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Magnetic resonance physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#1
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785727/body-composition-profiling-in-the-uk-biobank-imaging-study
#2
Jennifer Linge, Magnus Borga, Janne West, Theresa Tuthill, Melissa R Miller, Alexandra Dumitriu, E Louise Thomas, Thobias Romu, Patrik Tunón, Jimmy D Bell, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the value of imaging-based multivariable body composition profiling by describing its association with coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic health on individual and population levels. METHODS: The first 6,021 participants scanned by UK Biobank were included. Body composition profiles (BCPs) were calculated, including abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh muscle volume, liver fat, and muscle fat infiltration (MFI), determined using magnetic resonance imaging...
May 22, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782639/sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes-and-the-value-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#3
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Flora Bacopoulou, Despoina Apostolaki, George P Chrousos
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the non-traumatic death, due to loss of heart function that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly within 6 hours of a previously normal state of health. It is related to intense competitive sports promoting ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the presence of underlying abnormal substrate. A serial evaluation of cardiac physiologic changes taking place during training will allow the better understanding of athlete's heart and will facilitate its discrimination from other gray-zone cardiomyopathies...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782307/cutaneous-manifestations-of-tuberous-sclerosis
#4
Mirjana Bakić, Marina Ratković, Branka Gledović, Balsa Vujović, Danilo Radunović, Vera Babić, Vladimir Prelević
Dear Editor, Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease, which occurs due to genetically determined hyperplasia of ectodermal and mesodermal cells. Clinical manifestations present on the skin and in the nervous system, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Recent studies estimate the incidence of TS at 1/6000 to 1/10,000 live births, and a prevalence in the general population of approximately 1 in 20,000 (1). There are two different genetic loci responsible for TS: 9q34 (TSC1-hamartin) and 16p13...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782242/case-254-posttraumatic-migrating-fat-embolus-causing-fat-emboli-syndrome
#5
Sébastien Molière, Stéphane Kremer, Guillaume Bierry
History An otherwise healthy 18-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a closed displaced fracture of the left femoral shaft ( Fig 1 ) after a high-velocity motorbike accident. At admission, other physical examination findings were unremarkable. Initial unenhanced and contrast material-enhanced (120 mL of Iomeron 400; Bracco Imaging, Milan, Italy) computed tomography (CT) was performed in the arterial and venous phases from the head to the knees. No abnormalities were noted in the brain or chest at initial CT...
June 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778072/nmr-at-pressures-up-to-90-gpa
#6
Thomas Meier, Saiana Khandarkhaeva, Sylvain Petitgirard, Thomas Körber, Alexander Lauerer, Ernst Rössler, Leonid Dubrovinsky
The past 15 years have seen an astonishing increase in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) sensitivity and accessible pressure range in high-pressure NMR experiments, owing to a series of new developments of NMR spectroscopy applied to the diamond anvil cell (DAC). Recently, with the application of electro-magnetic lenses, so-called Lenz lenses, in toroidal diamond indenter cells, pressures of up to 72 GPa with NMR spin sensitivities of about 1012  spin/Hz1/2 has been achieved. Here, we describe the implementation of a refined NMR resonator structure using a pair of double stage Lenz lenses driven by a Helmholtz coil within a standard DAC, allowing to measure sample volumes as small as 100 pl prior to compression...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776411/a-study-of-the-factors-associated-with-cervical-spinal-disc-degeneration-with-a-focus-on-bone-metabolism-and-amino-acids-in-the-japanese-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Kanichiro Wada, Toshihiro Tanaka, Gentaro Kumagai, Hitoshi Kudo, Toru Asari, Daisuke Chiba, Seiya Ota, Keita Kamei, On Takeda, Shigeyuki Nakaji, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
BACKGROUND: The physical and biochemical factors responsible for cervical disc degeneration, and resulting in various spinal disorders, remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between cervical spinal canal stenosis and degeneration of intervertebral discs, and to analyze the factors related to disc degeneration in the Japanese population. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-four Japanese general residents underwent investigations, including magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine, in our health check project...
May 17, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776014/association-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-with-brain-structure-uk-biobank-study
#8
Mark Hamer, Nikhil Sharma, G David Batty
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be beneficial for cognition but mechanisms are unclear. We examined the association between objectively assessed physical activity and brain volume, with a focus on the hippocampus region. METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank (n=5,272; aged 55.4±7.5 yrs; 45.6% men) collected through 2013-2016. Participants wore the Axivity AX3 wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer for seven days to assess habitual physical activity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a standard Siemens Skyra 3T running VD13A SP4 to obtain images of the brain...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774974/stiffness-reconstruction-methods-for-mr-elastography
#9
Daniel Fovargue, David Nordsletten, Ralph Sinkus
Assessment of tissue stiffness is desirable for clinicians and researchers, as it is well established that pathophysiological mechanisms often alter the structural properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) provides an avenue for measuring tissue stiffness and has a long history of clinical application, including staging liver fibrosis and stratifying breast cancer malignancy. A vital component of MRE consists of the reconstruction algorithms used to derive stiffness from wave-motion images by solving inverse problems...
May 18, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773374/electrospinning-and-wound-healing-activity-of-%C3%AE-chitin-extracted-from-cuttlefish-bone
#10
Hyeong-Seop Jung, Min Hee Kim, Ji Youn Shin, Se Ra Park, Ju-Young Jung, Won Ho Park
A nanofibrous β-chitin web was fabricated via electrospinning for use as a novel wound dressing material. β-chitin was extracted from cuttlefish bone using deproteinization and demineralization. First, cuttlefish bone was alkali-treated to remove the proteins and was then treated with the acid for demineralization. The extracted β-chitin was dissolved in formic acid as solvent to evaluate its electrospinnability, and the electrospinnability increased remarkably when β-chitin was blended with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) than without...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771705/the-causality-nexus-between-the-tako-tsubo-syndrome-and-an-assault-a-forensic-case-report
#11
Malek Zribi, Syrine Azza Manoubi, Narjes Karray, Salma Charfeddine, Wiem Benamar, Zouhir Hammami, Samir Kammoun, Samir Maatoug
"Tako-tsubo" cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome," is one of the rarest types of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. It frequently mimics acute coronary syndrome, characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes, and release of myocardial enzymes. After treatment, the patients are cured in most cases without sequelae. Tako-tsubo syndrome is rarely considered as a reason for consultation in the forensic department.Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old woman who was assaulted by her police officer neighbor...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771238/on-the-direct-acquisition-of-beam-s-eye-view-images-in-mri-for-integration-with-external-beam-radiotherapy
#12
Keith Wachowicz, Brad Murray, B Gino Fallone
The recent interest in the integration of external beam radiotherapy with a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit offers the potential for real-time adaptive tumour tracking during radiation treatment. The tracking of large tumours which follow a rapid trajectory may best be served by the generation of a projection image from the perspective of the beam source, or "beam's eye view" (BEV). This type of image projection represents the path of the radiation beam, thus enabling rapid compensations for target translations, rotations and deformations, as well time-dependent critical structure avoidance...
May 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768371/complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-ii-after-cervical-transforaminal-epidural-injection-a-case-report
#13
Gi-Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon, Dae Gil Kwon
RATIONALE: We report a case of a 61-year-old patient who developed complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II after a cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injection (CTESI). PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient developed sudden-onset severe pain and swelling of his upper right limb after a cervical transforaminal epidural injection. DIAGNOSES: On physical examination, the patient's symptoms and signs corresponded to the Budapest criteria for CRPS...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768298/orbital-cellulitis-when-computed-tomography-imaging-is-falsely-reassuring
#14
Arsany Basily, Sasha Mansukhani, Andrew Anzeljc, Peter Gutierrez
An 8-year-old male presented to the pediatric emergency department with subjective fever, blurry vision, and left eye pain. On physical examination, there was mild left lower lid erythema and a subtle left eye elevation deficit. Computed tomography demonstrated preseptal soft tissue swelling without orbital involvement; however, there was varying amounts of paranasal sinus opacification. Despite the negative scan, a diagnosis of orbital cellulitis associated with sinusitis was made and treatment with intravenous antibiotics was initiated...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766249/imaging-of-temporomandibular-joint-abnormalities-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-with-a-focus-on-developing-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-protocol
#15
REVIEW
Elka Miller, Emilio J Inarejos Clemente, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Saurabh Guleria, Mirkamal Tolend, Arthur B Meyers, Thekla von Kalle, Jennifer Stimec, Bernd Koos, Simone Appenzeller, Linda Z Arvidsson, Eva Kirkhus, Andrea S Doria, Christian J Kellenberger, Tore A Larheim
Inflammation and damage in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) often develop without clinical symptoms but can lead to severe facial growth abnormalities and impaired health-related quality of life, making early diagnosis of TMJ changes crucial to identify. Inflammatory and osteochondral changes detectable through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) occur in TMJs of approximately 40% of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and no other imaging modality or physical method of examination can reliably detect these changes...
June 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763252/charcot-foot-clinical-clues-diagnostic-strategies-and-treatment-principles
#16
Valerie S Marmolejo, Jonathan F Arnold, Mario Ponticello, Charles A Anderson
Acute Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle is often difficult to diagnose because of limited findings in the patient history, physical examination, imaging, and laboratory studies. Delay in treatment results in the development of rigid foot and ankle deformities, increasing the risk of ulceration, infection, and major lower extremity amputation. Acute Charcot neuroarthropathy should be suspected in any patient 40 years or older with obesity and peripheral neuropathy who presents with an acutely swollen foot following minimal or no recalled trauma and who reports minimal to no pain, particularly if radiography and laboratory markers of infection are normal...
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762121/friction-syndromes-of-the-knee-the-iliotibial-band-and-anterior-fat-pads
#17
Robert D Wissman, Stephen J Pomeranz
As participation in sporting activities increases among the general population, the incidence of overuse injuries continues to rise. Friction syndromes of the knee are common and are often clinically diagnosed without the need for imaging. However, clinical symptoms may overlap with other joint abnormalities, and physical examination may be limited in individuals with excessive pain. Magnetic resonance imaging has remained the modality of choice for the evaluation of internal derangements of the joints and is a useful aid in the diagnosis of friction syndrome of the knee...
2018: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761696/emergence-of-kondo-resonance-in-graphene-intercalated-with-cerium
#18
Jinwoong Hwang, Kyoo Kim, Hyejin Ryu, Jingul Kim, Ji-Eun Lee, Sooran Kim, Minhee Kang, Byeong-Gyu Park, Alessandra Lanzara, Jinwook Chung, Sung-Kwan Mo, Jonathan Denlinger, Byung Il Min, Choongyu Hwang
The interaction between a magnetic impurity, such as cerium (Ce) atom, and surrounding electrons has been one of the core problems in understanding many-body interaction in solid and its relation to magnetism. Kondo effect, the formation of a new resonant ground state with quenched magnetic moment, provides a general framework to describe many-body interaction in the presence of magnetic impurity. In this Letter, a combined study of angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) and dynamic mean-field theory (DMFT) on Ce-intercalated graphene shows that Ce-induced localized states near Fermi energy, EF , hybridized with the graphene π band, exhibit gradual increase in spectral weight upon decreasing temperature...
May 15, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757721/spectrum-of-extratesticular-and-testicular-pathologic-conditions-at-scrotal-mr-imaging
#19
Pardeep K Mittal, Ahmed S Abdalla, Argha Chatterjee, Deborah A Baumgarten, Peter A Harri, Jay Patel, Courtney C Moreno, Helena Gabriel, Frank H Miller
Diagnostic workup of scrotal lesions should begin with a complete clinical history and physical examination, including analysis of risk factors such as family history of testicular cancer, personal history of tumor in the contralateral testis, and cryptorchidism, followed by imaging. Scrotal ultrasonography (US) with a combination of gray-scale and color Doppler techniques has been the first-line imaging modality for evaluation of testicular and extratesticular lesions because of its low cost, wide availability, and high diagnostic accuracy...
May 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756726/-neonatal-facial-palsy-identification-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-case-report
#20
Simón Lubián López, Juan J Pérez Guerrero, Patricia Salazar Oliva, Isabel Benavente Fernández
Neonatal facial palsy is very uncommon and is generally diagnosed at birth. We present the first published case of neonatal facial palsy with identification of herpes simplex virus 1 in cerebrospinal fluid. A 35-day-old male was presented at the Emergency Department with mouth deviation to the left and impossibility of full closure of the right eye. There were no symptoms of infection or relevant medical history. Physical examination was compatible with peripheral facial palsy. Studies performed at admission were normal (blood count, biochemical analysis and coagulation blood tests and cerebrospinal fluid analysis)...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
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