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Heat acclimation performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216553/mathematical-quantification-of-the-induced-stress-resistance-of-microbial-populations-during-non-isothermal-stresses
#1
Alberto Garre, Juan Pablo Huertas, Gerardo A González-Tejedor, Pablo S Fernández, Jose A Egea, Alfredo Palop, Arturo Esnoz
This contribution presents a mathematical model to describe non-isothermal microbial inactivation processes taking into account the acclimation of the microbial cell to thermal stress. The model extends the log-linear inactivation model including a variable and model parameters quantifying the induced thermal resistance. The model has been tested on cells of Escherichia coli against two families of non-isothermal profiles with different constant heating rates. One of the families was composed of monophasic profiles, consisting of a non-isothermal heating stage from 35 to 70°C; the other family was composed of biphasic profiles, consisting of a non-isothermal heating stage followed by a holding period at constant temperature of 57...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175088/constitutive-up-regulation-of-turandot-genes-rather-than-changes-in-acclimation-ability-is-associated-with-the-evolutionary-adaptation-to-temperature-fluctuations-in-drosophila-simulans
#2
Tommaso Manenti, Volker Loeschcke, Jesper Givskov Sørensen
Most research on thermal adaptation of ectotherms is based on experiments performed at constant temperatures. However, for short-lived insects daily fluctuations of temperature could be an important environmental parameter involved in evolutionary adaptation to thermal heterogeneity. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying evolutionary adaptation to daily fluctuating temperatures. We studied replicated selection lines of Drosophila simulans evolved in a constant or a daily fluctuating thermal regime...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134788/thermal-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-lyrata-genotypic-costs-and-transcriptional-changes
#3
Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation, and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122558/optimal-housing-temperatures-for-mice-to-mimic-the-thermal-environment-of-humans-an%C3%A2-experimental-study
#4
Alexander W Fischer, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
OBJECTIVES: The laboratory mouse is presently the most common model for examining mechanisms of human physiology and disease. Housing temperatures can have a large impact on the outcome of such experiments and on their translatability to the human situation. Humans usually create for themselves a thermoneutral environment without cold stress, while laboratory mice under standard conditions (≈20° C) are under constant cold stress. In a well-cited, theoretical paper by Speakman and Keijer in Molecular Metabolism, it was argued that housing mice under close to standard conditions is the optimal way of modeling the human metabolic situation...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111595/prominent-alterations-of-wild-barley-leaf-transcriptome-in-response-to-individual-and-combined-drought-acclimation-and-heat-shock-conditions
#5
Ahmed Ashoub, Niels Müller, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Wolfgang Brüggemann
Under field conditions, drought and heat stress typically happen simultaneously and their negative impact on the agricultural production is expected to increase worldwide under the climate change scenario. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing analysis on leaves of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) originated from the northern coastal region of Egypt following individual drought acclimation (DA) and heat shock (HS) treatments and their combination (CS) to distinguish the unique and shared differentially expressed genes...
November 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109689/molecular-plasticity-under-ocean-warming-proteomics-and-fitness-data-provides-clues-for-a-better-understanding-of-the-thermal-tolerance-in-fish
#6
Diana Madeira, José E Araújo, Rui Vitorino, Pedro M Costa, José L Capelo, Catarina Vinagre, Mário S Diniz
Ocean warming is known to alter the performance and fitness of marine organisms albeit the proteome underpinnings of species thermal tolerance are still largely unknown. In this 1-month experiment we assessed the vulnerability of the gilt-head sea bream Sparus aurata, taken here as a biological model for some key fisheries species, to ocean warming (control 18°C, nursery ground temperature 24°C and heat wave 30°C). Survival was impaired after 28 days, mainly at 30°C although fishes' condition was unaltered...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090427/on-the-origin-of-the-slow-m-t-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-decline-in-cyanobacteria-interplay-of-short-term-light-responses
#7
Gábor Bernát, Gábor Steinbach, Radek Kaňa, Govindjee, Amarendra N Misra, Ondřej Prašil
The slow kinetic phases of the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (induction) are valuable tools in studying dynamic regulation of light harvesting, light energy distribution between photosystems, and heat dissipation in photosynthetic organisms. However, the origin of these phases are not yet fully understood. This is especially true in the case of prokaryotic oxygenic photoautotrophs, the cyanobacteria. To understand the origin of the slowest (tens of minutes) kinetic phase, the M-T fluorescence decline, in the context of light acclimation of these globally important microorganisms, we have compared spectrally resolved fluorescence induction data from the wild type Synechocystis sp...
October 31, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992016/determining-the-effects-of-early-gestation-in-utero-heat-stress-on-postnatal-fasting-heat-production-and-circulating-biomarkers-associated-with-metabolism-in-growing-pigs
#8
N M Chapel, C J Byrd, D W Lugar, G M Morello, L H Baumgard, J W Ross, T J Safranski, M C Lucy, J S Johnson
The study objective was to characterize effects of early gestation in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) and blood biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs. Based on previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature set point in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be altered during postnatal life because of IUHS. Pregnant first-parity gilts were exposed to thermoneutral (TN; = 4; 17.8 ± 0.1°C) or heat stress (HS; = 4; cyclical 28 to 38°C) conditions from d 30 to 60 of gestation...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950696/effect-of-intensive-and-repetitive-heat-exposure-on-the-sudomotor-activity
#9
Jeong Beom Lee, Hyung Seok Seo, Young Oh Shin
The sweating response is modulated in two different ways depending on adaptation conditions. In this work, we examined sudomotor activities before and after intensive and repetitive heat exposure. Nine male volunteers were exposed to 30-min half-body immersion in hot water (42 ± 0.5°C) at the same time of day on alternate days for 3 weeks. All experiments were performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic (Tty) and skin (Ts) temperatures were measured. Mean body temperature (mTb) was calculated. Sudomotor activities, including sweat onset time, sweat rate and volume, activated sweat gland density (ASGD) and output (ASGO), were tested in four regions of the skin: chest, abdomen, upper back and thigh...
October 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873320/influence-of-rhodiola-rosea-on-the-heat-acclimation-process-in-young-healthy-men
#10
Saima Timpmann, Anthony C Hackney, Maria Tamm, Kairi Kreegipuu, Eve Unt, Vahur Ööpik
The adaptogen Rhodiola rosea (RR) may mitigate stress responses and have beneficial effects on endurance capacity (EC) and mental performance. Heat acclimation (HA) improves EC in the heat, but the potential impact of RR on the HA process is unknown. Therefore, our intent was to determine if RR has a positive impact on HA. Twenty male subjects (age, 22.5 ± 3.0 years) completed 2 EC tests involving walking (6 km·h(-1)) until volitional exhaustion in a climate chamber (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 18%) before (H1) and after (H2) an 8-day HA period...
September 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872380/optimizing-heat-acclimation-for-endurance-athletes-high-vs-low-intensity-training
#11
Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter, Yann Le Meur
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the effect of high- vs. low-intensity training in the heat and ensuing taper period in the heat on endurance performance. METHODS: Nineteen well-trained triathletes undertook 5 days of normal training and a 1-week taper, including either low- (HA-L, n=10) or high-intensity (HA-H, n=9) training sessions in the heat (30°C, 50% of relative humidity). A control group (n=10) reproduced their usual training in thermoneutral conditions...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855321/the-role-of-stochastic-thermal-environments-in-modulating-the-thermal-physiology-of-an-intertidal-limpet-lottia-digitalis
#12
Madeline J Drake, Nathan A Miller, Anne E Todgham
Much of our understanding of the thermal physiology of intertidal organisms comes from experiments with animals acclimated under constant conditions and exposed to a single heat stress. In nature, however, the thermal environment is more complex. Aerial exposure and the unpredictable nature of thermal stress during low tides may be critical factors in defining the thermal physiology of intertidal organisms. In the fingered limpet, Lottia digitalis, we investigated whether upper temperature tolerance and thermal sensitivity were influenced by the pattern of fluctuation with which thermal stress was applied...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839273/infection-increases-vulnerability-to-climate-change-via-effects-on-host-thermal-tolerance
#13
Sasha E Greenspan, Deborah S Bower, Elizabeth A Roznik, David A Pike, Gerry Marantelli, Ross A Alford, Lin Schwarzkopf, Brett R Scheffers
Unprecedented global climate change and increasing rates of infectious disease emergence are occurring simultaneously. Infection with emerging pathogens may alter the thermal thresholds of hosts. However, the effects of fungal infection on host thermal limits have not been examined. Moreover, the influence of infections on the heat tolerance of hosts has rarely been investigated within the context of realistic thermal acclimation regimes and potential anthropogenic climate change. We tested for effects of fungal infection on host thermal tolerance in a model system: frogs infected with the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739443/sauna-exposure-immediately-prior-to-short-term-heat-acclimation-accelerates-phenotypic-adaptation-in-females
#14
Jessica A Mee, Sophie Peters, Jonathan H Doust, Neil S Maxwell
OBJECTIVES: Investigate whether a sauna exposure prior to short-term heat acclimation (HA) accelerates phenotypic adaptation in females. DESIGN: Randomised, repeated measures, cross-over trial. METHODS: Nine females performed two 5-d HA interventions (controlled hyperthermia Tre≥38.5°C), separated by 7-wk, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle confirmed by plasma concentrations of 17-β estradiol and progesterone. Prior to each 90-min HA session participants sat for 20-min in either a temperate environment (20°C, 40% RH; HAtemp) wearing shorts and sports bra or a hot environment (50°C, 30% RH) wearing a sauna suit to replicate sauna conditions (HAsauna)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729874/systematic-analysis-of-hsf-family-genes-in-the-brassica-napus-genome-reveals-novel-responses-to-heat-drought-and-high-co2-stresses
#15
Xiaoyi Zhu, Chunqian Huang, Liang Zhang, Hongfang Liu, Jinhui Yu, Zhiyong Hu, Wei Hua
Drought and heat stress are major causes of lost plant crop yield. In the future, high levels of CO2, in combination of other abiotic stress factors, will become a novel source of stress. Little is known of the mechanisms involved in the acclimation responses of plants to this combination of abiotic stress factors, though it has been demonstrated that heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are involved in plant response to various abiotic stresses. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification and a systematic analysis of genes in the Hsf gene family in Brassica napus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689718/long-term-and-acute-effects-of-temperature-and-oxygen-on-metabolism-food-intake-growth-and-heat-tolerance-in-a-freshwater-gastropod
#16
K Natan Hoefnagel, Wilco C E P Verberk
Temperature affects the physiology and life-history of ectothermic animals, often increasing metabolic rate and decreasing body size. Oxygen limitation has been put forward as a mechanism to explain thermal responses of body size and the ability to survive stress. However the time-scales involved in growth performance and heat tolerance differ radically. In order to increase our understanding of oxygen and temperature effects on body size and heat tolerance and the time scale involved, we reared Lymnaea stagnalis under six combinations of temperature and oxygen tension from hatching up to an age of 300 days and recorded shell length during this whole period...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683139/genome-wide-survey-of-heat-shock-factors-and-heat-shock-protein-70s-and-their-regulatory-network-under-abiotic-stresses-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#17
Feng Wen, Xiaozhu Wu, Tongjian Li, Mingliang Jia, Xinshen Liu, Peng Li, Xiaojian Zhou, Xinxin Ji, Xiaomin Yue
The heat shock protein 70s (Hsp70s) and heat shock factors (Hsfs) play key roles in protecting plant cells or tissues from various abiotic stresses. Brachypodium distachyon, recently developed an excellent model organism for functional genomics research, is related to the major cereal grain species. Although B. distachyon genome has been fully sequenced, the information of Hsf and Hsp70 genes and especially the regulatory network between Hsfs and Hsp70s remains incomplete. Here, a total of 24 BdHsfs and 29 BdHsp70s were identified in the genome by bioinformatics analysis and the regulatory network between Hsfs and Hsp70s were performed in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670286/short-term-low-volume-training-improves-heat-acclimatization-in-an-operational-context
#18
Keyne Charlot, Pierre-Emmanuel Tardo-Dino, Jean-François Buchet, Nathalie Koulmann, Stéphanie Bourdon, Benoit Lepetit, Martin Roslonski, Loïc Jousseaume, Alexandra Malgoyre
Personnel who travel to areas with a hot climate (WBGT > 27°C) may suffer from the heat (physiological strain, thermal discomfort, increased probability of heat illness), making them partially or fully inoperative. Performing physical activities during heat acclimatization is known to improve this process (i.e., improve measures of acclimatization for the same duration of acclimation). However, it is unknown whether such training would be efficient in an operative context, characterized by a high volume of work-related physical activity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662571/scaling-from-metabolism-to-population-growth-rate-to-understand-how-acclimation-temperature-alters-thermal-performance
#19
Thomas M Luhring, John P DeLong
The mean and variance of environmental temperature are changing as a consequence of human activities. Ectotherms are sensitive to these temperature changes in the short term, typically displaying a unimodal response of most biological rates to temperature (thermal performance curves; TPCs). Many organisms, however, may acclimate or evolve in response to new temperature regimes. In particular, population growth rate TPCs (r TPCs) reflect the ability to maintain positive growth under a range of temperatures, and therefore shifts in r TPCs due to acclimation are fundamental to our understanding of how ectotherms will respond to changes in climate...
July 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652334/dissecting-and-modeling-zeaxanthin-and-lutein-dependent-nonphotochemical-quenching-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Michelle Leuenberger, Jonathan M Morris, Arnold M Chan, Lauriebeth Leonelli, Krishna K Niyogi, Graham R Fleming
Photosynthetic organisms use various photoprotective mechanisms to dissipate excess photoexcitation as heat in a process called nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Regulation of NPQ allows for a rapid response to changes in light intensity and in vascular plants, is primarily triggered by a pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane (∆pH). The response is mediated by the PsbS protein and various xanthophylls. Time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) measurements were performed on Arabidopsis thaliana to quantify the dependence of the response of NPQ to changes in light intensity on the presence and accumulation of zeaxanthin and lutein...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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