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Magnetic resonance physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543948/the-physics-of-mri-safety
#1
REVIEW
Lawrence P Panych, Bruno Madore
The main risks associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been extensively reported and studied; for example, everyday objects may turn into projectiles, energy deposition can cause burns, varying fields can induce nerve stimulation, and loud noises can lead to auditory loss. The present review article is geared toward providing intuition about the physical mechanisms that give rise to these risks. On the one hand, excellent literature already exists on the practical aspect of risk management, with clinical workflow and recommendations...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543874/ex-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-using-hyaluronic-acid-fillers-differences-between-monophasic-and-biphasic-fillers
#2
M J Kim, W-J Moon, M S Hur, S H Han, Y W Lee, Y B Choe, K J Ahn
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic, non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout the human skin and injectable HA fillers are the most commonly used in aesthetic field. This study aimed to determine if differences in physical characteristics of HA products (monophasic or biphasic fillers) affect the patterns of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Twenty biphasic fillers and nine monophasic fillers were obtained from a commercial source, and examined with a 3...
May 25, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543640/electric-properties-tomography-biochemical-physical-and-technical-background-evaluation-and-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Ulrich Katscher, Cornelius A T van den Berg
Electric properties tomography (EPT) derives the patient's electric properties, i.e. conductivity and permittivity, using standard magnetic resonance (MR) systems and standard MR sequences. Thus, EPT does not apply externally mounted electrodes, currents or radiofrequency (RF) probes, as is the case in competing techniques. EPT is quantitative MR, i.e. it yields absolute values of conductivity and permittivity. This review summarizes the physical equations underlying EPT, the corresponding basic and advanced reconstruction techniques and practical numerical aspects to realize these reconstruction techniques...
May 24, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541602/three-dimensional-printing-in-cardiology-current-applications-and-future-challenges
#4
Hongxing Luo, Jarosław Meyer-Szary, Zhongmin Wang, Robert Sabiniewicz, Yuhao Liu
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has attracted a huge interest in recent years. Broadly speaking, it refers to the technology which converts a predesigned virtual model to a touchable object. In clinical medicine, it usually converts a series of two-dimensional medical images acquired through computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or 3D echocardiography into a physical model. Medical 3D printing consists of three main steps: image acquisition, virtual reconstruction and 3D manufacturing. It is a promising tool for preoperative evaluation, medical device design, hemodynamic simulation and medical education, it is also likely to reduce operative risk and increase operative success...
May 25, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540905/tuberous-sclerosis-complex-bourneville-pringle-disease-in-a-25-year-old-female-with-bilateral-renal-angiomyolipoma-and-secondary-hypertension
#5
Sahar El Aoud, Faten Frikha, Mouna Snoussi, Raida Ben Salah, Zouhir Bahloul
Tuberous sclerosis or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurocutaneous disorder that variably affects the brain, skin, kidneys, heart, and other organs. It is characterized by skin and renal lesions in addition to central and peripheral nervous system tumors, with neurological and psychiatric findings. We report such a rare case of tuberous sclerosis in a 25-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and hypertension. Physical examination showed dermatological signs that included hypopigmented maculae, shagreen plaque, angiofibromas on the centrofacial areas, periungual fibromas on toes, and molluscum pendulum around the neck...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537693/surgical-management-of-female-paraurethral-cyst-with-concomitant-stress-urinary-incontinence
#6
Tarik Yonguc, Ibrahim Halil Bozkurt, Salih Polat, Serkan Yarimoglu, Ismail Gulden, Volkan Sen, Suleyman Minareci
Paraurethral cysts are usually asymptomatic and frequently detected incidentally during routine pelvic examination however, patients can present with complaints of a palpable cyst or with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and also dyspareunia. In most cases, diagnosis can be made on physical examination but for more detailed evaluation and to differentiate from malign lesions ultrasonography (US), voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), computerized tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also be used...
May 23, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537680/clinical-features-imaging-findings-treatment-aspects-of-elastofibroma-dorsi-and-long-term-outcomes-after-surgical-resection
#7
M Bartocci, C Dell'Atti, E Meacci, M T Congedo, N Magarelli, L Bonomo, A Leone
OBJECTIVE: We aim to present clinical features, imaging findings, treatment aspects of the elastofibroma dorsi (ED), which is a benign tumor arising from connective tissue at the scapular region, and long-term outcomes after surgical resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated retrospectively 82 patients (55 females, 27 males; mean age, 60 years; age range, 23-78 years) with ED who underwent surgery between January 1994 and May 2014; subsequently all patients were invited for follow-up, which consisted of physical and US examinations...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533808/how-one-institution-overcame-the-challenges-to-start-an-mri-based-brachytherapy-program-for-cervical-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Matthew M Harkenrider, Steven M Shea, Abbie M Wood, Bonnie Chinsky, Amishi Bajaj, Michael Mysz, Joseph H Yacoub, Ari Goldberg, Margaret Liotta, Ronald Potkul, Murat Surucu, John Roeske, William Small
PURPOSE: Adaptive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brachytherapy results in improved local control and decreased high-grade toxicities compared to historical controls. Incorporating MRI into the workflow of a department can be a major challenge when initiating an MRI-based brachytherapy program. This project aims to describe the goals, challenges, and solutions when initiating an MRI-based cervical cancer brachytherapy program at our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We describe the 6-month multi-disciplinary planning phase to initiate an MRI-based brachytherapy program...
April 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533626/nonhealing-progressive-stress-fractures-of-the-foot-in-a-13-year-old-basketball-player-is-vitamin-k-deficiency-a-risk-factor
#9
Meral Bayramoğlu, Nuray Ünlütürk
[Purpose] To report an adolescent male basketball player with nonhealing stress fractures of the foot and discuss the probable factors. [Subject and Methods] A 13-year-old basketball player presented with right foot pain. He had been playing basketball for three years and practicing 5 days/week. He denied any increase in daily training intensity. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stress fractures of the cuboid and cuneiform, with mild edema of the soft tissues between the tarsal bones and tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis and flexor digitorum longi...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527694/voluntary-wheel-running-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-and-brain-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-mice
#10
Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Weiliang Huang, Chuying Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peiqian Hu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Huihui Cao, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2hours/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524556/the-larmor-frequency-shift-in-magnetically-heterogeneous-media-depends-on-their-mesoscopic-structure
#11
Alexander Ruh, Harald Scherer, Valerij G Kiselev
PURPOSE: Recent studies have addressed the determination of the NMR precession frequency in biological tissues containing magnetic susceptibility differences between cell types. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dependence of the precession frequency on medium microstructure using a simple physical model. THEORY: This dependence is governed by diffusion of NMR-visible molecules in magnetically heterogeneous microenvironments. In the limit of fast diffusion, the precession frequency is determined by the average susceptibility-induced magnetic field, whereas in the limit of slow diffusion it is determined by the average local phase factor of precessing spins...
May 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522533/a-dedicated-network-for-social-interaction-processing-in-the-primate-brain
#12
J Sliwa, W A Freiwald
Primate cognition requires interaction processing. Interactions can reveal otherwise hidden properties of intentional agents, such as thoughts and feelings, and of inanimate objects, such as mass and material. Where and how interaction analyses are implemented in the brain is unknown. Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys, we discovered a network centered in the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex that is exclusively engaged in social interaction analysis. Exclusivity of specialization was found for no other function anywhere in the brain...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518066/scaled-anatomical-model-creation-of-biomedical-tomographic-imaging-data-and-associated-labels-for-subsequent-sub-surface-laser-engraving-ssle-of-glass-crystals
#13
Aislinn M Betts, Matthew T McGoldrick, Christopher R Dethlefs, Justin Piotrowicz, Tony Van Avermaete, Jeff Maki, Steve Gerstler, W M Leevy
Biomedical imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) provide excellent platforms for collecting three-dimensional data sets of patient or specimen anatomy in clinical or preclinical settings. However, the use of a virtual, on-screen display limits the ability of these tomographic images to fully convey the anatomical information embedded within. One solution is to interface a biomedical imaging data set with 3D printing technology to generate a physical replica. Here we detail a complementary method to visualize tomographic imaging data with a hand-held model: Sub Surface Laser Engraving (SSLE) of crystal glass...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516970/diagnostic-work-up-in-obstructive-and-inflammatory-salivary-gland-disorders
#14
L Ugga, M Ravanelli, A A Pallottino, D Farina, R Maroldi
Inflammatory and obstructive disorders of the salivary glands are caused by very different pathological conditions affecting the gland tissue and/or the excretory system. The clinical setting is essential to address the appropriate diagnostic imaging work-up. According to history and physical examination, four main clinical scenarios can be recognised: (1) acute generalised swelling of major salivary glands; (2) acute swelling of a single major salivary gland; (3) chronic generalised swelling of major salivary glands, associated or not with "dry mouth"; (4) chronic or prolonged swelling of a single major salivary gland...
April 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516216/the-role-of-intrauterine-magnetic-resonance-in-the-management-of-myelomenigocele
#15
Denise Trigubo, Mercedes Negri, Rosana Mabel Salvatico, Gustavo Leguizamón
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the management of myelomenigocele. BACKGROUND: Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation. Myelomeningocele is the most common type of NTD that is compatible with life, with high survival rates but lifelong physical impairments. CONCLUSION: MRI is an important adjunct to ultrasound in assessing NTD, as it pertains to pre-surgical planning and perinatal management...
May 17, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515948/cerebral-air-embolism-associated-with-penetrating-lung-injury-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Ayumu Yamaoka, Kei Miyata, Eichi Narimatsu, Eiji Sakawaki, Sonoko Sakawaki, Suguru Hirayama, Shuji Uemura, Naoya Yama
CASE: A 44-year-old man intentionally stabbed himself in the anterior neck and left thorax with a fruit knife. Physical examination revealed two open wounds entering the thoracic cavity in the front chest, and a stab wound entering the trachea at the neck. Two chest tubes were initially inserted for the left lung injury with open hemopneumothorax. Nevertheless, the worsening oxygenation required positive pressure ventilation (PPV) with endotracheal intubation. OUTCOME: Right hemiparesis was found during weaning from PPV...
April 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514443/cancer-progression-by-reprogrammed-bcaa-metabolism-in-myeloid-leukaemia
#17
Ayuna Hattori, Makoto Tsunoda, Takaaki Konuma, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tamas Nagy, John Glushka, Fariba Tayyari, Daniel McSkimming, Natarajan Kannan, Arinobu Tojo, Arthur S Edison, Takahiro Ito
Reprogrammed cellular metabolism is a common characteristic observed in various cancers. However, whether metabolic changes directly regulate cancer development and progression remains poorly understood. Here we show that BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in humans and in mouse models of CML. BCAT1 is upregulated during progression of CML and promotes BCAA production in leukaemia cells by aminating the branched-chain keto acids...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514220/case-242-radiation-induced-angiosarcoma
#18
Meredith Disharoon, Kamilia F Kozlowski, Jessica M Kaniowski
History In 2004, this woman received a diagnosis of invasive mammillary carcinoma, tubular variant, strongly positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Her lesion was found at screening mammography performed at an outside institution when she was 59 years old. She underwent partial mastectomy, with partial axillary node dissection and sentinel node mapping. A 0.6 × 0.5 cm Nottingham grade 1 infiltrating ductal carcinoma was removed from the right upper outer quadrant, margins were free of tumor, and there was no angiolymphatic invasion...
June 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512409/immunoglobulin-d-multiple-myeloma-presenting-as-spontaneous-fracture
#19
Samer Al Hadidi, Khalil Katato, Ghassan Bachuwa
Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is a rare type of multiple myeloma that usually presents as bone pain, fatigue, or weight loss. We report a case of immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma in a 53-year-old Caucasian male patient with previous medical history of anaplastic oligodendroglioma status post-surgical resection who was evaluated for back pain while mowing the lawn. His physical examination showed tenderness over the lower thoracic vertebrae with no sensory or motor impairment. Initial lab investigations showed normocytic anemia and hypercalcemia with low parathyroid hormone...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509825/vascularized-pedicle-bone-grafting-from-the-cuboid-for-talar-osteonecrosis-results-of-a-novel-salvage-procedure
#20
James A Nunley, Kamran S Hamid
BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the talar body represents a complex clinical challenge with treatment options currently limited to core decompression, vascularized and nonvascularized bone-grafting, total talar replacement, and hindfoot arthrodesis. Vascularized pedicle bone-grafting from the cuboid to the talus is a potential alternative to contemporary operative options for replacement of necrotic talar tissue with viable bone. We aimed to analyze functional and radiographic outcomes of vascularized pedicle bone-grafting from the cuboid for the treatment of talar osteonecrosis in a consecutive series of patients spanning a 12-year period...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
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