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Heat acclimation performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582345/absence-of-cellular-damage-in-tropical-newly-hatched-sharks-chiloscyllium-plagiosum-under-ocean-acidification-conditions
#1
Ana Rita Lopes, Eduardo Sampaio, Catarina Santos, Ana Couto, Maria Rita Pegado, Mário Diniz, Philip L Munday, Jodie L Rummer, Rui Rosa
Sharks have maintained a key role in marine food webs for 400 million years and across varying physicochemical contexts, suggesting plasticity to environmental change. In this study, we investigated the biochemical effects of ocean acidification (OA) levels predicted for 2100 (pCO2 ~ 900 μatm) on newly hatched tropical whitespotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum). Specifically, we measured lipid, protein, and DNA damage levels, as well as changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic ROS scavengers in juvenile sharks exposed to elevated CO2 for 50 days following hatching...
March 27, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556772/impairment-of-exercise-performance-following-cold-water-immersion-is-not-attenuated-after-7-days-of-cold-acclimation
#2
Douglas M Jones, Bart Roelands, Stephen P Bailey, Michael J Buono, Romain Meeusen
PURPOSE: It is well-documented that severe cold stress impairs exercise performance. Repeated immersion in cold water induces an insulative type of cold acclimation, wherein enhanced vasoconstriction leads to greater body heat retention, which may attenuate cold-induced exercise impairments. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate changes in exercise performance during a 7-day insulative type of cold acclimation. METHODS: Twelve healthy participants consisting of eight males and four females (mean ± SD age: 25...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543762/optimization-of-photosynthetic-productivity-in-contrasting-environments-by-regulons-controlling-plant-form-and-function
#3
REVIEW
Barbara Demmig-Adams, Jared J Stewart, Christopher R Baker, William W Adams
We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors) and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding), with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i) interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals) as well as (ii) their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant's sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495548/tolerance-to-stress-combination-in-tomato-plants-new-insights-in-the-protective-role-of-melatonin
#4
Vicente Martinez, Manuel Nieves-Cordones, Maria Lopez-Delacalle, Reyes Rodenas, Teresa C Mestre, Francisco Garcia-Sanchez, Francisco Rubio, Pedro A Nortes, Ron Mittler, Rosa M Rivero
Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat or salinity are major causes of yield loss worldwide. Recent studies have revealed that the acclimation of plants to a combination of different environmental stresses is unique and therefore cannot be directly deduced from studying the response of plants to each of the different stresses applied individually. The efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Here, we report on the role of melatonin in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus through the increase in ROS detoxification in tomato plants grown under the combination of salinity and heat, two of the most common abiotic stresses known to act jointly...
February 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324186/impact-of-sodium-citrate-ingestion-during-recovery-after-dehydrating-exercise-on-rehydration-and-subsequent-40-km-cycling-time-trial-performance-in-the-heat
#5
Silva Suvi, Martin Mooses, Saima Timpmann, Luule Medijainen, Daria Narõškina, Eve Unt, Vahur Ööpik
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sodium citrate (CIT) ingestion (600 mg·kg-1 ) during recovery from dehydrating cycling exercise (DE) on subsequent 40-km cycling performance in a warm environment (32 °C). Twenty male nonheat-acclimated endurance athletes exercised in the heat until 4% body mass (BM) loss occurred. After 16 h recovery with consumption of water ad libitum and prescribed diet (evening meal 20 kcal·kg-1 , breakfast 12 kcal·kg-1 ) supplemented in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner with CIT or placebo (PLC), they performed 40-km time-trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer in a warm environment...
January 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319584/physiological-responses-to-overdressing-and-exercise-heat-stress-in-trained-runners
#6
Brett R Ely, Laurie A Blanchard, Jared R Steele, Michael A Francisco, Samuel N Cheuvront, Christopher T Minson
Heat acclimation is the best strategy to improve performance in a hot environment. Many athletes seeking the benefits of heat acclimation lack access to a hot environment for exercise, and thus rely on over-dressing to simulate environmental heat stress. It is currently unknown whether this approach produces the requisite thermoregulatory strain necessary for heat acclimation in trained men and women. PURPOSE: To compare physiological and cellular responses to exercise in a hot environment (HOT; 40°C, 30%rh) with minimal clothing (clo= 0...
January 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216553/mathematical-quantification-of-the-induced-stress-resistance-of-microbial-populations-during-non-isothermal-stresses
#7
Alberto Garre, Juan Pablo Huertas, Gerardo A González-Tejedor, Pablo S Fernández, Jose A Egea, Alfredo Palop, Arturo Esnoz
This contribution presents a mathematical model to describe non-isothermal microbial inactivation processes taking into account the acclimation of the microbial cell to thermal stress. The model extends the log-linear inactivation model including a variable and model parameters quantifying the induced thermal resistance. The model has been tested on cells of Escherichia coli against two families of non-isothermal profiles with different constant heating rates. One of the families was composed of monophasic profiles, consisting of a non-isothermal heating stage from 35 to 70°C; the other family was composed of biphasic profiles, consisting of a non-isothermal heating stage followed by a holding period at constant temperature of 57...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175088/constitutive-up-regulation-of-turandot-genes-rather-than-changes-in-acclimation-ability-is-associated-with-the-evolutionary-adaptation-to-temperature-fluctuations-in-drosophila-simulans
#8
Tommaso Manenti, Volker Loeschcke, Jesper Givskov Sørensen
Most research on thermal adaptation of ectotherms is based on experiments performed at constant temperatures. However, for short-lived insects daily fluctuations of temperature could be an important environmental parameter involved in evolutionary adaptation to thermal heterogeneity. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying evolutionary adaptation to daily fluctuating temperatures. We studied replicated selection lines of Drosophila simulans evolved in a constant or a daily fluctuating thermal regime...
January 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134788/thermal-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-lyrata-genotypic-costs-and-transcriptional-changes
#9
G Wos, Y Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
January 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122558/optimal-housing-temperatures-for-mice-to-mimic-the-thermal-environment-of-humans-an-experimental-study
#10
Alexander W Fischer, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
OBJECTIVES: The laboratory mouse is presently the most common model for examining mechanisms of human physiology and disease. Housing temperatures can have a large impact on the outcome of such experiments and on their translatability to the human situation. Humans usually create for themselves a thermoneutral environment without cold stress, while laboratory mice under standard conditions (≈20° C) are under constant cold stress. In a well-cited, theoretical paper by Speakman and Keijer in Molecular Metabolism, it was argued that housing mice under close to standard conditions is the optimal way of modeling the human metabolic situation...
January 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111595/prominent-alterations-of-wild-barley-leaf-transcriptome-in-response-to-individual-and-combined-drought-acclimation-and-heat-shock-conditions
#11
Ahmed Ashoub, Niels Müller, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Wolfgang Brüggemann
Under field conditions, drought and heat stress typically happen simultaneously and their negative impact on the agricultural production is expected to increase worldwide under the climate change scenario. In this study, we performed RNA-sequencing analysis on leaves of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) originated from the northern coastal region of Egypt following individual drought acclimation (DA) and heat shock (HS) treatments and their combination (CS, combined stresses) to distinguish the unique and shared differentially expressed genes (DEG)...
November 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109689/molecular-plasticity-under-ocean-warming-proteomics-and-fitness-data-provides-clues-for-a-better-understanding-of-the-thermal-tolerance-in-fish
#12
Diana Madeira, José E Araújo, Rui Vitorino, Pedro M Costa, José L Capelo, Catarina Vinagre, Mário S Diniz
Ocean warming is known to alter the performance and fitness of marine organisms albeit the proteome underpinnings of species thermal tolerance are still largely unknown. In this 1-month experiment we assessed the vulnerability of the gilt-head sea bream Sparus aurata , taken here as a biological model for some key fisheries species, to ocean warming (control 18°C, nursery ground temperature 24°C and heat wave 30°C). Survival was impaired after 28 days, mainly at 30°C although fishes' condition was unaltered...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090427/on-the-origin-of-the-slow-m-t-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-decline-in-cyanobacteria-interplay-of-short-term-light-responses
#13
Gábor Bernát, Gábor Steinbach, Radek Kaňa, Govindjee, Amarendra N Misra, Ondřej Prašil
The slow kinetic phases of the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (induction) are valuable tools in studying dynamic regulation of light harvesting, light energy distribution between photosystems, and heat dissipation in photosynthetic organisms. However, the origin of these phases are not yet fully understood. This is especially true in the case of prokaryotic oxygenic photoautotrophs, the cyanobacteria. To understand the origin of the slowest (tens of minutes) kinetic phase, the M-T fluorescence decline, in the context of light acclimation of these globally important microorganisms, we have compared spectrally resolved fluorescence induction data from the wild type Synechocystis sp...
October 31, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992016/determining-the-effects-of-early-gestation-in-utero-heat-stress-on-postnatal-fasting-heat-production-and-circulating-biomarkers-associated-with-metabolism-in-growing-pigs
#14
N M Chapel, C J Byrd, D W Lugar, G M Morello, L H Baumgard, J W Ross, T J Safranski, M C Lucy, J S Johnson
The study objective was to characterize effects of early gestation in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) and blood biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs. Based on previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature set point in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be altered during postnatal life because of IUHS. Pregnant first-parity gilts were exposed to thermoneutral (TN; = 4; 17.8 ± 0.1°C) or heat stress (HS; = 4; cyclical 28 to 38°C) conditions from d 30 to 60 of gestation...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950696/effect-of-intensive-and-repetitive-heat-exposure-on-the-sudomotor-activity
#15
Jeong Beom Lee, Hyung Seok Seo, Young Oh Shin
The sweating response is modulated in two different ways depending on adaptation conditions. In this work, we examined sudomotor activities before and after intensive and repetitive heat exposure. Nine male volunteers were exposed to 30-min half-body immersion in hot water (42 ± 0.5°C) at the same time of day on alternate days for 3 weeks. All experiments were performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic (Tty) and skin (Ts) temperatures were measured. Mean body temperature (mTb) was calculated. Sudomotor activities, including sweat onset time, sweat rate and volume, activated sweat gland density (ASGD) and output (ASGO), were tested in four regions of the skin: chest, abdomen, upper back and thigh...
October 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873320/influence-of-rhodiola-rosea-on-the-heat-acclimation-process-in-young-healthy-men
#16
Saima Timpmann, Anthony C Hackney, Maria Tamm, Kairi Kreegipuu, Eve Unt, Vahur Ööpik
The adaptogen Rhodiola rosea (RR) may mitigate stress responses and have beneficial effects on endurance capacity (EC) and mental performance. Heat acclimation (HA) improves EC in the heat, but the potential impact of RR on the HA process is unknown. Therefore, our intent was to determine if RR has a positive impact on HA. Twenty male subjects (age, 22.5 ± 3.0 years) completed 2 EC tests involving walking (6 km·h-1 ) until volitional exhaustion in a climate chamber (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 18%) before (H1) and after (H2) an 8-day HA period...
January 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872380/optimizing-heat-acclimation-for-endurance-athletes-high-vs-low-intensity-training
#17
Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter, Yann Le Meur
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the effect of high- vs. low-intensity training in the heat and ensuing taper period in the heat on endurance performance. METHODS: Nineteen well-trained triathletes undertook 5 days of normal training and a 1-week taper, including either low- (HA-L, n=10) or high-intensity (HA-H, n=9) training sessions in the heat (30°C, 50% of relative humidity). A control group (n=10) reproduced their usual training in thermoneutral conditions...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855321/the-role-of-stochastic-thermal-environments-in-modulating-the-thermal-physiology-of-an-intertidal-limpet-lottia-digitalis
#18
Madeline J Drake, Nathan A Miller, Anne E Todgham
Much of our understanding of the thermal physiology of intertidal organisms comes from experiments with animals acclimated under constant conditions and exposed to a single heat stress. In nature, however, the thermal environment is more complex. Aerial exposure and the unpredictable nature of thermal stress during low tides may be critical factors in defining the thermal physiology of intertidal organisms. In the fingered limpet, Lottia digitalis, we investigated whether upper temperature tolerance and thermal sensitivity were influenced by the pattern of fluctuation with which thermal stress was applied...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839273/infection-increases-vulnerability-to-climate-change-via-effects-on-host-thermal-tolerance
#19
Sasha E Greenspan, Deborah S Bower, Elizabeth A Roznik, David A Pike, Gerry Marantelli, Ross A Alford, Lin Schwarzkopf, Brett R Scheffers
Unprecedented global climate change and increasing rates of infectious disease emergence are occurring simultaneously. Infection with emerging pathogens may alter the thermal thresholds of hosts. However, the effects of fungal infection on host thermal limits have not been examined. Moreover, the influence of infections on the heat tolerance of hosts has rarely been investigated within the context of realistic thermal acclimation regimes and potential anthropogenic climate change. We tested for effects of fungal infection on host thermal tolerance in a model system: frogs infected with the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739443/sauna-exposure-immediately-prior-to-short-term-heat-acclimation-accelerates-phenotypic-adaptation-in-females
#20
Jessica A Mee, Sophie Peters, Jonathan H Doust, Neil S Maxwell
OBJECTIVES: Investigate whether a sauna exposure prior to short-term heat acclimation (HA) accelerates phenotypic adaptation in females. DESIGN: Randomised, repeated measures, cross-over trial. METHODS: Nine females performed two 5-d HA interventions (controlled hyperthermia Tre ≥38.5°C), separated by 7-wk, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle confirmed by plasma concentrations of 17-β estradiol and progesterone. Prior to each 90-min HA session participants sat for 20-min in either a temperate environment (20°C, 40% RH; HAtemp ) wearing shorts and sports bra or a hot environment (50°C, 30% RH) wearing a sauna suit to replicate sauna conditions (HAsauna )...
February 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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