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dipeptidyl peptidase 4

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905912/effect-of-sitagliptin-on-blood-glucose-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-who-are-treatment-naive-or-poorly-responsive-to-existing-antidiabetic-drugs-the-jamp-study
#1
Hiroshi Sakura, Naotake Hashimoto, Kazuo Sasamoto, Hiroshi Ohashi, Sumiko Hasumi, Noriko Ujihara, Tadasu Kasahara, Osamu Tomonaga, Hideo Nunome, Masashi Honda, Yasuhiko Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: To investigate the ameliorating effect of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were previously untreated with or who have a poor responsive to existing antidiabetic drugs. METHODS: Sitagliptin (50 mg/day) was added on to the pre-existing therapy for type 2 diabetes and changes in the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level after 3 months of treatment were compared with the baseline and performed exploratory analysis...
December 1, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899813/the-pro-fibrotic-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-in-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-experimental-liver-injury
#2
Xin M Wang, Lauren E Holz, Sumaiya Chowdhury, Shaun P Cordoba, Kathryn A Evans, Margaret G Gall, Ana Júlia Vieira de Ribeiro, Yuan Zhou Zheng, Miriam T Levy, Denise M T Yu, Tsun-Wen Yao, Natasa Polak, Christopher J Jolly, Patrick Bertolino, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Mark D Gorrell
Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process involving inflammation and extracellular matrix deposition. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as CD26, is a cell surface glycoprotein and serine protease. DPP4 binds to fibronectin, can inactivate specific chemokines, incretin hormone and neuropeptides, and influences cell adhesion and migration. Such properties suggest a pro-fibrotic role for this peptidase but this hypothesis needs in vivo examination. Experimental liver injury was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in DPP4 gene knockout (gko) mice...
November 30, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898522/context-dependent-effects-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#3
Edwin K Jackson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The antidiabetic mechanism of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors is attributed to attenuation of incretin metabolism. Because DPP4 has at least 45 substrates, context-dependent off-target effects of DPP4 inhibitors are likely. Here, we consider the clinical ramifications of the context-dependent effects of DPP4 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Although incretins protect organs from diabetic injury, nonincretin DPP4 substrates also accumulate when DPP4 is inhibited...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895822/linagliptin-alleviates-fatty-liver-disease-in-diabetic-db-db-mice
#4
Svetlana V Michurina, Irina Ju Ishenko, Vadim V Klimontov, Sergey A Archipov, Natalia E Myakina, Marina A Cherepanova, Eugenii L Zavjalov, Galina V Koncevaya, Vladimir I Konenkov
AIM: To study the effects of linagliptin on the structural signs of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in db/db mice. METHODS: Male diabetic db/db mice (BKS.Cg-Dock7(m+)/(+)Lepr(db)/J) aged 10 wk received the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor linagliptin (10 mg/kg) or saline as a placebo once per day by gavage for 8 wk. Intact db/db mice served as controls. Structural changes in the liver were analyzed from light and electron microscopic images of sections from intact, placebo-treated and linagliptin-treated animals...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895112/hepatic-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-controls-pharmacokinetics-of-vildagliptin-in-vivo
#5
Mitsutoshi Asakura, Tatsuki Fukami, Miki Nakajima, Hideaki Fujii, Koichiro Atsuda, Tomoo Itoh, Ryoichi Fujiwara
The major metabolic pathway of vildagliptin, which is an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), in humans is hydrolysis at the cyano group to produce a carboxylic acid metabolite M20.7. Our in vitro study previously demonstrated that DPP-4 itself greatly contributed to the hydrolysis of vildagliptin in mouse, rat, and human livers. To investigate whether hepatic DPP-4 contributes to the hydrolysis of vildagliptin in vivo, in the present study, we conducted in vivo pharmacokinetics studies of vildagliptin in mice co-administered with vildagliptin and sitagliptin, which is another DPP-4 inhibitor, and also in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
November 28, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892925/a-mouse-model-for-mers-coronavirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
Adam S Cockrell, Boyd L Yount, Trevor Scobey, Kara Jensen, Madeline Douglas, Anne Beall, Xian-Chun Tang, Wayne A Marasco, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889414/changes-in-glucose-induced-plasma-active-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-by-co-administration-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-inhibitors-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-in-rodents
#7
Takahiro Oguma, Chiaki Kuriyama, Keiko Nakayama, Yasuaki Matsushita, Kumiko Hikida, Minoru Tsuda-Tsukimoto, Akira Saito, Kenji Arakawa, Kiichiro Ueta, Masabumi Minami, Masaharu Shiotani
We investigated whether structurally different sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors, when co-administered with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, could enhance glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in rodents. Three different SGLT inhibitors-1-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl)-4-chloro-3-[5-(6-fluoro-2-pyridyl)-2-thienylmethyl]benzene (GTB), TA-1887, and canagliflozin-were examined to assess the effect of chemical structure. Oral treatment with GTB plus a DPP4 inhibitor enhanced glucose-induced plasma active GLP-1 (aGLP-1) elevation and suppressed glucose excursions in both normal and diabetic rodents...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887857/a-potential-contribution-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-by-the-mediation-of-monocyte-differentiation-in-the-development-and-progression-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#8
Hsin-Ying Lu, Chun-Yao Huang, Chun-Ming Shih, Yi-Wen Lin, Chein-Sung Tsai, Feng-Yen Lin, Chun-Che Shih
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by the destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, an adipokine known as CD26) influences cell signaling, cell-matrix interactions, and the regulation of the functional activity of incretins in metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Although the role of DPP-4 in AAA evolution has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of DPP-4-regulated AAA development remains unknown...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885461/prevention-and-treatment-effect-of-evogliptin-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-fed-animal-models
#9
Mi-Kyung Kim, Yu Na Chae, Gook-Jun Ahn, Chang Yell Shin, Song-Hyen Choi, Eun Kyoung Yang, Yong Sung Sohn, Moon-Ho Son
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is an adipokine that interrupts insulin signaling. The resulting insulin resistance exacerbates hepatic steatosis. We previously reported that the novel DPP4 inhibitor evogliptin improves insulin resistance. This study aimed to verify the therapeutic potential of evogliptin for fatty liver. Evogliptin treatment was initiated simultaneously with a high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in normal mice and in a post-24 week HFD-fed rats. In a prevention study, insulin sensitivity was preserved in evogliptin-treated mice after a 16-week treatment...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885251/postprandial-and-orthostatic-hypotension-treated-by-sitagliptin-in-a-patient-with-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#10
Yoshihiro Saito, Joji Ishikawa, Kazumasa Harada
BACKGROUND Postprandial hypotension, induced by an absorption of glucose from intestine, could be treated by acarbose; however, it was unclear whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor reduced postprandial hypotension. CASE REPORT A 78-year-old woman who had experienced episodes of dizziness and hypotension after eating was admitted to our hospital. During 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, there were repeated episodes of marked postprandial hypotension; i.e., a significant systolic blood pressure reduction within two hours after eating (from -58 to -64 mm Hg after meals)...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884648/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-peripheral-arterial-disease-and-lower-extremity-amputation-risk-in-diabetic-patients
#11
Chun-Chin Chang, Yung-Tai Chen, Chien-Yi Hsu, Yu-Wen Su, Chun-Chih Chiu, Hsin-Bang Leu, Po-Hsun Huang, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have elucidated the vascular protective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors). However, to date no large-scale studies have been carried out to determine the impact of DPP-4 inhibitors on the occurrence of peripheral arterial disease, and lower extremity amputation risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective registry analysis using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the correlation between the use of DPP-4 inhibitors and risk of peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884496/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-its-receptor-agonists-their-roles-in-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
REVIEW
Ankit Gupta, Herbert F Jelinek, Hayder Al-Aubaidy
This study summarizes major work which investigated the roles of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor (GLP-1R); the use of GLP-1-R agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It focuses on the recent therapeutic development which has occurred in this field, and also discusses the potential treatments which can be discovered and implemented in the near future to design an effective therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
September 15, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883260/the-use-of-incretin-agents-and-risk-of-acute-and-chronic-pancreatitis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Lotte M Knapen, Roy G P J de Jong, Johanna H M Driessen, Yolande C Keulemans, Nielka P van Erp, Marie L De Bruin, Hubert G M Leufkens, Sander Croes, Frank de Vries
BACKGROUND: Incretin-based therapies (Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 inhibitors and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists) are effective new agents for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). While incretin-based therapies have been associated with pancreatitis, evidence is conflicting for acute pancreatitis and lacks for chronic pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the use of incretin agents and the risk of any, acute and chronic pancreatitis...
November 24, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882332/c-peptide-levels-predict-the-effectiveness-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-therapy
#14
Sevin Demir, Sule Temizkan, Mehmet Sargin
Background. Our aim was to define the conditions that affect therapeutic success when dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor is added to metformin monotherapy. Materials and Methods. We reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who had received DPP-4 inhibitor as an add-on to metformin monotherapy and evaluated their response in the first year of therapy. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, C-peptide, and weight of the patients were recorded at 3-month intervals during the first year of treatment. Results...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881129/impact-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-on-serum-adiponectin-a-meta-analysis
#15
Xin Liu, Peng Men, Yuhui Wang, Suodi Zhai, George Liu
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin, an adipose-specific protein, is negatively correlated with pro-atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance. Therefore, low levels of adiponectin are associated with a higher risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) have been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as reversible inhibitors through interacting with DPP4 substrate and increase serum incretins such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 23, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875385/effects-of-linagliptin-on-vessel-wall-healing-in-the-rat-model-of-arterial-injury-under-normal-and-diabetic-conditions
#16
Linnea Eriksson, Samuel Röhl, Robert Saxelin, Mariette Lengquist, Malin Kronqvist, Kenneth Caidahl, Claes-Göran Östenson, Anton Razuvaev
Diabetic patients suffer an increased risk of restenosis and late stent thrombosis after angioplasty, complications that are related to a defective re-endothelialization. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors have been suggested to exert direct effect on endothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Therefore the objective was to study if the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin could influence vascular repair and accelerate re-endothelialization after arterial injury in healthy and diabetic animals. Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki and healthy Wistar rats were subjected to arterial injury and treated with linagliptin or vehicle...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873238/cardiovascular-safety-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors-a-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-randomized-trials
#17
Islam Y Elgendy, Ahmed N Mahmoud, Amr F Barakat, Akram Y Elgendy, Marwan Saad, Ahmed Abuzaid, Siddarth A Wayangankar, Anthony A Bavry
BACKGROUND: Large randomized trials have shown conflicting evidence regarding the cardiovascular safety of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Systematic reviews have been limited by incomplete data and inclusion of observational studies. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the cardiovascular safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized trials that compared DPP-4 inhibitors versus placebo and reported cardiovascular outcomes...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868366/effects-of-gemigliptin-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-on-lipid-metabolism-and-endotoxemia-after-a-high-fat-meal-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Chang Ho Ahn, Eun Ky Kim, Se Hee Min, Tae Jung Oh, Young Min Cho
We aimed to investigate the effects of gemigliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on postprandial lipoprotein levels and endotoxemia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Ten patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with oral anti-diabetic medications and/or lifestyle modification were randomized to gemigliptin or placebo for four weeks. At the end of each treatment phase, the subjects underwent a high-fat meal tolerance test and needle aspiration of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue...
November 21, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868279/involvement-of-dpp-iv-cd26-in-cutaneous-wound-healing-process-in-mice
#19
Lara Baticic Pucar, Ester Pernjak Pugel, Dijana Detel, Jadranka Varljen
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV/CD26) is a widely distributed multifunctional protein that plays a significant role in different physiological as well as pathological processes having a broad spectrum of bioactive substrates and immunomodulative properties. It has potential influence on different processes crucial for wound healing, including cell adhesion, migration, apoptosis and extracellular matrix degradation. However, despite its known enzymatic and immunomodulative functions, limited data characterize the role of DPP IV/CD26 in cutaneous wound healing mechanisms...
November 21, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866216/association-of-circulating-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-levels-with-osteoporotic-fracture-in-postmenopausal-women
#20
H Kim, K H Baek, S-Y Lee, S H Ahn, S H Lee, J-M Koh, Y Rhee, C H Kim, D-Y Kim, M-I Kang, B-J Kim, Y-K Min
: Postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture (OF) had higher plasma dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels than those without. Furthermore, higher plasma DPP4 levels were significantly associated with higher bone turnover and a higher prevalence of OF. These results indicated that DPP4 may be associated with OF by mediating bone turnover rate. INTRODUCTION: Evidence indicates that dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) plays a distinct role in bone metabolism. However, there has been no report on the association, if any, between circulating DPP4 levels and osteoporosis-related phenotypes, including osteoporotic fracture (OF)...
November 19, 2016: Osteoporosis International
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