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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718248/antibacterial-activity-and-mechanism-of-action-of-analogues-derived-from-the-antimicrobial-peptide-mbjamp1-isolated-from-branchiostoma-japonicum
#1
Jonggwan Park, Hee Kyoung Kang, Moon-Chang Choi, Jeong Don Chae, Byoung Kwan Son, Yong Pil Chong, Chang Ho Seo, Yoonkyung Park
Objectives: The worldwide increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing threat to public health. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potentially effective alternatives to conventional antibiotics. We therefore tested analogues of the AMP mBjAMP1 from Branchiostoma japonicum, which we produced by adding and/or replacing amino acids to increase antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Methods: We compared the antimicrobial activities of mBjAMP1 analogues against Gram-negative bacteria reference strains and 52 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706225/photophysical-behavior-of-mneongreen-an-evolutionarily-distant-green-fluorescent-protein
#2
Frederik Steiert, Eugene P Petrov, Peter Schultz, Petra Schwille, Thomas Weidemann
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) feature complex photophysical behavior that must be considered when studying the dynamics of fusion proteins in model systems and live cells. In this work, we characterize mNeonGreen (mNG), a recently introduced FP from the bilaterian Branchiostoma lanceolatum, in comparison to the well-known hydrozoan variants enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and Aequorea coerulescens GFP by steady-state spectroscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in solutions of different pH...
April 26, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621532/the-d5-region-of-the-intelectin-domain-is-a-new-type-of-carbohydrate-recognition-domain-in-the-intelectin-gene-family
#3
Jie Yan, Lei Chen, Zhuang Liu, Yonglin Chen, Ying Sun, Jia Han, Lijun Feng
Intelectin is a recently characterized soluble galactofuranose-binding lectin that exists in species ranging from amphioxus to human. Interestingly, intelectin does not contain a canonical carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). Therefore, we designed serial deletions of intelectin in the Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense, AmphiITLN71469) in order to identify functional regions required for carbohydrate binding. Our results revealed that Domain 5 (aa 203-302) was able to bind lipopolysaccarides (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN) and agglutinate bacteria as efficiently as the full-length protein...
April 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551666/genome-wide-organization-evolutionary-diversification-of-the-commd-family-genes-of-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri-with-the-possible-role-in-innate-immunity
#4
Ping Jin, Caiyun Lv, Shuangli Peng, Lu Cai, Jiu Zhu, Fei Ma
The COMMD (COpper Metabolism gene MURR1 Domain) gene family with ten members participates in various biological processes, such as the regulation of copper and sodium transport, NF-κB activity and cell cycle progression. However, studies on the COMMD gene family in amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) are yet largely unknown. In this study, we have identified and characterized the ten COMMD family members from amphioxus (designated as AmphiCOMMDs). Firstly, we clone the full length of AmphiCOMMDs, and all AmphiCOMMD proteins contain the conserved COMM domain with two NES (Nuclear Export Signal) motifs...
March 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514951/discovery-and-analysis-of-invertebrate-igv-j-c2-structure-from-amphioxus-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-of-the-ig-superfamily
#5
Rong Chen, Lijie Zhang, Jianxun Qi, Nianzhi Zhang, Ling Zhang, Shugang Yao, Yanan Wu, Bo Jiang, Zhenbao Wang, Hongyu Yuan, Qiujin Zhang, Chun Xia
The emergence of adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates depended on the appearance of variable immune receptors, BCRs and TCRs, which exhibit variable-J-constant (VJ -C)-type Ig superfamily folds. Hitherto, however, the structures of IgV-J-IgC-type molecules had never been characterized in invertebrates, leaving the origin of BCR/TCR-type molecules unknown. Using x-ray crystallography, the structure of a VJ -C2 molecule, named AmpIgVJ -C2, was determined in amphioxus ( Branchiostoma floridae ). The first domain shows typical V folding, including the hydrophobic core, CDR analogs, and eight conserved residues...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510259/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-antibacterial-mechanisms-of-branchiostoma-belcheri-under-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection
#6
Qi-Lin Zhang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Ming-Zhong Liang, Feng Wang, Jun Guo, Xian-Yu Deng, Jun-Yuan Chen, Yu-Jun Wang, Lian-Bing Lin
Amphioxus, a basal chordate, is widely considered to be an existing proxy of the invertebrate ancestor of vertebrates, and it exhibits susceptibility to various pathogen infections and pathogenic mimic challenges. Here, in order to understand more clearly its antibacterial mechanisms, we analyzed the ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depleted transcriptome of Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. p.) via next-generation deep sequencing technology (RNA-seq). We identified a total of 3214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing V...
May 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410521/the-role-of-transposable-elements-in-functional-evolution-of-amphioxus-genome-the-case-of-opsin-gene-family
#7
Chrysoula N Pantzartzi, Jiri Pergner, Zbynek Kozmik
Transposable elements (TEs) are able to jump to new locations (transposition) in the genome, usually after replication. They constitute the so-called selfish or junk DNA and take over large proportions of some genomes. Due to their ability to move around they can change the DNA landscape of genomes and are therefore a rich source of innovation in genes and gene regulation. Surge of sequence data in the past years has significantly facilitated large scale comparative studies. Cephalochordates have been regarded as a useful proxy to ancestral chordate condition partially due to the comparatively slow evolutionary rate at morphological and genomic level...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312538/genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-in-the-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri-after-poly-i-c-challenge-using-strand-specific-rna-seq
#8
Qi-Lin Zhang, Zheng-Qing Xie, Ming-Zhong Liang, Bang Luo, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
The gene expression associated with immune response to bacteria/bacterial mimic has been extensively analyzed in amphioxus, but remains largely unknown about how gene are involved in the immune response to viral invasion at expression level. Here, we analyze the rRNA-depleted transcriptomes of Branchiostoma belcheri using strand-specific RNA-seq in response to the viral mimic, poly (I:C) (pIC). A total of 5,317 differentially expressed genes were detected at treatment group by comparing with control. The gene with the most significant expression changes (top 15) after pIC challenge and 7 immune-related categories involving 58 differently expressed genes were scrutinized...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169695/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-the-distribution-of-molecules-involved-in-ionic-and-ph-regulation-in-the-lancelet-branchiostoma-floridae-hubbs-1922
#9
Ivan Cuoghi, Clara Lazzaretti, Mauro Mandrioli, Lucrezia Mola, Aurora Pederzoli
The aim of present work is to analyse the distribution of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase (V-H+ -ATPase), Na+ /K+ ATPase, Na+ /H+ exchanger (NHE) and SLC26A6 (solute carrier family 26, member 6), also known as pendrin protein, in the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae in order to go in depth in the evolution of osmoregulation and pH regulation in Chordates. In view of their phylogenetic position, lancelets may indeed provide a critical point of reference for studies on osmoregulation evolution in Chordates...
January 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866273/exploring-gene-expression-changes-in-the-amphioxus-gill-after-poly-i-c-challenge-using-digital-expression-profiling
#10
Qi-Lin Zhang, Han-Yue Qiu, Ming-Zhong Liang, Bang Luo, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus, a cephalochordate, is a key model animal for studying the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Recently, studies have revealed that microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles change significantly in the amphioxus gill after immune stimulation, but it remains largely unknown how gene expression responds to immune stress. Elucidating gene expression changes in the amphioxus gill will provide a deeper understanding of the evolution of gill immunity in vertebrates. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) to conduct tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses of the gills of control Branchiostoma belcheri and of those exposed to the viral mimic, poly(I:C) (pIC)...
September 1, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837390/genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-of-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri-following-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-using-strand-specific-rna-seq
#11
Qi-Lin Zhang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Zheng-Qing Xie, Bin Xu, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus is the closest living proxy for exploring the evolutionary origin of the immune system in vertebrates. To understand the immune responses of amphioxus to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 5 ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depleted libraries of amphioxus were constructed, including one control (0 h) library and 4 treatment libraries at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-injection (hpi) with LPS. The transcriptome of Branchiostoma belcheri was analyzed using strand-specific RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq). A total of 6161, 6665, 7969, and 6447 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hpi, respectively, compared with expression levels at 0 h...
December 2, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814726/nitric-oxide-regulates-mouth-development-in-amphioxus
#12
Giovanni Annona, Filomena Caccavale, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani, Pasquale De Luca, Anna Palumbo, Salvatore D'Aniello
The development of the mouth in animals has fascinated researchers for decades, and a recent study proposed the modern view of recurrent evolution of protostomy and deuterostomy. Here we expanded our knowledge about conserved traits of mouth formation in chordates, testing the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is a potential regulator of this process. In the present work we show for the first time that NO is an essential cell signaling molecule for cephalochordate mouth formation, as previously shown for vertebrates, indicating its conserved ancestral role in chordates...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803930/identification-of-neuroglobin-as-a-novel-player-in-anti-bacterial-responses-in-amphioxus
#13
Yu Bai, Shousheng Liu, Xia Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Guangdong Ji, Shicui Zhang
Theoretical considerations support various functions of neuroglobin (Ngb), but further studies are required for full characterization of these functions. In this study, we identified the presence of a single Ngb gene, BjNgb, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum. BjNgb was expressed in various tissues including the notochord, gonads (ovary and testis) and gill, and up-regulated significantly in response to the challenge with LPS and LTA, suggesting involvement in immune response of amphioxus against bacterial infection...
December 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624368/conservation-of-bmp2-4-expression-patterns-within-the-clade-branchiostoma-amphioxus-resolving-interspecific-discrepancies
#14
Luok Wen Yong, Stéphanie Bertrand, Jr-Kai Yu, Hector Escriva, Nicholas D Holland
In 2016, Kaji et al. concluded that the amphioxus mouth has the quality of a coelomoduct and is, therefore, not homologous to the oral opening of any other animal. They studied a Japanese population of Branchiostoma japonicum and based their conclusion, in part, on the larval expression of BMP2/4 in cells that reportedly joined the rim of the forming mouth. They did not detect transcription of that gene in any other tissues in the anterior region of the larva. Their results were almost the inverse of findings for B...
November 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487235/transcriptome-wide-analysis-of-micrornas-in-branchiostoma-belcheri-upon-vibrio-parahemolyticus-infection
#15
Ping Jin, Shengjie Li, Lianjie Sun, Caiyun Lv, Fei Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes via regulating expressions of target genes at post-transcriptional level. Amphioxus, as modern survivor of an ancient chordate lineage, is a model organism for comparative genomics study. However, miRNAs involved in regulating immune responses in Branchiostoma belcheri are largely unclear. Here, we systematically investigated the microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulating immune responses in the cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) through next-generation deep sequencing of amphioxus samples infected with Vibrio parahemolyticus...
September 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473706/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-evolution-of-the-slp76-signalosome
#16
Xuemei Qu, Xin Lan, Chong Deng, Jiatao Zhou, Jingjing Du, Shengfeng Huang, Yingqiu Li
The well-defined mammalian slp76-signalosome is crucial for T-cell immune response, yet whether slp76-signalosome exists in invertebrates and how it evolved remain unknown. Here we investigated slp76-signalosome from an evolutionary perspective in amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri (bb). We proved slp76-signalosome components bbslp76, bbGADS and bbItk are present in amphioxus and bbslp76 interacts with bbGADS and bbItk, but differences exist between the interaction manners within slp76-signalosome components of amphioxus and human (h)...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442709/evolutionary-history-of-the-extant-amphioxus-lineage-with-shallow-branching-diversification
#17
Takeshi Igawa, Masafumi Nozawa, Daichi G Suzuki, James D Reimer, Arseniy R Morov, Yiquan Wang, Yasuhisa Henmi, Kinya Yasui
Amphioxus or lancelets have been regarded as a key animal in understanding the origin of vertebrates. However, the evolutionary history within this lineage remains unexplored. As the amphioxus lineage has likely been separated from other chordates for a very long time and displays a marked left-right asymmetry, its evolutionary history is potentially helpful in better understanding chordate and vertebrate origins. We studied the phylogenetic relationships within the extant amphioxus lineage based on mitochondrial genomes incorporating new Asymmetron and Epigonichthys populations, and based on previously reported nuclear transcriptomes...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384204/cloning-expression-and-antioxidant-activity-of-a-thioredoxin-peroxidase-from-branchiostoma-belcheri-tsingtaunese
#18
Jian Liao, Kaiyu Wang, Weirong Yao, Xunfei Yi, Huihui Yan, Min Chen, Xiaopeng Lan
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the thioredoxin- dependent reduction of hydroperoxides. In this study, a novel thioredoxin peroxidase (Bbt-TPx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was found by EST sequence analysis of a cDNA library of Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese ovary. The sequence of a full-length cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 198 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 22,150 Da. The expression patterns of the protein at different developmental stages and adult amphioxus tissues indicate that this enzyme may play important roles in anti-oxidation and innate immunity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381702/livebearing-or-egg-laying-mammals-27-decisive-nucleotides-of-fam168
#19
Subrata Pramanik, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
In the present study, we determine comprehensive molecular phylogenetic relationships of the novel myelin-associated neurite-outgrowth inhibitor (MANI) gene across the entire eukaryotic lineage. Combined computational genomic and proteomic sequence analyses revealed MANI as one of the two members of the novel family with sequence similarity 168 member (FAM168) genes, consisting of FAM168A and FAM168B, having distinct genetic differences that illustrate diversification in its biological function and genetic taxonomy across the phylogenetic tree...
May 23, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373044/cloning-and-expression-of-a-chitinase-gene-from-eisenia-fetida
#20
Mitsuhiro Ueda, Takashi Shioyama, Kei Nakadoi, Masami Nakazawa, Tatsuji Sakamoto, Takeo Iwamoto, Minoru Sakaguchi
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature and is an important resource. In this study, we identified a chitinase gene, named Eisenia fetida-Chitinase (EF-Chi) gene, of 1494 base pairs (bp) that encodes a protein of 498 amino acids as indicated by the corresponding mRNA sequence. The amino acid sequence of EF-Chi was similar to those of chitinases from Eisenia andrei (99%), Branchiostoma floridae (50%) and Oryzias latipes (49%), and a gene encoding mature EF-Chi was expressed in the GS115 strain of Pichia pastoris...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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