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Ping Jin, Caiyun Lv, Shuangli Peng, Lu Cai, Jiu Zhu, Fei Ma
The COMMD (COpper Metabolism gene MURR1 Domain) gene family with ten members participates in various biological processes, such as the regulation of copper and sodium transport, NF-κB activity and cell cycle progression. However, studies on the COMMD gene family in amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) are yet largely unknown. In this study, we have identified and characterized the ten COMMD family members from amphioxus (designated as AmphiCOMMDs). Firstly, we clone the full length of AmphiCOMMDs, and all AmphiCOMMD proteins contain the conserved COMM domain with two NES (Nuclear Export Signal) motifs...
March 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rong Chen, Lijie Zhang, Jianxun Qi, Nianzhi Zhang, Ling Zhang, Shugang Yao, Yanan Wu, Bo Jiang, Zhenbao Wang, Hongyu Yuan, Qiujin Zhang, Chun Xia
The emergence of adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates depended on the appearance of variable immune receptors, BCRs and TCRs, which exhibit variable-J-constant (VJ -C)-type Ig superfamily folds. Hitherto, however, the structures of IgV-J-IgC-type molecules had never been characterized in invertebrates, leaving the origin of BCR/TCR-type molecules unknown. Using x-ray crystallography, the structure of a VJ -C2 molecule, named AmpIgVJ -C2, was determined in amphioxus ( Branchiostoma floridae ). The first domain shows typical V folding, including the hydrophobic core, CDR analogs, and eight conserved residues...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Qi-Lin Zhang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Ming-Zhong Liang, Feng Wang, Jun Guo, Xian-Yu Deng, Jun-Yuan Chen, Yu-Jun Wang, Lian-Bing Lin
Amphioxus, a basal chordate, is widely considered to be an existing proxy of the invertebrate ancestor of vertebrates, and it exhibits susceptibility to various pathogen infections and pathogenic mimic challenges. Here, in order to understand more clearly its antibacterial mechanisms, we analyzed the ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depleted transcriptome of Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. p.) via next-generation deep sequencing technology (RNA-seq). We identified a total of 3214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing V...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Chrysoula N Pantzartzi, Jiri Pergner, Zbynek Kozmik
Transposable elements (TEs) are able to jump to new locations (transposition) in the genome, usually after replication. They constitute the so-called selfish or junk DNA and take over large proportions of some genomes. Due to their ability to move around they can change the DNA landscape of genomes and are therefore a rich source of innovation in genes and gene regulation. Surge of sequence data in the past years has significantly facilitated large scale comparative studies. Cephalochordates have been regarded as a useful proxy to ancestral chordate condition partially due to the comparatively slow evolutionary rate at morphological and genomic level...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qi-Lin Zhang, Zheng-Qing Xie, Ming-Zhong Liang, Bang Luo, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
The gene expression associated with immune response to bacteria/bacterial mimic has been extensively analyzed in amphioxus, but remains largely unknown about how gene are involved in the immune response to viral invasion at expression level. Here, we analyze the rRNA-depleted transcriptomes of Branchiostoma belcheri using strand-specific RNA-seq in response to the viral mimic, poly (I:C) (pIC). A total of 5,317 differentially expressed genes were detected at treatment group by comparing with control. The gene with the most significant expression changes (top 15) after pIC challenge and 7 immune-related categories involving 58 differently expressed genes were scrutinized...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Ivan Cuoghi, Clara Lazzaretti, Mauro Mandrioli, Lucrezia Mola, Aurora Pederzoli
The aim of present work is to analyse the distribution of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase (V-H+ -ATPase), Na+ /K+ ATPase, Na+ /H+ exchanger (NHE) and SLC26A6 (solute carrier family 26, member 6), also known as pendrin protein, in the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae in order to go in depth in the evolution of osmoregulation and pH regulation in Chordates. In view of their phylogenetic position, lancelets may indeed provide a critical point of reference for studies on osmoregulation evolution in Chordates...
January 2018: Acta Histochemica
Qi-Lin Zhang, Han-Yue Qiu, Ming-Zhong Liang, Bang Luo, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus, a cephalochordate, is a key model animal for studying the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Recently, studies have revealed that microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles change significantly in the amphioxus gill after immune stimulation, but it remains largely unknown how gene expression responds to immune stress. Elucidating gene expression changes in the amphioxus gill will provide a deeper understanding of the evolution of gill immunity in vertebrates. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) to conduct tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses of the gills of control Branchiostoma belcheri and of those exposed to the viral mimic, poly(I:C) (pIC)...
September 1, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qi-Lin Zhang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Zheng-Qing Xie, Bin Xu, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus is the closest living proxy for exploring the evolutionary origin of the immune system in vertebrates. To understand the immune responses of amphioxus to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 5 ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depleted libraries of amphioxus were constructed, including one control (0 h) library and 4 treatment libraries at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-injection (hpi) with LPS. The transcriptome of Branchiostoma belcheri was analyzed using strand-specific RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq). A total of 6161, 6665, 7969, and 6447 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hpi, respectively, compared with expression levels at 0 h...
December 2, 2017: RNA Biology
Giovanni Annona, Filomena Caccavale, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani, Pasquale De Luca, Anna Palumbo, Salvatore D'Aniello
The development of the mouth in animals has fascinated researchers for decades, and a recent study proposed the modern view of recurrent evolution of protostomy and deuterostomy. Here we expanded our knowledge about conserved traits of mouth formation in chordates, testing the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is a potential regulator of this process. In the present work we show for the first time that NO is an essential cell signaling molecule for cephalochordate mouth formation, as previously shown for vertebrates, indicating its conserved ancestral role in chordates...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yu Bai, Shousheng Liu, Xia Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Guangdong Ji, Shicui Zhang
Theoretical considerations support various functions of neuroglobin (Ngb), but further studies are required for full characterization of these functions. In this study, we identified the presence of a single Ngb gene, BjNgb, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum. BjNgb was expressed in various tissues including the notochord, gonads (ovary and testis) and gill, and up-regulated significantly in response to the challenge with LPS and LTA, suggesting involvement in immune response of amphioxus against bacterial infection...
December 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Luok Wen Yong, Stéphanie Bertrand, Jr-Kai Yu, Hector Escriva, Nicholas D Holland
In 2016, Kaji et al. concluded that the amphioxus mouth has the quality of a coelomoduct and is, therefore, not homologous to the oral opening of any other animal. They studied a Japanese population of Branchiostoma japonicum and based their conclusion, in part, on the larval expression of BMP2/4 in cells that reportedly joined the rim of the forming mouth. They did not detect transcription of that gene in any other tissues in the anterior region of the larva. Their results were almost the inverse of findings for B...
November 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Ping Jin, Shengjie Li, Lianjie Sun, Caiyun Lv, Fei Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes via regulating expressions of target genes at post-transcriptional level. Amphioxus, as modern survivor of an ancient chordate lineage, is a model organism for comparative genomics study. However, miRNAs involved in regulating immune responses in Branchiostoma belcheri are largely unclear. Here, we systematically investigated the microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulating immune responses in the cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) through next-generation deep sequencing of amphioxus samples infected with Vibrio parahemolyticus...
May 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xuemei Qu, Xin Lan, Chong Deng, Jiatao Zhou, Jingjing Du, Shengfeng Huang, Yingqiu Li
The well-defined mammalian slp76-signalosome is crucial for T-cell immune response, yet whether slp76-signalosome exists in invertebrates and how it evolved remain unknown. Here we investigated slp76-signalosome from an evolutionary perspective in amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri (bb). We proved slp76-signalosome components bbslp76, bbGADS and bbItk are present in amphioxus and bbslp76 interacts with bbGADS and bbItk, but differences exist between the interaction manners within slp76-signalosome components of amphioxus and human (h)...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Takeshi Igawa, Masafumi Nozawa, Daichi G Suzuki, James D Reimer, Arseniy R Morov, Yiquan Wang, Yasuhisa Henmi, Kinya Yasui
Amphioxus or lancelets have been regarded as a key animal in understanding the origin of vertebrates. However, the evolutionary history within this lineage remains unexplored. As the amphioxus lineage has likely been separated from other chordates for a very long time and displays a marked left-right asymmetry, its evolutionary history is potentially helpful in better understanding chordate and vertebrate origins. We studied the phylogenetic relationships within the extant amphioxus lineage based on mitochondrial genomes incorporating new Asymmetron and Epigonichthys populations, and based on previously reported nuclear transcriptomes...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jian Liao, Kaiyu Wang, Weirong Yao, Xunfei Yi, Huihui Yan, Min Chen, Xiaopeng Lan
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the thioredoxin- dependent reduction of hydroperoxides. In this study, a novel thioredoxin peroxidase (Bbt-TPx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was found by EST sequence analysis of a cDNA library of Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese ovary. The sequence of a full-length cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 198 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 22,150 Da. The expression patterns of the protein at different developmental stages and adult amphioxus tissues indicate that this enzyme may play important roles in anti-oxidation and innate immunity...
2017: PloS One
Subrata Pramanik, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
In the present study, we determine comprehensive molecular phylogenetic relationships of the novel myelin-associated neurite-outgrowth inhibitor (MANI) gene across the entire eukaryotic lineage. Combined computational genomic and proteomic sequence analyses revealed MANI as one of the two members of the novel family with sequence similarity 168 member (FAM168) genes, consisting of FAM168A and FAM168B, having distinct genetic differences that illustrate diversification in its biological function and genetic taxonomy across the phylogenetic tree...
April 3, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Mitsuhiro Ueda, Takashi Shioyama, Kei Nakadoi, Masami Nakazawa, Tatsuji Sakamoto, Takeo Iwamoto, Minoru Sakaguchi
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature and is an important resource. In this study, we identified a chitinase gene, named Eisenia fetida-Chitinase (EF-Chi) gene, of 1494 base pairs (bp) that encodes a protein of 498 amino acids as indicated by the corresponding mRNA sequence. The amino acid sequence of EF-Chi was similar to those of chitinases from Eisenia andrei (99%), Branchiostoma floridae (50%) and Oryzias latipes (49%), and a gene encoding mature EF-Chi was expressed in the GS115 strain of Pichia pastoris...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yuan Yue, Shouqing Hou, Xiu Wang, Leilei Zhan, Guozheng Cao, Guoli Li, Yang Shi, Peng Zhang, Weiling Hong, Hao Lin, Baoping Liu, Feng Shi, Yun Yang, Yongfeng Jin
Exon or cassette duplication is an important means of expanding protein and functional diversity through mutually exclusive splicing. However, the mechanistic basis of this process in non-arthropod species remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that MRP1 genes underwent tandem exon duplication in Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and early-diverging Chordata but not in late-diverging vertebrates. Interestingly, these events were of independent origin in different phyla, suggesting convergent evolution of alternative splicing...
October 3, 2017: RNA Biology
Y H Lin, W Zhang, J W Li, H W Zhang, D Y Chen
In vertebrates, evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in the Toll pathway (ECSIT) interacts with the TNF-receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to regulate the processing of MEKK1, activate NF-κB, and also control BMP target genes. However, the role of ECSIT in invertebrates remains largely unexplored. We performed comparative investigations of the expression, gene structure, and phylogeny of ECSIT, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and Smad4 in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, in amphioxus, ECSIT, TLR, and Smad4 form independent clusters at the base of Chordate   clusters...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
João E Carvalho, Maria Theodosiou, Jie Chen, Pascale Chevret, Susana Alvarez, Angel R De Lera, Vincent Laudet, Jenifer C Croce, Michael Schubert
BACKGROUND: During embryogenesis, tight regulation of retinoic acid (RA) availability is fundamental for normal development. In parallel to RA synthesis, a negative feedback loop controlled by RA catabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 subfamily 26 (CYP26) is crucial. In vertebrates, the functions of the three CYP26 enzymes (CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1) have been well characterized. By contrast, outside vertebrates, little is known about CYP26 complements and their biological roles...
January 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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