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Richard J Cassidy, Yuan Liu, Kirtesh Patel, Jim Zhong, Conor E Steuer, David A Kooby, Maria C Russell, Theresa W Gillespie, Jerome C Landry
BACKGROUND: Stage II and III rectal cancers have been effectively treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by definitive resection. Advancements in surgical technique and systemic therapy have prompted investigation of neoadjuvant multiagent chemotherapy (NMAC) regimens with the elimination of radiation (RT). The objective of the current study was to investigate factors that predict for the use of NCRT versus NMAC and compare outcomes using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for select stage II and III rectal cancers...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
T Kühlein, F Madlo-Thiess, V Wambach, S Schaffer
Background: Quality management (QM) became mandatory for the ambulatory sector of the German health care system 10 years ago. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out how general practitioners (GPs) perceived the introduction of this measure, how they see it today and what they expect of the future concerning QM. Materials and Methods: In a qualitative study, interviews following a semi-structured guideline with GPs were conducted. Following transcription, interviews were coded in triangulation, first inductively, then deductively until saturation was reached...
October 25, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Yong Cai, Xiwen Li, Runmiao Wang, Qing Yang, Peng Li, Hao Hu
Currently, the chemical fingerprint comparison and analysis is mainly based on professional equipment and software, it's expensive and inconvenient. This study aims to integrate QR (Quick Response) code with quality data and mobile intelligent technology to develop a convenient query terminal for tracing quality in the whole industrial chain of TCM (traditional Chinese medicine). Three herbal medicines were randomly selected and their chemical two-dimensional barcode (2D) barcodes fingerprints were constructed...
2016: PloS One
Chuan-Tien Hung, Yu-An Kung, Mei-Ling Li, Gary Brewer, Kuo-Ming Lee, Shih-Tung Liu, Shin-Ru Shih
The 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) RNA genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is indispensable for viral protein translation. Due to the limited coding capacity of their RNA genomes, EV71 and other picornaviruses typically recruit host factors, known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), to mediate IRES-dependent translation. Here, we show that EV71 viral proteinase 2A is capable of cleaving far upstream element-binding protein 1 (FBP1), a positive ITAF that directly binds to the EV71 5' UTR linker region to promote viral IRES-driven translation...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Anna M Dahlin, Carl Wibom, Soma Ghasimi, Thomas Brännström, Ulrika Andersson, Beatrice Melin
Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies have identified several genetic variants that increase glioma risk. The majority of these variants are non-coding and the mechanisms behind the increased risk in carriers are not known. In this study, we hypothesize that some of the established glioma risk variants induce aberrant DNA methylation in the developing tumor, either locally (gene-specific) or globally (genome-wide). In a pilot data set including 77 glioma patients, we used Illumina beadchip technology to analyze genetic variants in blood and DNA methylation in matched tumor samples...
2016: PloS One
Kit D Longden
Color is famous for not existing in the external world: our brains create the perception of color from the spatial and temporal patterns of the wavelength and intensity of light. For an intangible quality, we have detailed knowledge of its origins and consequences. Much is known about the organization and evolution of the first phases of color processing, the filtering of light in the eye and processing in the retina, and about the final phases, the roles of color in behavior and natural selection. To understand how color processing in the central brain has evolved, we need well-defined pathways or circuitry where we can gauge how color contributes to the computations involved in specific behaviors...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Nicholas P Vyleta, Carolina Borges-Merjane, Peter Jonas
Mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells are 'conditional detonators' that reliably discharge postsynaptic targets. The 'conditional' nature implies that burst activity in dentate gyrus granule cells is required for detonation. Whether single unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) trigger spikes in CA3 neurons remains unknown. Mossy fiber synapses exhibit both pronounced short-term facilitation and uniquely large post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We tested whether PTP could convert mossy fiber synapses from subdetonator into detonator mode, using a recently developed method to selectively and noninvasively stimulate individual presynaptic terminals in rat brain slices...
October 25, 2016: ELife
Daniel Gardner, Andrew Liman, Victoria Autelli, Casey O'Connell, Nicholas Testa, Glenn Ault
Improving patient safety is vital for all hospitals due to increasing public reporting and pay-for-performance reimbursement. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a leading cause of preventable mortality accounting for 5 per cent of inpatient deaths. The purpose of this study was to outline the process of implementing standard VTE prophylactic order sets in a 600-bed academic safety net hospital and assess the resulting change in patient outcomes. Outcomes were assessed by comparing the rate that eligible inpatients receive VTE prophylaxis and the rate of preventable VTE's compared with total VTE's...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Mohammed Al-Temimi, Charles Trujillo, John Agapian, Hanna Park, Ahmad Dehal, Samir Johna, Deron Tessier
Incidental appendectomy (IA) could potentially increase the risk of morbidity after abdominal procedures; however, such effect is not clearly established. The aim of our study is to test the association of IA with morbidity after abdominal procedures. We identified 743 (0.37%) IA among 199,233 abdominal procedures in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005-2009). Cases with and without IA were matched on the index current procedural terminology code. Patient characteristics were compared using chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student t test for continuous variables...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Alejandro Garbino, Derek M Nusbaum, Daniel M Buckland, Anil S Menon, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
The Stratex Project is a high altitude balloon flight that culminated in a freefall from 41,422 m (135,890 ft), breaking the record for the highest freefall to date. Crew recovery operations required an innovative approach due to the unique nature of the event as well as the equipment involved. The parachutist donned a custom space suit similar to a NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with life support system mounted to the front and a parachute on the back. This space suit had a metal structure around the torso, which, in conjunction with the parachute and life support assembly, created a significant barrier to extraction from the suit in the event of a medical emergency...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
James P Gaska, Steven T Wright, Marc D Winterbottom, Steven C Hadley
INTRODUCTION: Although there are numerous studies that demonstrate that color vision deficient (CVD) individuals perform less well than color vision normal (CVN) individuals in tasks that require discrimination or identification of colored stimuli, there remains a need to quantify the relationship between the type and severity of CVD and performance on operationally relevant tasks. METHODS: Participants were classified as CVN (N = 45) or CVD (N = 49) using the Rabin cone contrast test, which is the standard color vision screening test used by the United States Air Force...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Julia Campbell, John J M Dwyer, Jason B Coe
Promoting dog walking among dog owners is consistent with One Health, which focuses on the mutual health benefits of the human-animal relationship for people and animals. In this study, we used intervention mapping (a framework to develop programs and resources for health promotion) to develop a clearer understanding of the determinants of dog walking to develop curricular and educational resources for promoting regular dog walking among dog owners. Twenty-six adult dog owners in Ontario participated in a semi-structured interview about dog walking in 2014...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Hem Desai, Bhupinder Natt, Samuel Kim, Christian Bime
RATIONALE: There is a paucity of data regarding the optimal surgical approach for lung lobectomy. Lobectomy performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been associated with lower morbidity as compared to thoracotomy. However, no multicenter studies have shown improved mortality with VATS lobectomy compared to open surgical lobectomy. OBJECTIVES: We used the United States Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) database from 2009 to 2012 to compare VATS versus open lobectomy for in-hospital mortality and other short-term outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Wan-Ju Lee, Leslie Briars, Todd A Lee, Gregory S Calip, Katie J Suda, Glen T Schumock
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the use of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (TNFI) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and young adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients with incident JIA or RA were identified using the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database from 2009 to 2013. The incident diagnosis was defined as no prior claims with a JIA/RA code and no JIA/RA medications recorded during the previous 6 months...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Rodolfo Savica, Brandon R Grossardt, James H Bower, J Eric Ahlskog, Michelle M Mielke, Walter A Rocca
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of drug-induced parkinsonism remain limited. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and time trends of drug-induced parkinsonism over 30 years in a geographically defined American population. METHODS: We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all persons in Olmsted County, Minnesota, who received a screening diagnostic code for parkinsonism from 1976 through 2005...
October 25, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Inger Hagqvist, Stig Rödjer, Anna Aggeryd, Ebba Holmberg, Göran Bondjers
Experiences from PLUS - program for learning and development in Swedish health care In Sweden, more than half of newly registered physicians have been trained outside of the country. Thus, they are not familiar with Swedish culture and the Swedish healthcare system. To support their introduction to a professional carrier in Sweden, in line with the WHO ethical code for recruitment of health personnel, the health care region of Western Sweden established PLUS - program for learning and development in Swedish Health care...
October 24, 2016: Läkartidningen
Jie Li, He Huang, Yingguang Li, Li Li, Wenhui Hou, Zeshan You
Long non-coding RNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) was reported to be aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers. However, the role of GAS5 in the evolution and progression of ovarian cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the cellular function and clinical significance of GAS5 in ovarian cancer. GAS5 expression levels in 63 ovarian cancer tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to analyze the effect of GAS5 on cell proliferation...
October 24, 2016: Oncology Reports
Song Xu, Xiao-Ming Yi, Zheng-Yu Zhang, Jing-Ping Ge, Wen-Quan Zhou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, well-conserved, non-coding RNAs that are increasingly identified as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in a number of cancers. Deregulated miR‑129 is closely associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the potential role of miR‑129 in prostate cancer remains largely elusive. The present study investigated the role of miR‑129 as a prognostic biomarker for tumor progression and clinical prognosis in prostate cancer patients. The examined prostate cancer tissues exhibited a significant reduction in miR‑129 expression compared with the normal tissues (P=0...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Chun-Min Kang, Yan-Wei Hu, Ying Nie, Jia-Yi Zhao, Shu-Fen Li, Shuai Chu, Hai-Xia Li, Qing-Shui Huang, Yu-Rong Qiu
Early reports suggest that nuclear factor IA (NFIA) is important in the pathogenesis of glioma. Our previous study demonstrated that the long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA), RP5‑833A20.1, suppressed the expression of NFIA in THP‑1 macrophage-derived foam cells. However, the effect and possible mechanism of RP5‑833A20.1 on glioma remains to be fully elucidated, and whether the NFIA-dependent pathway is involved in its progression has not been investigated. In the present study, the mechanisms by which RP5‑833A20...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Fady Y Hijji, Dustin H Massel, Benjamin C Mayo, Ankur S Narain, William W Long, Krishna D Modi, Rory M Burke, Jeff Canar, Kern Singh
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: To compare perioperative costs and outcomes of patients undergoing single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusions (ACDF) at both a service (orthopedic versus neurosurgical) and individual surgeon level. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Hospital systems are experiencing significant pressure to increase value of care by reducing costs while maintaining or improving patient-centered outcomes...
October 24, 2016: Spine
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