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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624368/conservation-of-bmp2-4-expression-patterns-within-the-clade-branchiostoma-amphioxus-resolving-interspecific-discrepancies
#1
Luok Wen Yong, Stéphanie Bertrand, Jr-Kai Yu, Hector Escriva, Nicholas D Holland
In 2016, Kaji et al. concluded that the amphioxus mouth has the quality of a coelomoduct and is, therefore, not homologous to the oral opening of any other animal. They studied a Japanese population of Branchiostoma japonicum and based their conclusion, in part, on the larval expression of BMP2/4 in cells that reportedly joined the rim of the forming mouth. They did not detect transcription of that gene in any other tissues in the anterior region of the larva. Their results were almost the inverse of findings for B...
June 15, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487235/transcriptome-wide-analysis-of-micrornas-in-branchiostoma-belcheri-upon-vibrio-parahemolyticus-infection
#2
Ping Jin, Shengjie Li, Lianjie Sun, Caiyun Lv, Fei Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes via regulating expressions of target genes at post-transcriptional level. Amphioxus, as modern survivor of an ancient chordate lineage, is a model organism for comparative genomics study. However, miRNAs involved in regulating immune responses in Branchiostoma belcheri are largely unclear. Here, we systematically investigated the microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulating immune responses in the cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) through next-generation deep sequencing of amphioxus samples infected with Vibrio parahemolyticus...
May 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473706/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-evolution-of-the-slp76-signalosome
#3
Xuemei Qu, Xin Lan, Chong Deng, Jiatao Zhou, Jingjing Du, Shengfeng Huang, Yingqiu Li
The well-defined mammalian slp76-signalosome is crucial for T-cell immune response, yet whether slp76-signalosome exists in invertebrates and how it evolved remain unknown. Here we investigated slp76-signalosome from an evolutionary perspective in amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri (bb). We proved slp76-signalosome components bbslp76, bbGADS and bbItk are present in amphioxus and bbslp76 interacts with bbGADS and bbItk, but differences exist between the interaction manners within slp76-signalosome components of amphioxus and human (h)...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442709/evolutionary-history-of-the-extant-amphioxus-lineage-with-shallow-branching-diversification
#4
Takeshi Igawa, Masafumi Nozawa, Daichi G Suzuki, James D Reimer, Arseniy R Morov, Yiquan Wang, Yasuhisa Henmi, Kinya Yasui
Amphioxus or lancelets have been regarded as a key animal in understanding the origin of vertebrates. However, the evolutionary history within this lineage remains unexplored. As the amphioxus lineage has likely been separated from other chordates for a very long time and displays a marked left-right asymmetry, its evolutionary history is potentially helpful in better understanding chordate and vertebrate origins. We studied the phylogenetic relationships within the extant amphioxus lineage based on mitochondrial genomes incorporating new Asymmetron and Epigonichthys populations, and based on previously reported nuclear transcriptomes...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384204/cloning-expression-and-antioxidant-activity-of-a-thioredoxin-peroxidase-from-branchiostoma-belcheri-tsingtaunese
#5
Jian Liao, Kaiyu Wang, Weirong Yao, Xunfei Yi, Huihui Yan, Min Chen, Xiaopeng Lan
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the thioredoxin- dependent reduction of hydroperoxides. In this study, a novel thioredoxin peroxidase (Bbt-TPx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was found by EST sequence analysis of a cDNA library of Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese ovary. The sequence of a full-length cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 198 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 22,150 Da. The expression patterns of the protein at different developmental stages and adult amphioxus tissues indicate that this enzyme may play important roles in anti-oxidation and innate immunity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381702/livebearing-or-egg-laying-mammals-27-decisive-nucleotides-of-fam168
#6
Subrata Pramanik, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
In the present study, we determine comprehensive molecular phylogenetic relationships of the novel myelin-associated neurite-outgrowth inhibitor (MANI) gene across the entire eukaryotic lineage. Combined computational genomic and proteomic sequence analyses revealed MANI as one of the two members of the novel family with sequence similarity 168 member (FAM168) genes, consisting of FAM168A and FAM168B, having distinct genetic differences that illustrate diversification in its biological function and genetic taxonomy across the phylogenetic tree...
April 3, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373044/cloning-and-expression-of-a-chitinase-gene-from-eisenia-fetida
#7
Mitsuhiro Ueda, Takashi Shioyama, Kei Nakadoi, Masami Nakazawa, Tatsuji Sakamoto, Takeo Iwamoto, Minoru Sakaguchi
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature and is an important resource. In this study, we identified a chitinase gene, named Eisenia fetida-Chitinase (EF-Chi) gene, of 1494 base pairs (bp) that encodes a protein of 498 amino acids as indicated by the corresponding mRNA sequence. The amino acid sequence of EF-Chi was similar to those of chitinases from Eisenia andrei (99%), Branchiostoma floridae (50%) and Oryzias latipes (49%), and a gene encoding mature EF-Chi was expressed in the GS115 strain of Pichia pastoris...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277933/role-and-convergent-evolution-of-competing-rna-secondary-structures-in-mutually-exclusive-splicing
#8
Yuan Yue, Shouqing Hou, Xiu Wang, Leilei Zhan, Guozheng Cao, Guoli Li, Yang Shi, Peng Zhang, Weiling Hong, Hao Lin, Baoping Liu, Feng Shi, Yun Yang, Yongfeng Jin
Exon or cassette duplication is an important means of expanding protein and functional diversity through mutually exclusive splicing. However, the mechanistic basis of this process in non-arthropod species remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that MRP1 genes underwent tandem exon duplication in Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and early-diverging Chordata but not in late-diverging vertebrates. Interestingly, these events were of independent origin in different phyla, suggesting convergent evolution of alternative splicing...
February 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251965/-amphioxus-ortholog-of-ecsit-an-evolutionarily-conserved-adaptor-in-the-toll-and-bmp-signaling-pathways
#9
Y H Lin, W Zhang, J W Li, H W Zhang, D Y Chen
In vertebrates, evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in the Toll pathway (ECSIT) interacts with the TNF-receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to regulate the processing of MEKK1, activate NF-κB, and also control BMP target genes. However, the role of ECSIT in invertebrates remains largely unexplored. We performed comparative investigations of the expression, gene structure, and phylogeny of ECSIT, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and Smad4 in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, in amphioxus, ECSIT, TLR, and Smad4 form independent clusters at the base of Chordate   clusters...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103795/lineage-specific-duplication-of-amphioxus-retinoic-acid-degrading-enzymes-cyp26-resulted-in-sub-functionalization-of-patterning-and-homeostatic-roles
#10
João E Carvalho, Maria Theodosiou, Jie Chen, Pascale Chevret, Susana Alvarez, Angel R De Lera, Vincent Laudet, Jenifer C Croce, Michael Schubert
BACKGROUND: During embryogenesis, tight regulation of retinoic acid (RA) availability is fundamental for normal development. In parallel to RA synthesis, a negative feedback loop controlled by RA catabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 subfamily 26 (CYP26) is crucial. In vertebrates, the functions of the three CYP26 enzymes (CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1) have been well characterized. By contrast, outside vertebrates, little is known about CYP26 complements and their biological roles...
January 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069432/microrna-expression-changes-after-lipopolysaccharide-treatment-in-gills-of-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri
#11
Xin Liao, Liu Yang, Qilin Zhang, Junyuan Chen
Recently, amphioxus has served as a model for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrate immunity. However, little is known about how microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the immune defense in amphioxus. In this article, we identified the amphioxus miRNAs in the acute-phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We determined the time point for the peak of immune response in amphioxus after LPS challenge by evaluating the expression of Branchiostoma belcheri toll-like receptor 1, NF-κb (c-Rel), and big defensin which react with pathogen-associated molecular patterns(PAMPs)...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069430/functional-characterization-of-avidins-in-amphioxus-branchiostoma-japonicum-evidence-for-a-dual-role-in-biotin-binding-and-immune-response
#12
Xiaomin Guo, Jiajing Xin, Peng Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Guangdong Ji, Zhan Gao, Shicui Zhang
Avidin is well known for its high affinity to biotin and has been found in many egg-laying vertebrate species. However, little is known about avidin in invertebrate species to date. Here we clearly showed the presence of two avidin genes, Bjavidin1 and Bjavidin2, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, the first ones in non-vertebrate animals. We also showed that the expression of both Bjavidin1 and Bjavidin2 were inducible by progesterone, LTA and LPS. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that in addition to biotin-binding, the recombinant proteins rBjAVIDIN1 and rBjAVIDIN2 were not only able to interact with Gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as their conserved surface components LTA and LPS but also to enhance phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages, suggesting that BjAVIDIN1 and BjAVIDIN2 both function as pattern recognition receptors and opsonins...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062302/calcitonin-typical-suppression-of-osteoclastic-activity-by-amphioxus-calcitonin-superfamily-peptides-and-insights-into-the-evolutionary-conservation-and-diversity-of-their-structures
#13
Toshio Sekiguchi, Akira Shiraishi, Honoo Satake, Kenji Kuwasako, Hiroki Takahashi, Masayuki Sato, Makoto Urata, Shuichi Wada, Masato Endo, Takahiro Ikari, Atsuhiko Hattori, Ajai K Srivastav, Nobuo Suzuki
Calcitonin (CT) is a hormone that decreases serum calcium level by suppressing osteoclastic activity in the vertebrate bone. In vertebrates, the structure-function relationship of CTs has been studied extensively. We recently identified three CT superfamily peptides, Bf-CTFP1 to 3, and clarified the molecular and functional characteristics of their receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae. However, the CT activity of Bf-CTFPs has yet to be investigated. In the present study, a functional analysis of Bf-CTFPs was performed using goldfish scales having both osteoclasts and osteoblasts...
May 15, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917830/structural-analysis-of-the-bright-monomeric-yellow-green-fluorescent-protein-mneongreen-obtained-by-directed-evolution
#14
Damien Clavel, Guillaume Gotthard, David von Stetten, Daniele De Sanctis, Hélène Pasquier, Gerard G Lambert, Nathan C Shaner, Antoine Royant
Until recently, genes coding for homologues of the autofluorescent protein GFP had only been identified in marine organisms from the phyla Cnidaria and Arthropoda. New fluorescent-protein genes have now been found in the phylum Chordata, coding for particularly bright oligomeric fluorescent proteins such as the tetrameric yellow fluorescent protein lanYFP from Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A successful monomerization attempt led to the development of the bright yellow-green fluorescent protein mNeonGreen. The structures of lanYFP and mNeonGreen have been determined and compared in order to rationalize the directed evolution process leading from a bright, tetrameric to a still bright, monomeric fluorescent protein...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418528/lanfp10-a-first-functional-fluorescent-protein-whose-chromophore-contains-the-elusive-mutation-g67a
#15
Abigail Roldán-Salgado, Celidee Sánchez-Barreto, Paul Gaytán
Since Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was first successfully expressed in heterologous systems in 1994, many genes encoding other natural autofluorescent proteins (AFPs) have been cloned and subsequently modified by protein engineering to improve their physicochemical properties. Throughout this twenty-two-year period, glycine 67 (Gly67) has been regarded as the only amino acid in the entire protein family that is essential for the formation of the different reported chromophores. In this work, we demonstrate that a synthetic gene encoding LanFP10-A, a natural protein encoded in the genome of the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae containing the G67A mutation, produces a heterologous, functional yellow fluorescent protein when expressed in E...
November 5, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412606/conserved-noncoding-elements-in-the-most-distant-genera-of-cephalochordates-the-goldilocks-principle
#16
Jia-Xing Yue, Iryna Kozmikova, Hiroki Ono, Carlos W Nossa, Zbynek Kozmik, Nicholas H Putnam, Jr-Kai Yu, Linda Z Holland
Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120-160 million years ago...
August 25, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311567/the-evolution-of-genes-encoding-for-green-fluorescent-proteins-insights-from-cephalochordates-amphioxus
#17
Jia-Xing Yue, Nicholas D Holland, Linda Z Holland, Dimitri D Deheyn
Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was originally found in cnidarians, and later in copepods and cephalochordates (amphioxus) (Branchiostoma spp). Here, we looked for GFP-encoding genes in Asymmetron, an early-diverged cephalochordate lineage, and found two such genes closely related to some of the Branchiostoma GFPs. Dim fluorescence was found throughout the body in adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, and, as in Branchiostoma floridae, was especially intense in the ripe ovaries. Spectra of the fluorescence were similar between Asymmetron and Branchiostoma...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265651/expression-analysis-of-eight-amphioxus-genes-involved-in-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#18
Jing Wang, Guang Li, Guang-Hui Qian, Jun-Hao Hua, Yi-Quan Wang
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the embryonic development of metazoans. Although the pathway has been studied extensively in many model animals, its function in amphioxus, the most primitive chordate, remains largely uncharacterized. To obtain basic data for functional analysis, we identified and isolated seven genes (Lrp5/6, Dvl, APC, CkIα, CkIδ, Gsk3β, and Gro) of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway from the amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that amphioxus had fewer members of each gene family than that found in vertebrates...
May 18, 2016: Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu, Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940763/tcf-lef-regulates-the-gsx-parahox-gene-in-central-nervous-system-development-in-chordates
#19
Myles G Garstang, Peter W Osborne, David E K Ferrier
BACKGROUND: The ParaHox genes play an integral role in the anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the nervous system and gut of most animals. The ParaHox cluster is an ideal system in which to study the evolution and regulation of developmental genes and gene clusters, as it displays similar regulatory phenomena to its sister cluster, the Hox cluster, but offers a much simpler system with only three genes. RESULTS: Using Ciona intestinalis transgenics, we isolated a regulatory element upstream of Branchiostoma floridae Gsx that drives expression within the central nervous system of Ciona embryos...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26821753/structure-of-a-variable-lymphocyte-receptor-like-protein-from-the-amphioxus-branchiostoma-floridae
#20
Dong-Dong Cao, Xin Liao, Wang Cheng, Yong-Liang Jiang, Wen-Jie Wang, Qiong Li, Jun-Yuan Chen, Yuxing Chen, Cong-Zhao Zhou
Discovery of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) in agnathans (jawless fish) has brought the origin of adaptive immunity system (AIS) forward to 500 million years ago accompanying with the emergence of vertebrates. Previous findings indicated that amphioxus, a representative model organism of chordate, also possesses some homologs of the basic components of TCR/BCR-based AIS, but it remains unknown if there exist any components of VLR-based AIS in amphioxus. Bioinformatics analyses revealed the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae encodes a group of putative VLR-like proteins...
January 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
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