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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341853/influence-of-high-heat-load-on-flow-and-containment-of-an-inclined-air-curtain-iac-fume-hood
#1
Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu, Kai Ling Lin
The inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood has been reported to have "almost null leakage"(1) at low suction flow rates when operated at regular temperatures. However, previous research has not investigated the performance or optimized operating parameters when a high heat load is used in the IAC fume hood. For the present work, the effects of a high heat load on the flow field and contaminant leakage characteristics of the IAC fume hood were examined. The heat load was supplied to an IAC hood according to the standard method of EN14175-7:2012...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339983/analysis-of-the-hamstring-muscle-activation-during-two-injury-prevention-exercises
#2
Alireza Monajati, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mark Goss-Sampson, Fernando Naclerio
The aim of this study was to perform an electromyographic and kinetic comparison of two commonly used hamstring eccentric strengthening exercises: Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl. After determining the maximum isometric voluntary contraction of the knee flexors, ten female athletes performed 3 repetitions of both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl, while knee angular displacement and electromyografic activity of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus were monitored. No significant differences were found between biceps femoris and semitendinosus activation in both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339468/molecular-epidemiology-reveals-the-role-of-war-in-the-spread-of-hiv-in-ukraine
#3
Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Mariia Liulchuk, Samuel R Friedman, Iana Sazonova, Nuno R Faria, Aris Katzourakis, Nataliia Babii, Alla Scherbinska, Julien Thézé, Oliver G Pybus, Pavlo Smyrnov, Jean L Mbisa, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Angelos Hatzakis, Gkikas Magiorkinis
Ukraine has one of the largest HIV epidemics in Europe, historically driven by people who inject drugs (PWID). The epidemic showed signs of stabilization in 2012, but the recent war in eastern Ukraine may be reigniting virus spread. We investigated the movement of HIV-infected people within Ukraine before and during the conflict. We analyzed HIV-1 subtype-A pol nucleotide sequences sampled during 2012-2015 from 427 patients of 24 regional AIDS centers and used phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct virus movement among different locations in Ukraine...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337830/exploring-the-effects-of-playing-formations-on-tactical-behaviour-and-external-workload-during-football-small-sided-games
#4
Jorge Baptista, Bruno Travassos, Bruno Gonçalves, Paulo Mourão, João L Viana, Jaime Sampaio
This study aimed to identify the effects of playing formations on tactical behaviour and external workload during football small-sided games. Twenty-three semi-professional footballers integrated three different playing formations in a 7-a-side small-sided game, according to their specific player positions: team 4:3:0 (4 defenders, 3 midfielders); team 4:1:2 (4 defenders, 1 midfielder, 2 forwards); and team 0:4:3 (4 midfielders, 3 forwards). Based on players' movement trajectories, the following individual and collective tactical variables were calculated: total distance covered and distance covered while walking, jogging, running and sprinting, distance from each player to both own and opponent's team centroid (Dist CG and Dist OPP CG, respectively), individual area, team length, team width and surface area...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337433/numerical-simulation-of-two-consecutive-nasal-respiratory-cycles-toward-a-better-understanding-of-nasal-physiology
#5
Ludovic de Gabory, Nicolas Reville, Yannick Baux, Nicolas Boisson, Laurence Bordenave
BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have greatly improved the understanding of nasal physiology. We postulate that simulating the entire and repeated respiratory nasal cycles, within the whole sinonasal cavities, is mandatory to gather more accurate observations and better understand airflow patterns. METHODS: A 3-dimensional (3D) sinonasal model was constructed from a healthy adult computed tomography (CT) scan which discretized in 6.6 million cells (mean volume, 0...
January 16, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336648/rhythmic-arm-swing-integrated-into-treadmill-training-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-a-single-subject-experimental-study
#6
Tae-Woo Kang, Duck-Won Oh, Ji-Hyun Lee, Heon-Seok Cynn
Normal walking includes coordinated and controlled movement of the legs and arms. However, patients following stroke often present with inappropriate motor control which limits coordinated movement patterns of the affected limbs. This study aimed to compare the effects of rhythmic arm swing and arm fixation during treadmill walking in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. We used an alternating study design with multiple baselines across subjects. Three patients with chronic stroke participated in this study...
January 16, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335882/clinical-response-to-vim-s-thalamic-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-essential-tremor-is-associated-with-distinctive-functional-connectivity-patterns
#7
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard surgical stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy) or minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging method acquired in absence of a task. We examined whether rs-fMRI correlates with tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) improvement 1 year after SRS-T...
January 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334647/time-resolved-decoding-of-planned-delayed-and-immediate-prehension-movements
#8
Giacomo Ariani, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Angelika Lingnau
Different contexts require us either to react immediately, or to delay (or suppress) a planned movement. Previous studies that aimed at decoding movement plans typically dissociated movement preparation and execution by means of delayed-movement paradigms. Here we asked whether these results can be generalized to the planning and execution of immediate movements. To directly compare delayed, non-delayed, and suppressed reaching and grasping movements, we used a slow event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design...
December 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333618/age-associated-urethral-dysfunction-in-urethane-anesthetized-rats
#9
Ryu Kimura, Minoru Miyazato, Asuka Ashikari, Takuma Oshiro, Seiichi Saito
AIMS: We aimed to investigate the age-associated changes in movement coordination between the urinary bladder and the urethra in rats. METHODS: A total of 17 female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The rats were divided into young (3 months old) and middle-aged (12-15 months old) groups. In both groups, isovolumetric cystometry and urethral perfusion pressure (UPP) measurements were performed under urethane anesthesia. After the rhythmic bladder contractions stabilized, L-arginine, a nitric oxide (NO) substrate (100 mg/kg), was administered intravenously in both groups...
January 15, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333481/theta-sequences-of-grid-cell-populations-can-provide-a-movement-direction-signal
#10
Ipshita Zutshi, Jill K Leutgeb, Stefan Leutgeb
It has been proposed that path integration in mammals is performed by the convergence of internally generated speed and directional inputs onto grid cells. Although this hypothesis has been supported by the discovery that head direction, speed, and grid cells are intermixed within entorhinal cortex and by the recent finding that head-direction inputs are necessary for grid firing, many details on how grid cells are generated have remained elusive. For example, analysis of recording data suggests that substituting head direction for movement direction accrues errors that preclude the formation of grid patterns...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332497/dosimetric-analysis-of-microscopic-disease-in-sbrt-for-lung-cancers
#11
Ronghu Mao, Lingling Tian, You Zhang, Lei Ren, Renqi Gao, Fang-Fang Yin, Hong Ge
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to theoretically and experimentally evaluate the dosimetry in the microscopic disease regions surrounding the tumor under stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung cancer. METHODS: For simplicity, the tumor was considered moving along 1 dimension with a periodic function. The probability distribution function of the tumor position was generated according to the motion pattern and was used to estimate the delivered dose in the microscopic disease region...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332070/pathophysiologic-basis-of-movement-disorders
#12
Thomas Wichmann
Movement disorders are common and functionally disabling neurologic diseases. Studies over the last decades have investigated the pathophysiology of these diseases in considerable detail, leading to significant insights into their generation of motor disability. While genetically and clinically heterogeneous, most of them are accompanied by prominent and characteristic changes in firing rates and patterns in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex. In recent years, researchers have placed increasing emphasis on the importance of oscillatory changes in firing in these structures, and have discovered that brain areas that were previously considered to be remote from the basal ganglia (such as the cerebellum and the pedunculopontine nucleus) are also highly significant in these disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331489/modulation-of-lower-extremity-joint-stiffness-work-and-power-at-different-walking-and-running-speeds
#13
Li Jin, Michael E Hahn
Locomotion task and speed changes affect dynamic joint function. Walking and running require different coordination patterns of lower extremity joint mechanics. These coordination differences can result in measurable changes in kinematic and kinetic patterns. When locomotion speed changes, the functional role and movement strategy of each joint is altered. A deeper understanding of joint level mechanics and functional interactions will benefit rehabilitation programs and assistive device development. In this study, joint stiffness, joint mechanical work and power were assessed, as they relate to dynamic function of joints during locomotion...
January 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330326/loss-of-balance-between-striatal-feedforward-inhibition-and-corticostriatal-excitation-leads-to-tremor
#14
Yael Oran, Izhar Bar-Gad
Fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert powerful inhibitory control over the striatum and are hypothesized to balance the massive excitatory cortical and thalamic input to this structure. We recorded neuronal activity in the dorsolateral striatum and globus pallidus (GP) concurrently with the detailed movement kinematics of freely behaving female rats prior to and following selective inhibition of FSI activity using IEM-1460 microinjections. The inhibition led to the appearance of episodic rest tremor in the body part that depended on the somatotopic location of the injection within the striatum...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329534/a-large-scale-study-of-a-poultry-trading-network-in-bangladesh-implications-for-control-and-surveillance-of-avian-influenza-viruses
#15
N Moyen, G Ahmed, S Gupta, T Tenzin, R Khan, T Khan, N Debnath, M Yamage, D U Pfeiffer, G Fournie
BACKGROUND: Since its first report in 2007, avian influenza (AI) has been endemic in Bangladesh. While live poultry marketing is widespread throughout the country and known to influence AI dissemination and persistence, trading patterns have not been described. The aim of this study is to assess poultry trading practices and features of the poultry trading networks which could promote AI spread, and their potential implications for disease control and surveillance. Data on poultry trading practices was collected from 849 poultry traders during a cross-sectional survey in 138 live bird markets (LBMs) across 17 different districts of Bangladesh...
January 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328866/proteoglycans-as-immunomodulators-of-the-innate-immune-response-to-lung-infection
#16
Inkyung Kang, Mary Y Chang, Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert
Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex, multifaceted molecules that participate in diverse interactions vital for physiological and pathological processes. As structural components, they provide a scaffold for cells and structural organization that helps define tissue architecture. Through interactions with water, PGs enable molecular and cellular movement through tissues. Through selective ionic interactions with growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and proteases, PGs facilitate the ability of these soluble ligands to regulate intracellular signaling events and to influence the inflammatory response...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327823/a-previous-hamstring-injury-affects-kicking-mechanics-in-soccer-players
#17
Archit Navandar, Santiago Veiga, Gonzalo Torres, David Chorro, Enrique Navarro
BACKGROUND: Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. METHODS: 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327424/the-choreography-of-group-affiliation
#18
Jorina von Zimmermann, Staci Vicary, Matthias Sperling, Guido Orgs, Daniel C Richardson
When two people move in synchrony, they become more social. Yet it is not clear how this effect scales up to larger numbers of people. Does a group need to move in unison to affiliate, in what we term unitary synchrony; or does affiliation arise from distributed coordination, patterns of coupled movements between individual members of a group? We developed choreographic tasks that manipulated movement synchrony without explicitly instructing groups to move in unison. Wrist accelerometers measured group movement dynamics and we applied cross-recurrence analysis to distinguish the temporal features of emergent unitary synchrony (simultaneous movement) and distributed coordination (coupled movement)...
January 12, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327332/salience-from-multiple-feature-contrast-evidence-from-saccade-trajectories
#19
Luke Tudge, Stephan A Brandt, Torsten Schubert
We used eye tracking to quantify the extent to which combinations of salient contrasts (orientation, luminance, and movement) influence a central salience map that guides eye movements. We found that luminance combined additively with orientation and movement, suggesting that the salience system processes luminance somewhat independently of the two other features. On the other hand, orientation and movement together influenced salience underadditively, suggesting that these two features are processed nonindependently...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327331/calibration-of-peripheral-perception-of-shape-with-and-without-saccadic-eye-movements
#20
Céline Paeye, Thérèse Collins, Patrick Cavanagh, Arvid Herwig
The cortical representations of a visual object differ radically across saccades. Several studies claim that the visual system adapts the peripheral percept to better match the subsequent foveal view. Recently, Herwig, Weiß, and Schneider (2015, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1339(1), 97-105) found that the perception of shape demonstrates a saccade-dependent learning effect. Here, we ask whether this learning actually requires saccades. We replicated Herwig et al.'s (2015) study and introduced a fixation condition...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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