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dipeptidyl peptidase 4

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326532/common-drug-side-effects-and-drug-drug-interactions-in-elderly-adults-in-primary-care
#1
Susan E Merel, Douglas S Paauw
Prescribing medications, recognizing and managing medication side effects and drug interactions, and avoiding polypharmacy are all essential skills in the care of older adults in primary care. Important side effects of medications commonly prescribed in older adults (statins, proton pump inhibitors, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, zolpidem, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors) were reviewed. Important drug interactions with four agents or classes (statins, warfarin, factor Xa inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers) are discussed...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325798/management-of-inpatient-hyperglycemia-and-diabetes-in-older-adults
#2
Guillermo E Umpierrez, Francisco J Pasquel
Adults aged 65 years and older are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and their number is expected to double to 89 million between 2010 and 2050. The prevalence of diabetes in hospitalized adults aged 65-75 years and over 80 years of age has been estimated to be 20% and 40%, respectively. Similar to general populations, the presence of hyperglycemia and diabetes in elderly patients is associated with increased risk of hospital complications, longer length of stay, and increased mortality compared with subjects with normoglycemia...
April 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323503/add-on-dpp-4-inhibitor-alogliptin-alone-or-in-combination-with-pioglitazone-improved-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-metformin-treated-pcos
#3
Mojca Jensterle, Katja Goricar, Andrej Janez
PURPOSE: Impaired β-cell function remains unaddressed in PCOS. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor alogliptin (ALO) alone or in combination with pioglitazone (PIO) improves β-cell function along with insulin resistance (IR) in metformin (MET) treated obese women with PCOS with persistent IR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12-week randomized study, ALO 25 mg QD (n=15) or ALO 25 mg QD and PIO 30 mg QD (n=15) was added to MET 1000 mg BID in PCOS women (aged 34...
March 21, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322746/truncation-of-cxcl12-by-cd26-reduces-its-cxc-chemokine-receptor-4-and-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-dependent-activity-on-endothelial-cells-and-lymphocytes
#4
Rik Janssens, Anneleen Mortier, Daiane Boff, Pieter Ruytinx, Mieke Gouwy, Bo Vantilt, Olav Larsen, Viktorija Daugvilaite, Mette M Rosenkilde, Marc Parmentier, Sam Noppen, Sandra Liekens, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf, Mauro M Teixeira, Flávio A Amaral, Paul Proost
The chemokine CXCL12 or stromal cell-derived factor 1/SDF-1 attracts hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature leukocytes through the G protein-coupled CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). In addition, it interacts with atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3 or CXCR7) and glycosaminoglycans. CXCL12 activity is regulated through posttranslational cleavage by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 that removes two N-terminal amino acids. CD26-truncated CXCL12 does not induce calcium signaling or chemotaxis of mononuclear cells...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322294/effects-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-on-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Xiafei Lyu, Xiaolin Zhu, Bin Zhao, Liang Du, Dawei Chen, Chun Wang, Guanjian Liu, Xingwu Ran
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a novel family of glucose-lowering agents. Accumulating evidence suggests that DPP-4 inhibitors preserve pancreatic beta-cell function, but results in previous studies have been inconsistent. We assessed the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on the homoeostasis model assessment beta-cell function (HOMA-B) or insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in patients with type 2 diabetes through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Relevant articles were identified from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases up to December 27, 2016...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322073/sglt2-inhibitor-dpp-4-inhibitor-combination-therapy-complementary-mechanisms-of-action-for-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Jayant Dey
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with multiple underlying pathophysiologic defects. Monotherapy alone cannot maintain glycemic control and leads to treatment failure. Ideally, a combination of glucose-lowering agents should have complementary mechanisms of action that address multiple pathophysiologic pathways, can be used at all stages of the disease, and be generally well tolerated with no increased risk of hypoglycemia, cardiovascular events, or weight gain. The combination should also provide conveniences for patients, such as oral dosing, single-pill formulations, and once-daily administration, potentially translating to improved adherence...
March 21, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321057/the-glucose-lowering-efficacy-of-sitagliptin-in-obese-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Ryo Kodera, Kenichi Shikata, Akihiko Nakamura, Satoru Okazaki, Ryo Nagase, Tatsuaki Nakatou, Shigeru Haisa, Kazuyuki Hida, Katsuhiro Miyashita, Hirofumi Makino
Objective Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are the most frequently prescribed oral hypoglycemic agents in Japan. Although a relationship between the efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors and the body mass index (BMI) has been reported, this relationship is controversial. We investigated whether the BMI value affects the glucose-lowering efficacy of sitagliptin in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods One hundred sixty-two outpatients with inadequate glycemic control were divided into four groups based on their baseline BMI values...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318663/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-in-chronic-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#8
Patrícia Lourenço, Sérgio Silva, Filipe Cunha, Joana Pereira, Ana Ribeiro, Nuno Silva, João Tiago Guimarães, José Paulo Araújo, Paulo Bettencourt
BACKGROUND: An association between dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors with worse prognosis in HF has been suggested. We aimed to assess the serum DPP-IV levels in chronic stable HF patients and determine their association with prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic stable HF patients with optimized prognostic-modifying therapy were prospectively recruited. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1) ejection fraction>50%, 2) hospitalizations or therapeutic adjustments in the previous 2months; 3) patients on renal replacement therapy, and 4) use of DPP-IV inhibitors...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314484/impact-of-health-policy-and-practice-on-finding-the-best-fit-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-after-metformin-failure-croatian-pilot-study
#9
Maja Cigrovski Berković, Davorka Herman Mahečić, Marina Gradišer, Ines Bilić-Ćurčić
AIM: We assessed the impact of clinical practice and health policy on the choice and efficacy of different second-line therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) after failure of metformin. METHODS: This retrospective database analysis included 200 patients with a follow-up period of 6 months. The primary end-point was achievement of HbA1c <7% and fasting (FBG) and postprandial glucose levels (PPG) <7.2mmol/L and <10mmol/L, respectively after three and six months of different add-on treatments...
March 14, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302310/design-synthesis-and-anti-diabetic-activity-of-triazolotriazine-derivatives-as-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-dpp-4-inhibitors
#10
Bhumika D Patel, Shraddha V Bhadada, Manjunath D Ghate
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major global metabolic disorders characterized by insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia. Inhibition of the enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) has been proved as successful and safe therapy for the treatment of T2DM since last decade. In order to design novel DPP-4 inhibitors, various in silico studies such as 3D-QSAR, pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening were performed and on the basis of the combined results of them, total 50 triazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazine derivatives were designed and mapped on the best pharmacophore model...
March 6, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296349/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-as-preferable-oral-hypoglycemic-agents-in-terms-of-treatment-satisfaction-results-from-a-multicenter-12-week-open-label-randomized-controlled-study-in-japan
#11
Hitoshi Ishii, Yasuaki Hayashino, Yasuhiro Akai, Matahiro Yabuta, Satoru Tsujii
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To compare the treatment satisfaction of four classes of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs): dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, α-glucosidase inhibitors (αGI), biguanides (BG), and sulfonylureas (SU), which are common initial treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Japan, and to identify the best OHA in terms of treatment satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this 12-week, randomized, controlled, open-label study, Japanese outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were naïve to pharmacological treatment were randomly assigned a DPP-4 inhibitor, a BG, an αGI, or a SU...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295491/national-trends-in-the-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-the-united-states
#12
O Ajiboye, J B Segal
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy continues to rise and it remains a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Patients diagnosed with diabetic nephropathy are actively excluded from most trials involving diabetic medications and it is important to understand the prescription patterns in this subset of patients with diabetes. METHODS: Using the IMS Health's National Disease and Therapeutic Index, we analysed the medication prescription patterns for six classes of medications from 2010 to 2014 among patients, 35 years or older, with diabetic nephropathy...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291655/the-cardiovascular-safety-trials-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-glp-1-agonists-and-sglt2-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Matthew H Secrest, Jacob A Udell, Kristian B Filion
In this paper, we review the results of large, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trials mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration to examine the cardiovascular safety of newly-approved antihyperglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes. The cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors remain controversial: while these drugs did not reduce or increase the risk of primary, pre-specified composite cardiovascular outcomes, one DPP-4 inhibitor (saxagliptin) increased the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in the overall population; another (alogliptin) demonstrated inconsistent effects on heart failure hospitalization across subgroups of patients, and a third (sitagliptin) demonstrated no effect on heart failure...
January 28, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291027/estrogen-and-dpp-4-inhibitor-share-similar-efficacy-in-reducing-brain-pathology-caused-by-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-both-lean-and-obese-estrogen-deprived-rats
#14
Wasana Pratchayasakul, Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Piangkwan Sa-Nguanmoo, Cicely Proctor, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) caused an oxidative burst, increased beta-amyloid production, and decreased dendritic spine density in the brain. However, the effect of cardiac I/R in the brain of estrogen-deprived rats who were or were not obese have not been investigated. Moreover, the benefits of estrogen or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitor therapies in those conditions have never been determined. We hypothesized that cardiac I/R aggravates brain pathology in estrogen-deprived obese rats, to a greater extent when compared with estrogen-deprived lean rats, and treatment with either estrogen or a DPP-4 inhibitor attenuates those adverse effects...
March 13, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288852/altered-circulating-concentrations-of-active-glucagon-like-peptide-glp-1-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-dpp4-in-obese-subjects-and-their-association-with-insulin-resistance
#15
Radwan H Ahmed, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Sekaran Muniandy, Zaid Al-Hamodi, Boshra Al-Absi, Abdulsamad Alsalahi, Muhammad Fm Razif
OBJECTIVES: Soluble DPP4 (sDPP4) is a novel adipokine that degrades glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1). We evaluated the fasting serum levels of active GLP-1 and sDPP4 in obese, overweight and normal weight subjects to assess the association between sDPP4 levels, active GLP-1 levels and insulin resistance in obese subjects. METHODS: The study involved 235 Malaysian subjects who were randomly selected (66 normal weight subjects, 97 overweight, 59 obese subjects, and 13 subjects who were underweight)...
March 11, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285800/perspectives-on-cardiovascular-effects-of-incretin-based-drugs-from-bedside-to-bench-return-trip
#16
Michaela Luconi, Giulia Cantini, Antonio Ceriello, Edoardo Mannucci
Recently, cardiovascular outcome trials with glucose-lowering drugs used in type 2 diabetes mellitus, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), liraglutide and semaglutide, showed a reduction in cardiovascular events, which had not been observed in trials with other incretin-based drugs, such as lixisenatide or with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i). Mechanisms underlying the observed cardiovascular differences between DPP4i and GLP1-RA, and across individual GLP1-RA are poorly understood...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284167/albiglutide-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-an-integrated-safety-analysis-of-the-harmony-phase-3-trials
#17
Bo Ahrén, Molly C Carr, Karen Murphy, Christopher Perkins, Marc Rendell, Jason Mallory, Timothy Wilson, Susan Johnson
AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) stimulate the incretin system and lower glycaemic parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis of clinical studies of up to 3years evaluated the safety of albiglutide, a GLP-1 RA, in people with T2DM. METHODS: Integrated safety analysis included seven phase-3 T2DM studies of albiglutide compared with placebo and/or active comparators (a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, GLP-1 RA, insulin, sulphonylurea, and thiazolidinedione)...
February 20, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281660/dpp-4-inhibitor-and-estrogen-share-similar-efficacy-against-cardiac-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-in-obese-insulin-resistant-and-estrogen-deprived-female-rats
#18
Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Pongpan Tanajak, Wanpitak Pongkan, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Estrogen deprivation aggravates cardiac injury after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Although either estrogen or the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, vildagliptin, reduces myocardial damage following cardiac I/R, their effects on the heart in obese-insulin resistant and estrogen deprived conditions remain unknown. Ovariectomized (O) rats (n = 36) were divided to receive either normal diet (NDO) or high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks, followed by treatment with a vehicle, estrogen or vildagliptin for 4 weeks...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277821/receptor-binding-domain-of-mers-cov-with-optimal-immunogen-dosage-and-immunization-interval-protects-human-transgenic-mice-from-mers-cov-infection
#19
Yufei Wang, Wanbo Tai, Jie Yang, Guangyu Zhao, Shihui Sun, Chien-Te K Tseng, Shibo Jiang, Yusen Zhou, Lanying Du, Jimin Gao
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) continues to raise worldwide concerns due to its pandemic potential. Increased MERS cases and no licensed MERS vaccines highlight the need to develop safe and effective vaccines against MERS. We have previously demonstrated that a receptor-binding domain (RBD) fragment containing residues 377-588 of MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein is a critical neutralizing domain and an important vaccine target. Nevertheless, its optimal immunogen dosage and immunization interval, key factors for human-used vaccines that induce protective immunity, have never been investigated...
March 9, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276972/pharmacotherapy-of-treatment-resistant-type-2-diabetes
#20
André J Scheen
Despite type 2 diabetes (T2D) management offers a variety of pharmacological interventions targeting different defects, numerous patients remain with persistent hyperglycaemia responsible for severe complications. Unlike resistant hypertension, treatment resistant T2D is not a classical concept although it is a rather common observation in clinical practice. Areas covered: This article proposes a definition for 'treatment resistant diabetes', analyses the causes of poor glucose control despite standard therapy, briefly considers the alternative approaches to glucose-lowering pharmacotherapy and finally describes how to overcome poor glycaemic control, using innovative oral or injectable combination therapies...
March 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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