge of the behavior of bone substitute materials are described. The awareness of the patient's morphologic conditions enables exact planning of invasive surgery and aids to avoid complications...
December 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001482/thermodynamic-effects-of-three-different-diode-lasers-on-an-implant-bone-interface-an-ex-vivo-study-with-review-of-the-literature
#16
Nicola Alberto Valente, Antonio Calascibetta, Giuseppe Pio Patianna, Thomas Mang, Michael Hatton, Sebastiano Andreana
The aim of this study is to assess the increase of temperature, following laser irradiation with 810nm and 980nm and 1064nm diode laser's wavelengths, of an implant, under conditions that more closely replicate those of the human body. A 4x14mm machined surface implant was placed in a porcine rib to replicate the conductivity of heat given by the bone. A peri-implant vertical defect 2mm wide and 2mm deep, to simulate bone resorption. Two thermocouples were positioned, crestally and apically, on the implant surface...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997126/efficient-tumor-accumulation-penetration-and-tumor-growth-inhibition-achieved-by-polymer-therapeutics-the-effect-of-polymer-architectures
#17
Tong Shen, Xin Xu, Linyi Guo, Hao Tang, Tongxiang Diao, Zhihua Gan, Guan Zhang, Qingsong Yu
To obtain high tumor-specific accumulation, strong tumor penetration and low off-target uptake, we developed a series of polymer therapeutics with different architectures, including random, block, and brush-like structure, based on the classic N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide polymers. The influence of polymer architecture on biological properties such as cellular uptake, blood clearance, and biodistribution have been investigated. Besides small micelles whose sizes were determined by polymer architectures, large aggregates formed by micelle aggregation could also be observed...
December 20, 2016: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994957/functional-characterisation-of-phagocytes-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#18
Shuai Jiang, Zhihao Jia, Tao Zhang, Lingling Wang, Limei Qiu, Jinsheng Sun, Linsheng Song
Invertebrates lack canonical adaptive immunity and mainly rely on innate immune system to fight against pathogens. The phagocytes, which could engulf and kill microbial pathogens, are likely to be of great importance and have to undertake significant roles in invertebrate immune defense. In the present study, flow cytometry combined with histological and lectin staining was employed to characterise functional features of phagocytes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Based on the cell size and cellular contents, haemocytes were categorised into three cell types, i...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994336/what-is-a-false-negative-sentinel-node-biopsy-definition-reasons-and-ways-to-minimize-it
#19
Kamal Kataria, Anurag Srivastava, Darakhshan Qaiser
Sentinel node biopsy helps in assessing the involvement of axillary lymph node without the morbidity of full axillary lymph node dissection, namely arm and shoulder pain, paraesthesia and lymphoedema. The various methods described in the literature identify the sentinel lymph nodes in approximately 96 % of cases and associated with a false negativity rate of 5 to 10 %. A false negative sentinel node is defined as the proportion of cases in whom sentinel node biopsy is reported as negative, but the rest of axillary lymph node(s) harbours cancer cells...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955918/dexmedetomidine-added-to-local-anesthetic-mixture-of-lidocaine-and-ropivacaine-enhances-onset-and-prolongs-duration-of-a-popliteal-approach-to-sciatic-nerve-blockade
#20
Xiawei Hu, Jinlei Li, Riyong Zhou, Quanguang Wang, Fangfang Xia, Thomas Halaszynski, Xuzhong Xu
PURPOSE: A literature review of multiple clinical studies on mixing additives to improve pharmacologic limitation of local anesthetics during peripheral nerve blockade revealed inconsistency in success rates and various adverse effects. Animal research on dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant on the other hand has promising results, with evidence of minimum unwanted results. This randomized, double-blinded, contrastable observational study examined the efficacy of adding dexmedetomidine to a mixture of lidocaine plus ropivacaine during popliteal sciatic nerve blockade (PSNB)...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
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