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Magnetic resonance physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135706/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-a-urethral-caruncle-and-the-pathologic-correlation-a-report-of-3-cases
#1
Hayato Tomita, Nobuyuki Takeyama, Takaki Hayashi, Satoru Tanihuji, Kenro Yamamoto, Haruaki Sasaki, Nobuyuki Ohike, Yasuo Nakajima, Toshi Hashimoto
A urethral caruncle is the most common disease of the urethra in postmenopausal women. A definitive diagnosis can usually be reached based on physical examination. Cross-sectional imaging is performed when malignant urethral tumor is suspected, such as a urethral carcinoma. No articles have discussed the detailed imaging of urethral caruncles. We present 3 patients with symptomatic urethral caruncles who underwent magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively.
November 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134388/nicolaas-bloembergen-a-pioneer-in-magnetic-resonance-and%C3%A2-in-maser-and-laser-physics
#2
Rob Kaptein, Rolf Boelens, Claudio Luchinat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133981/electrostatic-interactions-between-polyglutamic-acid-and-polylysine-yields-stable-polyion-complex-micelles-for-deoxypodophyllotoxin-delivery
#3
Yutong Wang, Liping Huang, Yan Shen, Lidan Tang, Runing Sun, Di Shi, Thomas J Webster, Jiasheng Tu, Chunmeng Sun
To achieve enhanced physical stability of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide) polymeric micelles (PEG-PDLLA PMs), a mixture of methoxy PEG-PDLLA-polyglutamate (mPEG-PDLLA-PLG) and mPEG-PDLLA-poly(l-lysine) (mPEG-PDLLA-PLL) copolymers was applied to self-assembled stable micelles with polyion-stabilized cores. Prior to micelle preparation, the synthetic copolymers were characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), and their molecular weights were calculated by (1)H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133762/rare-earth-nanoparticle-induced-cytotoxicity-on-spatial-cognition-memory-of-mouse-brain
#4
Cai-Hou Lin, Gui-Fen Liu, Jing Chen, Yan Chen, Ru-Hui Lin, Hong-Xing He, Jian-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: Luminescent rare-earth-based nanoparticles have been increasingly used in nanomedicine due to their excellent physicochemical properties, such as biomedical imaging agents, drug carriers, and biomarkers. However, biological safety of the rare-earth-based nanomedicine is of great significance for future development in practical applications. In particular, biological effects of rare-earth nanoparticles on human's central nervous system are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of rare-earth nanoparticles in nervous system function in the case of continuous exposure...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131416/characterization-of-sweat-induced-with-pilocarpine-physical-exercise-and-collected-passively-by-metabolomic-analysis
#5
S L Souza, G Graça, A Oliva
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The elimination of the pain associated with needle picking is a strong motivation for the development of clinical non-invasive diagnostic methods. Sweat has been described as an alternative biological sample that may have a direct relation to the plasma composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, analysis of sweat of human volunteers obtained by induction with pilocarpine is compared with sweat samples obtained by physical exercise and by passive collection along 7 hours...
November 12, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124115/study-protocol-of-the-intense-physical-activity-and-cognition-study-the-effect-of-high-intensity-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#6
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Natalie Castalanelli, Nicole Gordon, Shaun Markovic, Hamid R Sohrabi, Michael Weinborn, Simon M Laws, James Doecke, Kaikai Shen, Ralph N Martins, Jeremiah J Peiffer
Introduction: Inconsistent results from previous studies of exercise and cognitive function suggest that rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed. Here, we describe the design of the Intense Physical Activity and Cognition (IPAC) study, which will assess the impact of a 6-month high-intensity exercise intervention on cognitive function and biomarkers of dementia risk, compared with a 6-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention and control group (no study-related exercise)...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122722/stimulus-invariant-auditory-cortex-threat-encoding-during-fear-conditioning-with-simple-and-complex-sounds
#7
Matthias Staib, Dominik R Bach
Learning to predict threat depends on amygdala plasticity and does not require auditory cortex (ACX) when threat predictors (conditioned stimuli, CS) are simple sine tones. However, ACX is required in rodents to learn from some naturally occurring CS. Yet, the precise function of ACX, and whether it differs for different CS types, is unknown. Here, we address how ACX encodes threat predictions during human fear conditioning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with multivariate pattern analysis...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122719/interocular-interaction-of-contrast-and-luminance-signals-in-human-primary-visual-cortex
#8
E Chadnova, A Reynaud, S Clavagnier, D H Baker, S Baillet, R F Hess
Interocular interaction in the visual system occurs under dichoptic conditions when contrast and luminance are imbalanced between the eyes. Human psychophysical investigations suggest that interocular interaction can be explained by a contrast normalization model. However, the neural processes that underlie such interactions are still unresolved. We set out to assess, for the first time, the proposed normalization model of interocular contrast interactions using magnetoencephalography and to extend this model to incorporate interactions based on interocular luminance differences...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121397/virtual-phantom-magnetic-resonance-imaging-vip-mri-on-a-clinical-mri-platform
#9
Hervé Saint-Jalmes, Alejandro Bordelois, Giulio Gambarota
PURPOSE: To implement Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ViP MRI), a technique that allows for generating reference signals in MR images using radiofrequency (RF) signals, on a clinical MR system and to test newly designed virtual phantoms. METHODS: MRI experiments were conducted on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Electromagnetic modelling of the ViP system was done using the Principle of Reciprocity. The ViP RF signals were generated using a compact waveform generator (dimensions of 26cm x 18cm x 16cm), connected to a home-built 25mm-diameter RF coil...
November 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117928/brain-activation-in-response-to-personalized-behavioral-and-physiological-feedback-from-self-monitoring-technology-pilot-study
#10
Maxine E Whelan, Paul S Morgan, Lauren B Sherar, Andrew P Kingsnorth, Daniele Magistro, Dale W Esliger
BACKGROUND: The recent surge in commercially available wearable technology has allowed real-time self-monitoring of behavior (eg, physical activity) and physiology (eg, glucose levels). However, there is limited neuroimaging work (ie, functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) to identify how people's brains respond to receiving this personalized health feedback and how this impacts subsequent behavior. OBJECTIVE: Identify regions of the brain activated and examine associations between activation and behavior...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117580/discovery-and-visualization-of-structural-biomarkers-from-mri-using-transport-based-morphometry
#11
Shinjini Kundu, Soheil Kolouri, Kirk I Erickson, Arthur F Kramer, Edward McAuley, Gustavo K Rohde
Disease in the brain is often associated with subtle, spatially diffuse, or complex tissue changes that may lie beneath the level of gross visual inspection, even on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Unfortunately, current computer-assisted approaches that examine pre-specified features, whether anatomically-defined (i.e. thalamic volume, cortical thickness) or based on pixelwise comparison (i.e. deformation-based methods), are prone to missing a vast array of physical changes that are not well-encapsulated by these metrics...
November 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117288/dynamic-network-communication-in-the-human-functional-connectome-predicts-perceptual-variability-in-visual-illusion
#12
Zhiwei Wang, Kristina Zeljic, Qinying Jiang, Yong Gu, Wei Wang, Zheng Wang
Ubiquitous variability between individuals in visual perception is difficult to standardize and has thus essentially been ignored. Here we construct a quantitative psychophysical measure of illusory rotary motion based on the Pinna-Brelstaff figure (PBF) in 73 healthy volunteers and investigate the neural circuit mechanisms underlying perceptual variation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We acquired fMRI data from a subset of 42 subjects during spontaneous and 3 stimulus conditions: expanding PBF, expanding modified-PBF (illusion-free) and expanding modified-PBF with physical rotation...
November 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113942/a-direct-comparison-between-erp-and-fmri-measurements-of-food-related-inhibitory-control-implications-for-bmi-status-and-dietary-intake
#13
Kaylie A Carbine, Kara M Duraccio, C Brock Kirwan, Nathan M Muncy, James D LeCheminant, Michael J Larson
Obesity and maintaining a healthy diet have important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and obesity is inhibitory control. We tested how N2 and P3 amplitude, event-related potential (ERP) components that reflect inhibitory control, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity in brain regions associated with inhibitory control differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli across BMI status. We also assessed the relationship between neural indices of food-related inhibitory control and laboratory and daily food intake...
November 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113660/functional-hepatic-imaging-as-a-biomarker-of-primary-and-secondary-tumor-response-to-loco-regional-therapies
#14
REVIEW
H L Lewis, M A Ghasabeh, P Khoshpouri, I R Kamel, T M Pawlik
Objective criteria to measure tumor response are a key tenet for assessment of treatment efficacy when evaluating a therapeutic modality. Several response criteria have been proposed including the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), modified RECIST (mRECIST), RECIST 1-1, and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines. Response following loco-regional therapies (LRT) can be particularly difficult to assess as post-treatment changes may not always relate to changes in lesion size...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111463/diagnostic-validity-of-combining-history-elements-and-physical-examination-tests-for-traumatic-and-degenerative-symptomatic-meniscal-tears
#15
Simon Décary, Michel Fallaha, Pierre Frémont, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Debbie Feldman, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Pascal-André Vendittoli, François Desmeules
BACKGROUND: Current approach to the clinical diagnosis of traumatic and degenerative symptomatic meniscal tears (SMT) propose combining history elements and physical examination tests without systematic prescription of imaging investigations, yet the evidence to support this diagnostic approach is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude traumatic and degenerative SMT compared to other knee disorders...
October 27, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107662/methylphenidate-alters-brain-connectivity-after-enhanced-physical-performance
#16
Michael King, Keelyn Van Breda, Laurie H Rauch, Samantha J Brooks, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser
Muscle fatigue is a disturbed homeostatic state characterized by a temporary inability to maintain force output and has lasting effects on the brain in the period immediately after exercise, such as decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC). Stimulants that increase dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission can enhance performance during muscle fatiguing exercise (i.e. are ergogenic). We recently demonstrated that methylphenidate (MPH) increased force output and increased FC between the insular (IC) and hand motor cortex during a fatiguing handgrip task...
October 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106657/posterior-upper-rib-excision-for-neurogenic-thoracic-outlet-syndrome-feasibility-and-early-outcomes
#17
Kamran Aghayev, Ozcan Ciklatekerlio
BACKGROUND: There are several surgical treatment options for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (n-TOS). However, the first rib has been shown to be the common denominator of all TOS forms and the degree of its resection has been shown to correlate with the long-term success. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of posterior upper rib excision (PURE) and report early outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients presented with signs and symptoms of n-TOS...
July 6, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104532/specific-physical-exercise-improves-energetic-metabolism-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mice
#18
Céline Desseille, Séverine Deforges, Olivier Biondi, Léo Houdebine, Domenico D'amico, Antonin Lamazière, Cédric Caradeuc, Gildas Bertho, Gaëlle Bruneteau, Laure Weill, Jean Bastin, Fatima Djouadi, François Salachas, Philippe Lopes, Christophe Chanoine, Charbel Massaad, Frédéric Charbonnier
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the specific loss of motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and death. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-induced toxicity for motor neurons remain poorly understood, growing evidence suggest a defective energetic metabolism in skeletal muscles participating in ALS-induced motor neuron death ultimately destabilizing neuromuscular junctions. In the present study, we report that a specific exercise paradigm, based on a high intensity and amplitude swimming exercise, significantly improves glucose metabolism in ALS mice...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102569/the-glenoid-labral-articular-teardrop-lesion-a-chondrolabral-injury-with-distinct-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#19
Evan S Lederman, Stephen Flores, Christopher Stevens, Damien Richardson, Pamela Lund
PURPOSE: Evaluation and description of a pathognomonic lesion identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a chondrolabral injury of the glenohumeral joint. METHODS: Patients were prospectively identified at the time of MRI by a characteristic teardrop appearance of a pedicled displaced chondrolabral flap in the axillary recess on coronal imaging and retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: In a sample of 36 patients, there were 30 males (83%), and the average age was 27 years (14-75 years)...
November 1, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101541/rotator-cuff-muscular-integrity-after-arthroscopic-revision-of-a-bankart-repair
#20
Johannes Buckup, Frederic Welsch, Reinhard Hoffmann, Philip P Roessler, Karl F Schüttler, Thomas Stein
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent shoulder instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair is still a common complication. For primary Bankart repair studies have shown that the rotator cuff can recover completely. The ability of muscles to regenerate after arthroscopic revision Bankart repair (ARBR) has not been studied. Does the ARBR using a three-portal method allows complete muscle integrity compared with an uninjured imaging control group (ICG)? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two (1 female, 21 males) physically active patients (mean age at follow-up 28...
November 3, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
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