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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651376/comparison-of-sampling-strategies-for-tobacco-retailer-inspections-to-maximize-coverage-in-vulnerable-areas-and-minimize-cost
#1
Joseph G L Lee, Bonnie E Shook-Sa, J Michael Bowling, Kurt M Ribisl
Introduction: In the United States, tens of thousands of inspections of tobacco retailers are conducted each year. Various sampling choices can reduce travel costs, emphasize enforcement in areas with greater non-compliance, and allow for comparability between states and over time. We sought to develop a model sampling strategy for state tobacco retailer inspections. Methods: Using a 2014 list of 10,161 North Carolina tobacco retailers, we compared results from simple random sampling; stratified, clustered at the ZIP code sampling; and, stratified, clustered at the census tract sampling...
June 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651359/altered-mirna-and-pirna-profiles-in-cumulus-cells-from-patients-with-diminished-ovarian-reserve
#2
Dawei Chen, Zhiguo Zhang, Beili Chen, Dongmei Ji, Yan Hao, Ping Zhou, Zhaolian Wei, Yunxia Cao
Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is defined as decreased number or quality of follicles and oocytes in a woman at childbearing age. It is estimated that up to 10% of women in the general population may suffer from DOR. The present study aims to comprehensively characterize miRNA and piRNA expression profiles in cumulus cells of DOR patients. Cumulus cells were collected from 20 women of similar chronological age who received assisted reproductive technology treatment, 10 with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), 10 with normal ovarian reserve (NOR)...
June 23, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651352/circular-rna-profiling-reveals-that-circular-rnas-from-anxa2-can-be-used-as-new-biomarkers-for-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Iparraguirre Leire, Muñoz-Culla Maider, Prada Iñigo, Castillo-Triviño Tamara, Olascoaga Javier, Otaegui David
Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease, with higher prevalence in women, in whom the immune system is dysregulated. This dysregulation has been shown to correlate with changes in transcriptome expression as well as in gene-expression regulators, such as non-coding RNAs (e.g. microRNAs). Indeed, some of these have been suggested as biomarkers for multiple sclerosis even though few biomarkers have reached the clinical practice.Recently, a novel family of non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs, has emerged as a new player in the complex network of gene-expression regulation...
June 23, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651329/high-speed-and-high-ratio-referential-genome-compression
#4
Yuansheng Liu, Hui Peng, Limsoon Wong, Jinyan Li
Motivation: The rapidly increasing number of genomes generated by high-throughput sequencing platforms and assembly algorithms is accompanied by problems in data storage, compression and communication. Traditional compression algorithms are unable to meet the demand of high compression ratio due to the intrinsic challenging features of DNA sequences such as small alphabet size, frequent repeats and palindromes. Reference-based lossless compression, by which only the differences between two similar genomes are stored, is a promising approach with high compression ratio...
June 23, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651107/how-seasonality-and-weather-affect-perinatal-health-comparing-the-experiences-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-mothers-in-kanungu-district-uganda
#5
Sarah MacVicar, Lea Berrang-Ford, Sherilee Harper, Vivienne Steele, Shuaib Lwasa, Didacus Namanya Bambaiha, Sabastien Twesigomwe, Grace Asaasira, Nancy Ross
Maternal and newborn health disparities and the health impacts of climate change present grand challenges for global health equity, and there remain knowledge gaps in our understanding of how these challenges intersect. This study examines the pathways through which mothers are affected by seasonal and meteorological factors in sub-Saharan Africa in general, and Kanungu District (Uganda), in particular. We conducted a community-based study consisting of focus group discussions with mothers and interviews with health care workers in Kanungu District...
June 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#6
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650825/dena-a-configurable-microarchitecture-and-design-flow-for-biomedical-dna-based-logic-design
#7
Zohre Beiki, Ali Jahanian
DNA is known as the building block for storing the life codes and transferring the genetic features through the generations. However, it is found that DNA strands can be used for a new type of computation that opens fascinating horizons in computational medicine. Significant contributions are addressed on design of DNA-based logic gates for medical and computational applications but there are serious challenges for designing the medium and large-scale DNA circuits. In this paper, a new microarchitecture and corresponding design flow is proposed to facilitate the design of multistage large-scale DNA logic systems...
June 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650817/memaxes-visualization-and-analytics-for-characterizing-complex-memory-performance-behaviors
#8
Adolfo Alfredo Gimenez, Todd Gamblin, Ilir Jusufi, Abhinav Bhatele, Martin Schulz, Peer-Timo Bremer, Bernd Hamann
Memory performance is often a major bottleneck for high-performance computing (HPC) applications. Deepening memory hierarchies, complex memory management, and non-uniform access times have made memory performance behavior difficult to characterize, and users require novel, sophisticated tools to analyze and optimize this aspect of their codes. Existing tools target only specific factors of memory performance, such as hardware layout, allocations, or access instructions. However, today's tools do not suffice to characterize the complex relationships between these factors...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650815/joint-chroma-subsampling-and-distortion-minimization-based-luma-modification-for-rgb-color-images-with-application
#9
Kuo-Liang Chung, Tsu-Chun Hsu, Chi-Chao Huang
In this paper, we propose a novel and effective hybrid method, which joins the conventional chroma subsampling and the distortion-minimization based luma modification together, to improve the quality of the reconstructed RGB fullcolor image. Assume the input RGB full-color image has been transformed to a YUV image, prior to compression. For each 2×2 UV block, one 4:2:0 subsampling is applied to determine the one subsampled U and V components, Us and Vs. Based on Us, Vs, and the corresponding 2×2 original RGB block, a main theorem is provided to determine the ideally modified 2×2 luma block in constant time such that the color peak signalto- noise ratio (CPSNR) quality distortion between the original 2×2 RGB block and the reconstructed 2×2 RGB block can be minimized in a globally optimal sense...
June 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650798/coherent-semantic-visual-indexing-for-large-scale-image-retrieval-in-the-cloud
#10
Richang Hong, Lei Li, Junjie Cai, Dapeng Tao, Meng Wang, Qi Tian
The rapidly increasing number of images on the internet has further increased the need for efficient indexing for digital image searching of large databases. The design of a cloud service that provides high efficiency but compact image indexing remains challenging, partly due to the well-known semantic gap between user queries and the rich semantics of large-scale data sets. In this paper, we construct a novel joint semantic-visual space by leveraging visual descriptors and semantic attributes, which narrows the semantic gap by combining both attributes and indexing into a single framework...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650774/monte-carlo-electron-track-structure-calculations-in-liquid-water-using-a-new-model-dielectric-response-function
#11
Dimitris Emfietzoglou, George Papamichael, Hooshang Nikjoo
Monte Carlo track structure codes provide valuable information for understanding radiation effects down to the DNA level, where experimental measurements are most difficult or unavailable. It is well recognized that the performance of such codes, especially at low energies and/or subcellular level, critically depends on the reliability of the interaction cross sections that are used as input in the simulation. For biological media such as liquid water, one of the most challenging issues is the role of condensed-phase effects...
June 26, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650741/microbial-culturomics-application-for-global-health-noncontiguous-finished-genome-sequence-and-description-of-pseudomonas-massiliensis-strain-cb-1-t-sp-nov-in-brazil
#12
Lucie Bardet, Teresa Cimmino, Clémence Buffet, Caroline Michelle, Jaishriram Rathored, Fatalmoudou Tandina, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Saber Khelaifia, Jônatas Abrahão, Didier Raoult, Jean-Marc Rolain
Culturomics is a new postgenomics field that explores the microbial diversity of the human gut coupled with taxono-genomic strategy. Culturomics, and the microbiome science more generally, are anticipated to transform global health diagnostics and inform the ways in which gut microbial diversity contributes to human health and disease, and by extension, to personalized medicine. Using culturomics, we report in this study the description of strain CB1(T) ( = CSUR P1334 = DSM 29075), a new species isolated from a stool specimen from a 37-year-old Brazilian woman...
June 26, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650482/the-contribution-of-rare-variants-to-risk-of-schizophrenia-in-individuals-with-and-without-intellectual-disability
#13
Tarjinder Singh, James T R Walters, Mandy Johnstone, David Curtis, Jaana Suvisaari, Minna Torniainen, Elliott Rees, Conrad Iyegbe, Douglas Blackwood, Andrew M McIntosh, Georg Kirov, Daniel Geschwind, Robin M Murray, Marta Di Forti, Elvira Bramon, Michael Gandal, Christina M Hultman, Pamela Sklar, Aarno Palotie, Patrick F Sullivan, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, Jeffrey C Barrett
By performing a meta-analysis of rare coding variants in whole-exome sequences from 4,133 schizophrenia cases and 9,274 controls, de novo mutations in 1,077 family trios, and copy number variants from 6,882 cases and 11,255 controls, we show that individuals with schizophrenia carry a significant burden of rare, damaging variants in 3,488 genes previously identified as having a near-complete depletion of loss-of-function variants. In patients with schizophrenia who also have intellectual disability, this burden is concentrated in risk genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders...
June 26, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650476/cry2h-seq-a-massively-multiplexed-assay-for-deep-coverage-interactome-mapping
#14
Shelly A Trigg, Renee M Garza, Andrew MacWilliams, Joseph R Nery, Anna Bartlett, Rosa Castanon, Adeline Goubil, Joseph Feeney, Ronan O'Malley, Shao-Shan C Huang, Zhuzhu Z Zhang, Mary Galli, Joseph R Ecker
Broad-scale protein-protein interaction mapping is a major challenge given the cost, time, and sensitivity constraints of existing technologies. Here, we present a massively multiplexed yeast two-hybrid method, CrY2H-seq, which uses a Cre recombinase interaction reporter to intracellularly fuse the coding sequences of two interacting proteins and next-generation DNA sequencing to identify these interactions en masse. We applied CrY2H-seq to investigate sparsely annotated Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors interactions...
June 26, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650470/signaling-coupled-epigenomic-regulation-of-gene-expression
#15
REVIEW
R Kumar, S Deivendran, T R Santhoshkumar, M R Pillai
Inheritance of genomic information independent of the DNA sequence, the epigenetics, as well as gene transcription are profoundly shaped by serine/threonine and tyrosine signaling kinases and components of the chromatin remodeling complexes. To precisely respond to a changing external milieu, human cells efficiently translate upstream signals into post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones and coregulators such as corepressors, coactivators, DNA-binding factors and PTM modifying enzymes. Because a protein with multiple residues for putative PTMs is expected to undergo more than one PTM in cells stimulated with growth factors, the outcome of combinational PTM codes on histones and coregulators is profoundly shaped by regulatory interplays between PTMs...
June 26, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650410/identification-of-risk-factors-in-lymphatic-surgeries-for-melanoma-a-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-review
#16
Mona Ascha, Mustafa S Ascha, Brian Gastman
INTRODUCTION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and lymphadenectomy (LAD) are commonly performed in the staging and care of patients with malignant melanoma. These procedures are accompanied by complications that may result in hospital readmission, negatively affecting patient outcomes and potentially affecting surgical procedure reimbursement. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database offers a large data set allowing physicians to evaluate 30-day readmission for surgical complications...
June 23, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650384/incident-reporting-in-emergency-medicine-a-thematic-analysis-of-events
#17
Emily Loving Aaronson, David Brown, Theodore Benzer, Shaw Natsui, Elizabeth Mort
BACKGROUND: Incident reporting is a recognized tool for healthcare quality improvement. These systems, which aim to capture near-misses and harm events, enable organizations to gather critical information about failure modes and design mitigation strategies. Although many hospitals have employed these systems, little is known about safety themes in emergency medicine incident reporting. Our objective was to systematically analyze and thematically code 1 year of incident reports. METHODS: A mixed-methods analysis was performed on 1 year of safety reporting data from a large, urban tertiary-care emergency department using a modified grounded theory approach...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650360/a-statewide-surgical-coaching-program-provides-opportunity-for-continuous-professional-development
#18
Caprice C Greenberg, Hala N Ghousseini, Sudha R Pavuluri Quamme, Heather L Beasley, Lane L Frasier, Nicole A Brys, Janet C Dombrowski, Douglas A Wiegmann
OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop and evaluate a video-based coaching program for board-eligible/certified surgeons. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Multiple disciplines utilize coaching for continuous professional development; however, coaching is not routinely employed for practicing surgeons. METHODS: Peer-nominated surgeons were trained as coaches then paired with participant surgeons. After setting goals, each coaching pair reviewed video-recorded operations performed by the participating surgeon...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650253/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-osteoporosis-before-and-after-fracture-a-side-by-side-analysis-of-commercially-insured-and-medicare-advantage-osteoporosis-patients
#19
Jessica Weaver, Shiva Sajjan, E Michael Lewiecki, Steven T Harris
BACKGROUND: Although treatment for osteoporosis is recommended by U.S. clinical guidelines, a lack of diagnosis and treatment is common among patients with osteoporotic fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment before and after various types of fractures. METHODS: This was a retrospective claims analysis using data from the Humana Medicare Advantage claims (Medicare group) and Optum Insight Clinformatics Data Mart commercial claims (Commercial group)...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650249/inpatient-admissions-and-costs-associated-with-persistent-use-of-dalfampridine-extended-release-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-claims-database-analysis
#20
Amy Guo, Alexander Niyazov, Dendy Macaulay, Emi Terasawa, Luke Schmerold, Eric Q Wu, Stephen Krieger
BACKGROUND: While the clinical benefits of dalfampridine extended-release (D-ER) have been established in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) through multiple clinical trials, there is limited real-world data on D-ER use, in particular the persistent use of D-ER, and associated acute care resource utilization and costs. OBJECTIVE: To examine the real-world association of D-ER use and inpatient admissions and costs among patients with MS. METHODS: This study was a retrospective observational claims analysis of the MarketScan database (April 2009-March 2014)...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
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