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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934247/the-extent-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-determines-the-severity-of-cerebral-injury-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-rodents
#1
Crystal A Ruff, Stuart D Faulkner, Prakasham Rumajogee, Stephanie Beldick, Warren Foltz, Jennifer Corrigan, Alfred Basilious, Shangjun Jiang, Shanojan Thiyagalingam, Jerome Y Yager, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931987/enhancement-of-motor-skill-learning-by-a-combination-of-ideal-model-observation-and-self-observation
#2
Hitomi Nishizawa, Teiji Kimura
[Purpose] In sports physical therapy, video of a patient's movement or of a skilled model's movement has been used as observational learning methods for injury prevention and movement modification. Positive effects of model video observation have been reported. This study aimed to clarify the effect on motor skill learning using a combination of model-observation and self-observation, which is thought to act as an enhanced method for active error detection by comparing model-observation and self-observation alone for acquisition of correct sports movement...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930946/evaluating-the-traditional-day-and-night-shift-in-an-acute-care-surgery-fellowship-is-the-swing-shift-a-better-choice
#3
Paul J Chestovich, Christopher F McNicoll, Nichole K Ingalls, Deborah A Kuhls, Douglas R Fraser, Shawna L Morrissey, John J Fildes
BACKGROUND: Fellowship trainees in Acute Care Surgery require experience in the management of complex and operative trauma cases. Trauma center staffing usually follows standard 12 or 24 hour shifts, with resident and fellow trainees following a similar schedule. Although trauma admissions can be generally unpredictable, we analyzed temporal trends of trauma patient arrival times to determine the best time frame to maximize trainee experience during each day. METHODS: We reviewed ten years (2007-2016) of trauma registry data for blunt and penetrating trauma activations...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930870/hamstring-myoelectrical-activity-during-three-different-kettlebell-swing-exercises
#4
Michael J Del Monte, David A Opar, Ryan G Timmins, James Ross, Justin Wl Keogh, Christian Lorenzen
Kettlebell exercises have become an increasingly popular form of resistance training and component of lower body rehabilitative training programs; despite a lack of scientific literature illustrating internal mechanisms and effectiveness of these approaches. Participants (n=14) performed three different styles of kettlebell swings (hip hinge, squat and double knee extension) and were assessed for medial hamstrings (MH) and biceps femoris (BF) myoelectrical activity via surface electromyography (sEMG). Bipolar pre-gelled Ag/AgCl surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes (10mm diameter, 20mm inter-electrode distance) were placed on the participant's dominant limb after correct skin preparation...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929177/-falsified-pharmaceutical-products-legislative-measures-in-the-european-union-and-in-germany
#5
REVIEW
Burkhard Sträter
Falsified pharmaceutical products are multi-faceted and driven by great criminal power. The health risks for patients who are frequently very seriously ill are high. The problem in Europe has been recognised. The European Union has created statutory requirements that considerably improve and tighten the system of manufacturing, distribution and documentation, and of pharmaceutical product authorisations. The traceability of each package via safety features is strengthened and made binding by detailed delegated legislation...
September 19, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928650/locomotor-sub-functions-for-control-of-assistive-wearable-robots
#6
Maziar A Sharbafi, Andre Seyfarth, Guoping Zhao
A primary goal of comparative biomechanics is to understand the fundamental physics of locomotion within an evolutionary context. Such an understanding of legged locomotion results in a transition from copying nature to borrowing strategies for interacting with the physical world regarding design and control of bio-inspired legged robots or robotic assistive devices. Inspired from nature, legged locomotion can be composed of three locomotor sub-functions, which are intrinsically interrelated: Stance: redirecting the center of mass by exerting forces on the ground...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920438/conduction-mechanisms-at-interface-of-aln-sin-dielectric-stacks-with-algan-gan-heterostructures-for-normally-off-high-electron-mobility-transistors-correlating-device-behavior-with-nanoscale-interfaces-properties
#7
Giuseppe Greco, Patrick Fiorenza, Ferdinando Iucolano, Andrea Severino, Filippo Giannazzo, Fabrizio Roccaforte
In this work, the conduction mechanisms at the interface of AlN/SiN dielectric stacks with AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been studied combining different macroscopic and nanoscale characterizations on bare materials and devices. The AlN/SiN stacks grown on the recessed region of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been used as gate dielectric of hybrid metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MISHEMTs), showing a normally-off behaviour (Vth=+1.2 V), high channel mobility (204 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)), and very good switching behaviour (ION/IOFF current ratio of 5-6×10(8) and sub-threshold swing of 90 mV/dec)...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918357/long-term-follow-up-after-tibialis-anterior-tendon-shortening-in-combination-with-achilles-tendon-lengthening-in-spastic-equinus-in-cerebral-palsy
#8
Michèle Kläusler, Bernhard Maria Speth, Reinald Brunner, Oren Tirosh, Carlo Camathias, Erich Rutz
Using Tibialis Anterior Shortening (TATS) in combination with Achilles Tendon Lengthening (TAL) to treat spastic equinus in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was described in 2011. Short-term results have indicated a good outcome, especially an improvement of the drop foot in swing phase and the correction of equinus in stance phase. The aim of this study was to analyse the results of the long-term follow-up and to determine the relapse rate of TATS and TAL. The kinematics of the sagittal, frontal and transversal planes were measured by using instrumented 3D gait analysis at three defined time points and then described using the Gait Profile Score (GPS) and Movement Analysis Profile (MAP)...
August 30, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918356/what-is-the-price-for-the-duchenne-gait-pattern-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#9
Firooz Salami, Mirjam Niklasch, Britta K Krautwurst, Thomas Dreher, Sebastian I Wolf
Duchenne gait is characterized by trunk lean towards the affected stance limb with the pelvis stable or elevated on the swinging limb side during single limb stance phase. We assessed the relationship between hip abduction moments and trunk kinetics in patients with cerebral palsy showing excessive lateral trunk motion. Data of 18 subjects with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and 20 aged matched typically developing subjects (TD) were collected retrospectively. Criteria for patient selection were barefoot walking without aid presenting with excessive lateral trunk motion...
September 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912696/swing-boat-inducing-and-recording-locomotor-activity-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Johannes Berlandi, Fang-Ju Lin, Oliver Ambrée, Dirk Rieger, Werner Paulus, Astrid Jeibmann
Recent studies indicate that physical activity can slow down progression of neurodegeneration in humans. To date, automated ways to induce activity have been predominantly described in rodent models. To study the impact of activity on behavior and survival in adult Drosophila melanogaster, we aimed to develop a rotating tube device "swing boat" which is capable of monitoring activity and sleep patterns as well as survival rates of flies. For the purpose of a first application, we tested our device on a transgenic fly model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912037/the-role-of-mental-imagery-in-mood-amplification-an-investigation-across-subclinical-features-of-bipolar-disorders
#11
Caitlin O'Donnell, Martina Di Simplicio, Randi Brown, Emily A Holmes, Stephanie Burnett Heyes
Vivid emotional mental imagery has been identified across a range of mental disorders. In bipolar spectrum disorders - psychopathologies characterized by mood swings that alternate between depression and mania, and include irritability and mixed affect states - mental imagery has been proposed to drive instability in both 'positive' and 'negative' mood. That is, mental imagery can act as an "emotional amplifier". The current experimental study tested this hypothesis and investigated imagery characteristics associated with mood amplification using a spectrum approach to psychopathology...
August 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906108/a-diaminopropane-appended-metal-organic-framework-enabling-efficient-co2-capture-from-coal-flue-gas-via-a-mixed-adsorption-mechanism
#12
Phillip J Milner, Rebecca L Siegelman, Alexander C Forse, Miguel I Gonzalez, Tomče Runčevski, Jeffrey D Martell, Jeffrey A Reimer, Jeffrey R Long
A new diamine-functionalized metal-organic framework comprised of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane (dmpn) appended to the Mg(2+) sites lining the channels of Mg2(dobpdc) (dobpdc(4-) = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) is characterized for the removal of CO2 from the flue gas emissions of coal-fired power plants. Unique to members of this promising class of adsorbents, dmpn-Mg2(dobpdc) displays facile step-shaped adsorption of CO2 from coal flue gas at 40 °C and near complete CO2 desorption upon heating to 100 °C, enabling a high CO2 working capacity (2...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903698/media-violence-and-other-aggression-risk-factors-in-seven-nations
#13
Craig A Anderson, Kanae Suzuki, Edward L Swing, Christopher L Groves, Douglas A Gentile, Sara Prot, Chun Pan Lam, Akira Sakamoto, Yukiko Horiuchi, Barbara Krahé, Margareta Jelic, Wei Liuqing, Roxana Toma, Wayne A Warburton, Xue-Min Zhang, Sachi Tajima, Feng Qing, Poesis Petrescu
Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902805/the-effect-of-hearing-aids-and-cochlear-implants-on-balance-during-gait
#14
Tyler S Weaver, Corey S Shayman, Timothy E Hullar
HYPOTHESIS: Auditory input in people with hearing impairment will improve balance while walking. BACKGROUND: Auditory input is increasingly recognized as an additional input for balance. Several studies have found auditory cues to improve static balance measured on a sway platform. The effect of audition on gait, a dynamic task also linked to fall risk, has not been fully examined. If a positive effect were shown between audition and balance, it would further indicate that improving hearing could also improve balance...
October 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900414/alterations-in-spectral-attributes-of-surface-electromyograms-after-utilization-of-a-foot-drop-stimulator-during-post-stroke-gait
#15
Rakesh Pilkar, Arvind Ramanujam, Karen J Nolan
BACKGROUND: A foot drop stimulator (FDS) is a rehabilitation intervention that stimulates the common peroneal nerve to facilitate ankle dorsiflexion at the appropriate time during post-stroke hemiplegic gait. Time-frequency analysis (TFA) of non-stationary surface electromyograms (EMG) and spectral variables such as instantaneous mean frequency (IMNF) can provide valuable information on the long-term effects of FDS intervention in terms of changes in the motor unit (MU) recruitment during gait, secondary to improved dorsiflexion...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894869/black-phosphorus-transistors-with-van-der-waals-type-electrical-contacts
#16
Ruge Quhe, Yangyang Wang, Meng Ye, Qiaoxuan Zhang, Jie Yang, Pengfei Lu, Ming Lei, Jing Lu
Contact engineering is a possible solution to decrease the pervasive Schottky barrier in a two dimensional (2D) material transistor with bulk metal electrodes. In this paper, two kinds of typical van der Waals (vdW)-type electrical contacts (a 2D metal contact and a 2D material/bulk metal hybrid contact) in monolayer (ML) black phosphorus (BP) transistors are investigated by ab initio energy band calculations and quantum transport simulations. Compared with the traditional bulk metal Ni contact, the gate electrostatic control is significantly improved by using both 2D graphene and borophene electrodes featuring a decrease of 30-50% in the subthreshold swing and an increase by a factor of 4-7 in the on-state current due to the depressed metal induced gap states and reduced screening of the 2D metal electrodes to the gate...
September 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894172/extraordinary-transport-characteristics-and-multivalue-logic-functions-in-a-silicon-based-negative-differential-transconductance-device
#17
Sejoon Lee, Youngmin Lee, Changmin Kim
High-performance negative-differential transconductance (NDT) devices are fabricated in the form of a gated p(+)-i-n(+) Si ultra-thin body transistor. The devices clearly display a Λ-shape transfer characteristic (i.e., Λ-NDT peak) at room temperature, and the NDT behavior is fully based on the gate-modulation of the electrostatic junction characteristics along source-channel-drain. The largest peak-to-valley current ratio of the Λ-NDT peak is greater than 10(4), the smallest full-width at half-maximum is smaller than 170 mV, and the best swing-slope at the Λ-NDT peak region is ~70 mV/dec...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894132/testing-gait-with-ankle-foot-orthoses-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-by-using-functional-mixed-effects-analysis-of-variance
#18
Bairu Zhang, Richard Twycross-Lewis, Heiko Großmann, Dylan Morrissey
Existing statistical methods extract insufficient information from 3-dimensional gait data, rendering clinical interpretation of impaired movement patterns sub-optimal. We propose an alternative approach based on functional data analysis that may be worthy of exploration. We apply this to gait data analysis using repeated-measurements data from children with cerebral palsy who had been prescribed fixed ankle-foot orthoses as an example. We analyze entire gait curves by means of a new functional F test with comparison to multiple pointwise F tests and also to the traditional method - univariate repeated-measurements analysis of variance of joint angle minima and maxima...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889946/dynamic-balance-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-who-have-a-falls-history-is-altered-compared-to-non-fallers-and-to-healthy-controls
#19
Alexander T Peebles, Adam P Bruetsch, Sharon G Lynch, Jessie M Huisinga
Around 60% of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience falls, however the dynamic balance differences between those who fall and those who don't are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to identify distinct biomechanical features of dynamic balance during gait that are different between fallers with MS, non-fallers with MS, and healthy controls. 27 recurrent fallers with MS, 28 persons with MS with no falls history, and 27 healthy controls walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed for 3min...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888929/longitudinal-studies-of-botulinum-toxin-in-cervical-dystonia-why-do-patients-discontinue-therapy
#20
H A Jinnah, Cynthia L Comella, Joel Perlmutter, Codrin Lungu, Mark Hallett
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have established botulinum toxin (BoNT) to be safe and effective for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). Despite its well-documented efficacy, there has been growing awareness that a significant proportion of CD patients discontinue therapy. The reasons for discontinuation are only partly understood. METHODS: This summary describes longitudinal studies that provided information regarding the proportions of patients discontinuing BoNT therapy, and the reasons for discontinuing therapy...
September 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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