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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645327/impact-of-growth-matrix-on-pharmacodynamics-of-antimicrobial-drugs-for-pig-pneumonia-pathogens
#1
Lucy Dorey, Peter Lees
BACKGROUND: The most widely used measure of potency of antimicrobial drugs is Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). MIC is usually determined under standardised conditions in broths formulated to optimise bacterial growth on a species-by-species basis. This ensures comparability of data between laboratories. However, differences in values of MIC may arise between broths of differing chemical composition and for some drug classes major differences occur between broths and biological fluids such as serum and inflammatory exudate...
June 23, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642875/rapid-elimination-of-blood-alcohol-using-erythrocytes-mathematical-modeling-and-in-vitro-study
#2
Yuliya G Alexandrovich, Elena A Kosenko, Elena I Sinauridze, Sergey I Obydennyi, Igor I Kireev, Fazoil I Ataullakhanov, Yuriy G Kaminsky
Erythrocytes (RBCs) loaded with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD) can metabolize plasma ethanol and acetaldehyde but with low efficiency. We investigated the rate-limiting factors in ethanol oxidation by these enzymes loaded into RBCs. Mathematical modeling and in vitro experiments on human RBCs loaded simultaneously with ADH and ALD (by hypoosmotic dialysis) were performed. The simulation showed that the rate of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) generation in RBC glycolysis, but not the activities of the loaded enzymes, is the rate-limiting step in external ethanol oxidation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603221/modification-of-mitochondrial-function-cytoplasmic-lipid-content-and-cryosensitivity-of-bovine-embryos-by-resveratrol
#3
Takahito Abe, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Tomotaka Hara, Tatsuo Noguchi, Takeshi Hayashi, Koumei Shirasuna, Takehito Kuwayama, Hisataka Iwata
Resveratrol is a potent activator of NAD-dependent deacetyltransferase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and affects lipid metabolism and ATP generation in somatic cells. In the present study, the effects of supplementing culture medium with resveratrol on lipid metabolism, ATP generation, and cryosensitivity of bovine in vitro produced embryos were investigated. Bovine early cleaved-stage embryos were cultured in medium containing 0 or 0.5 µM resveratrol for 1 or 5 days. Resveratrol treatment for both 1 day and 5 days increased the expression levels of SIRT1 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) in the embryos...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600316/an-in-vitro-enzyme-system-for-the-production-of-myo-inositol-from-starch
#4
Tomoko Fujisawa, Shohei Fujinaga, Haruyuki Atomi
We developed an in vitro enzyme system to produce myo-inositol from starch. Four enzymes were used, maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase (MIPS) and myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase). The enzymes were thermostable; MalP and PGM from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis, MIPS from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus and IMPase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima Enzymes were individually produced in Escherichia coli, and partially purified by subjecting cell extracts to heat treatment and removing denatured proteins...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584577/antioxidant-mechanism-of-black-garlic-extract-involving-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-like-factor-2-pathway
#5
Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUN/OBJECTIVES: Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. METHODS/MATERIALS: After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0...
June 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578808/real-time-monitoring-of-intracellular-redox-changes-in-methylococcus-capsulatus-bath-for-efficient-bioconversion-of-methane-to-methanol
#6
Masahito Ishikawa, Yuya Tanaka, Risa Suzuki, Kota Kimura, Kenya Tanaka, Kazuhide Kamiya, Hidehiro Ito, Souichiro Kato, Toshiaki Kamachi, Katsutoshi Hori, Shuji Nakanishi
This study aimed to develop a novel method for real-time monitoring of the intracellular redox states in a methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus, using Peredox as a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor of the NADH:NAD(+) ratio. As expected, the fluorescence derived from the Peredox-expressing M. capsulatus transformant increased by supplementation of electron donor compounds (methane and formate), while it decreased by specifically inhibiting the methanol oxidation reaction. Electrochemical measurements confirmed that the Peredox fluorescence reliably represents the intracellular redox changes...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537485/the-nad-parp1-sirt1-axis-in-aging
#7
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
NAD+ levels decline with age in diverse animals from Caenorhabditis elegans to mice. Raising NAD+ levels by dietary supplementation with NAD+ precursors, nicotinamide riboside (NR) or nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), improves mitochondrial function and muscle and neural and melanocyte stem cell function in mice, as well as increases murine life span. Decreased NAD+ levels with age reduce SIRT1 function and reduce the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, which can be overcome by NR supplementation. Decreased NAD+ levels cause NAD+-binding protein DBC1 to form a complex with PARP1, inhibiting poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalytic activity...
June 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536060/continuous-supply-of-glucose-and-glycerol-enhances-biotransformation-of-ricinoleic-acid-to-e-11-heptanoyloxy-undec-9-enoic-acid-in-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#8
Yong-Han Cho, Soo-Jung Kim, Hyun-Woo Kim, Ji Young Kim, Jun Seok Gwak, Donghwa Chung, Kyoung Heon Kim, Kyungmoon Park, Yong-Cheol Park
This study aimed at the development of biotransformation strategies with feeding of energy sources for bioconversion of ricinoleic acid to (E)-11-(heptanoyloxy) undec-9-enoic acid (11-HOUA), a key intermediate of brassylic acid, by recombinant Escherichia coli overexpressing an alcohol dehydrogenase from Micrococcus luteus and a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Feeding of glucose or glycerol facilitated both the preparation of high-density cell biocatalyst and supply of the NAD(+) and NADPH cofactors...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533928/leucine-nicotinic-acid-synergy-stimulates-ampk-sirt1-signaling-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#9
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Quiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nicotinic acid (NA), a lipid-lowering drug, serves as a source of NAD(+), the cofactor for Sirt1. Leucine (Leu) stimulates the AMPK/Sirt1 axis and amplifies the effects of other AMPK/Sirt1 activating compounds. Therefore, we tested the interactive effects of leucine and low dose NA on AMPK/Sirt1 signaling and downstream effects of lipid metabolism in cell culture, C. elegans and mice. METHODS: LDL-receptor knockout mice were fed an atherogenic Western diet supplemented with leucine (24 g/kg diet) and sub-therapeutic NA combinations (50 mg/kg diet and 250 mg/kg diet) or low therapeutic NA (1000 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to evaluate markers of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509385/molecular-events-leading-to-death-of-leishmania-donovani-under-spermidine-starvation-after-hypericin-treatment
#10
Shalini Singh, Ekta Kumari, Ruchika Bhardwaj, Ritesh Kumar, Vikash Kumar Dubey
We have previously reported that the hypericin treatment caused spermidine starvation and death of Leishmania parasite. Here, we report different molecular events under spermidine starvation and potential role of spermidine in processes other than redox homeostasis of the parasite. We have analyzed changes in expression of several genes by using quantitative gene expression analysis. Further, these changes at molecular level were also confirmed by using biochemical and cellular studies. Altered expression of several genes involved in redox metabolism, hypusine modification of eIF5A, DNA repair pathway and autophagy was observed...
May 16, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477081/exogenous-nicotinamide-supplementation-and-moderate-physical-exercise-can-attenuate-the-aging-process-in-skeletal-muscle-of-rats
#11
Melitta Pajk, Alexandra Cselko, Csaba Varga, Aniko Posa, Margareta Tokodi, Istvan Boldogh, Sataro Goto, Zsolt Radak
Nicotinamide (NAM) could enhance the availability of NAD(+) and be beneficial to cell function. However, NAM can inhibit the activities of SIRT1 and PARP. The effect of NAM supplementation on the aging process is not well known. In the present study exogenous NAM (1-0.5% in drinking water) was supplemented for 5 weeks and in the last 4 weeks moderate treadmill running was given to 5 mo and 28 mo old rats. The content of SIRT1 was not effected by NAM treatment alone. However, the activity of SIRT1, judged from the acetylated p53/p53 ratio, increased in both NAM treated age groups, suggesting beneficial effects of exogenous NAM...
May 5, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412652/during-yeast-chronological-aging-resveratrol-supplementation-results-in-a-short-lived-phenotype-sir2-dependent
#12
Ivan Orlandi, Giulia Stamerra, Maurizio Strippoli, Marina Vai
Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound endowed with interesting biological properties/functions amongst which are its activity as an antioxidant and as Sirtuin activating compound towards SIRT1 in mammals. Sirtuins comprise a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that are involved in many physiological and pathological processes including aging and age-related diseases. These enzymes are conserved across species and SIRT1 is the closest mammalian orthologue of Sir2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
August 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346814/nicotinamide-riboside-a-form-of-vitamin-b3-and-nad-precursor-relieves-the-nociceptive-and-aversive-dimensions-of-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-female-rats
#13
Marta V Hamity, Stephanie R White, Roxanne Y Walder, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Donna L Hammond
Injury to sensory afferents may contribute to the peripheral neuropathies that develop after administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Manipulations that increase levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) can protect against neuronal injury. This study examined whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a third form of vitamin B3 and precursor of NAD, diminishes tactile hypersensitivity and place escape-avoidance behaviors in a rodent model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received 3 intravenous injections of 6...
May 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246130/nicotinamide-mononucleotide-an-nad-precursor-rescues-age-associated-susceptibility-to-aki-in-a-sirtuin-1-dependent-manner
#14
Yi Guan, Su-Rong Wang, Xin-Zhong Huang, Qiong-Hong Xie, Yun-Yu Xu, Da Shang, Chuan-Ming Hao
The rapid growth of an aging population creates challenges regarding age-related diseases, including AKI, for which both the prevalence and death rate increase with age. The molecular mechanism by which the aged kidney becomes more susceptible to acute injury has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we found that, compared with the kidneys of 3-month-old mice, the kidneys of 20-month-old mice expressed reduced levels of the renal protective molecule sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and its cofactor NAD(+) Supplementation with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), an NAD(+) precursor, restored renal SIRT1 activity and NAD(+) content in 20-month-old mice and further increased both in 3-month-old mice...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216063/the-nad-precursor-nicotinic-acid-improves-genomic-integrity-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-after-x-irradiation
#15
Kathrin Weidele, Sascha Beneke, Alexander Bürkle
NAD(+) is an essential cofactor for enzymes catalyzing redox-reactions as well as an electron carrier in energy metabolism. Aside from this, NAD(+) consuming enzymes like poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and sirtuins are important regulators involved in chromatin-restructuring processes during repair and epigenetics/transcriptional adaption. In order to replenish cellular NAD(+) levels after cleavage, synthesis starts from precursors such as nicotinamide, nicotinamide riboside or nicotinic acid to match the need for this essential molecule...
February 13, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211759/gamma-tocopherol-supplementation-ameliorated-hyper-inflammatory-response-during-the-early-cutaneous-wound-healing-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice
#16
Jihyun Shin, Soo Jin Yang, Yunsook Lim
Delayed wound healing is one of the major diabetic complications. During wound healing process, the early inflammatory stage is important for better prognosis. One of antioxidant nutrient, gamma-tocopherol (GT) is considered to regulate inflammatory conditions. This study investigated the effect of GT supplementation on mechanism associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection in ICR mice. All mice were divided into three groups: non-diabetic control mice (CON), diabetic control mice (DMC), and diabetic mice supplemented with GT (GT)...
March 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035366/inhibitory-effects-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-in-rats-with-salt-induced-hypertension
#17
Yu-Peng Huang, Hong-Yan Jin, Hui-Ping Yu
Oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Alpha‑lipoic acid (ALA) is widely recognized for its potent superoxide inhibitory properties, and it can safely penetrate deep into the brain. The aim of this study was to explore whether ALA supplementation attenuates hypertensive responses and cardiac hypertrophy by decreasing the NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-derived overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria in the RVLM, and thus attenuating the development of salt‑induced hypertension...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003588/effectiveness-of-medium-chain-triglyceride-oil-therapy-in-two-japanese-citrin-deficient-siblings-evaluation-using-oral-glucose-tolerance-tests
#18
Hiroki Otsuka, Hideo Sasai, Elsayed Abdelkreem, Norio Kawamoto, Minako Kawamoto, Toshiya Kamiya, Yasuo Tanimoto, Atsuo Kikuchi, Shigeo Kure, Chikahiko Numakura, Kiyoshi Hayasaka, Toshiyuki Fukao
Citrin deficiency, an inherited defect of the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform (citrin), may cause impairment of glycolysis because of an increase in the cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio. We report a Japanese boy whose main complaint was recurrent hypoglycemic episodes. He was suspected as having citrin deficiency because of his peculiar preference for protein- and fat-rich food. His young sister also had a similar food preference. Both siblings were diagnosed with citrin deficiency by genetic analysis...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000862/sirt1%C3%A2-mediated-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-induced-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lipopolysaccharides-in-human-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#19
Xiaoli Liu, Tuo Yang, Tieying Sun, Kuiqing Shao
Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is an NAD+‑dependent deacetylase that exhibits multiple biological functions, including cell differentiation inhibition, transcription regulation, cell cycle regulation and anti‑apoptosis. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are crucial virulence factors produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and serve an important role in adjusting the interactions between the host and the pathogen. However, the effect of SIRT1 in the regulation of LPS‑induced A459 human alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) oxidative stress remains unclear...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911769/reductive-carboxylation-is-a-major-metabolic-pathway-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#20
Jianhai Du, Aya Yanagida, Kaitlen Knight, Abbi L Engel, Anh Huan Vo, Connor Jankowski, Martin Sadilek, Van Thi Bao Tran, Megan A Manson, Aravind Ramakrishnan, James B Hurley, Jennifer R Chao
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of pigmented cells that requires an active metabolism to maintain outer retinal homeostasis and compensate for oxidative stress. Using (13)C metabolic flux analysis in human RPE cells, we found that RPE has an exceptionally high capacity for reductive carboxylation, a metabolic pathway that has recently garnered significant interest because of its role in cancer cell survival. The capacity for reductive carboxylation in RPE exceeds that of all other cells tested, including retina, neural tissue, glial cells, and a cancer cell line...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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