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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#1
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139648/upper-palaeolithic-and-mesolithic-ornamental-traditions-in-the-eastern-adriatic-coast-and-hinterland
#2
Barbara Cvitkušić
Archaeological finds of personal ornaments reveal not only behavioural patterns of the society they belong to, but also their forms of manifestations indicate connections, contacts and communication paths, exchange networks and movements of prehistoric populations. This paper advances the current knowledge regarding ornamental traditions in Eastern Adriatic area during Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. Thirteen prehistoric sites from this area have yielded more than thousand finds of ornamental assemblage, making Eastern Adriatic coast and hinterland fruitful area for the research of this type of archaeological assemblage...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139642/matrilineal-heritage-in-southern-iberia-reveals-deep-genetic-links-between-continents
#3
Candela L Hernández, Rosario Calderón
Within the Mediterranean Basin, the Iberian Peninsula has been a focus of attraction for several cultures and civilizations from its prehistory and history, making it a target territory for studying human migration patterns and peopling processes using a wide and heterogeneous spectrum of genomic markers. While its Cantabrian fringe represents the most regularly analysed area in terms of its mitochondrial diversity, the absence of monographic surveys on the maternal genetic composition of southern Iberians (i...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135813/pendular-seesaw-nystagmus-in-a-patient-with-a-giant-pituitary-macroadenoma-pathophysiology-and-the-role-of-the-accessory-optic-system
#4
Peter Yat-Ming Woo, Saori Takemura, Allen Ming-Yan Cheong, Alberto Chi-Ho Chu, Yung Chan, Hoi-Tung Wong, Kwong-Yau Chan
Seesaw nystagmus is characterized by cyclic eye movements with a conjugate torsional component and a dissociated vertical component. In the first half of the cycle, one eye elevates and intorts, whereas the other eye depresses and extorts. The pattern is reversed in the remaining half of the cycle. We describe a patient with a giant pituitary adenoma who developed pendular seesaw nystagmus. Disturbance in the visuovestibular system is postulated to contribute to this form of seesaw nystagmus. Lesions compressing the optic chiasm and the accessory optic system could interrupt the transmission of retinal error signals to the inferior olivary nucleus and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, thus interfering with the adaptive mechanism of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and leading to pendular seesaw nystagmus...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134672/quantitative-aspects-of-the-ruminating-process-in-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-fed-with-different-diets
#5
Dominik Schüßler, Hartmut Greven
Giraffes are ruminants feeding on fresh browse and twigs in the wild, but in zoos, their diet is mainly based on alfalfa hay, grains, and pellets occasionally supplemented by twigs and foliage. These diets, which differ in composition and digestibility, affect the behavior of the animals, tooth wear patterns, and chewing efficiency. We quantified several parameters of the rumination process in ten zoo housed giraffes of different sexes and ages fed either with alfalfa hay, fresh browse, or a combination of both...
November 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134073/why-did-the-pheasant-cross-the-road-long-term-road-mortality-patterns-in-relation-to-management-changes
#6
Joah R Madden, Sarah E Perkins
Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are commonly killed on UK roads, presenting a threat to motorists and a loss to the game shooting industry. Pheasants may be inherently susceptible, or the recent increase in their artificial rearing and release may have exacerbated the situation, either through population increases or because artificial rearing has altered movement behaviour. We compared intra-annual patterns of roadkill reported in the UK from the 1960s (prior to the onset of mass release programmes) with that from the 2010s (when pheasant release was well established and widespread), considering roadkill sex and locations and accounting for changes in traffic levels...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133973/duane-retraction-syndrome-causes-effects-and-management-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Ramesh Kekunnaya, Mithila Negalur
Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is a congenital eye movement anomaly characterized by variable horizontal duction deficits, with narrowing of the palpebral fissure and globe retraction on attempted adduction, occasionally accompanied by upshoot or down-shoot. The etiopathogenesis of this condition can be explained by a spectrum of mechanical, innervational, neurologic and genetic abnormalities occurring independently or which influence each other giving rise to patterns of clinical presentations along with a complex set of ocular and systemic anomalies...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133843/geometry-and-evolution-of-the-cangdong-sag-in-the-bohai-bay-basin-china-implications-for-subduction-of-the-pacific-plate
#8
Liang Luo, Jiafu Qi, Hongxiang Li, Yueqi Dong, Shuai Zhang, Xichen Zhang, Xiaoxia Yu, Lingyan Luo
The Cangdong Sag is a complex Cenozoic rift basin at the center of the Bohai Bay Basin. Cenozoic structures in the Cangdong Sag can be subdivided into the Cangdong Fault System in the west and the Xuxi Fault System in the east. The geometry of the boundary faults varies along the axes of half-grabens. According to the cross-sectional strata geometry, unconformity and planar structural pattern, the Cenozoic structural evolution of the Cangdong Sag can be divided into four distinct stages: (1) major Paleocene initial rift, (2) latest Paleocene-early Eocene intensive rift, (3) late Eocene-Oligocene strike-slip superimposed rift, and (4) Neogene to present-day post-rift depression...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133438/normal-topography-and-binocularity-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-strabismus
#9
John R Economides, Brittany C Rapone, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
In subjects with alternating strabismus either eye can be used to saccade to visual targets. The brain must calculate the correct vector for each saccade, which will depend on the eye chosen to make it. The superior colliculus, a major midbrain center for saccade generation, was examined to determine if the maps serving each eye were shifted to compensate for strabismus.Alternating exotropia was induced in two male macaques at age one month by sectioning the tendons of the medial recti. Once the animals grew to maturity, they were trained to fixate targets with either eye...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133433/attention-priority-map-of-face-images-in-human-early-visual-cortex
#10
Ce Mo, Dongjun He, Fang Fang
Attention priority maps are topographic representations that are utilized for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, while investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of their spatial structure and the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing their priority map. To overcome these challenges, we reconstructed the topographic representations of upright/invered face images from fMRI BOLD signals in human early visual areas V1-V3 based on a voxel-wise population receptive field model and behaviorally characterized the priority map as the first saccadic eye movement pattern when subjects performed a face matching task, relative to the condition in which subjects performed a phase-scrambled face matching task...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133297/evaluating-the-triplet-hypothesis-during-rhythmic-mastication-in-primates
#11
Yashesvini Ram, Callum F Ross
Mammalian mastication involves precise jaw movements including transverse movement of the mandible during the power stroke. Jaw elevation and transverse movement are driven by asymmetrical jaw elevator muscle activity which is thought to include a phylogenetically primitive and conserved triplet motor pattern consisting of: triplet I-balancing side superficial masseter and medial pterygoid, working side posterior temporalis- which reaches onset, peak, and offset first; and triplet II-working side superficial masseter and medial pterygoid, balancing side posterior temporalis-which is active second...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133062/anatomical-and-physiological-basis-of-continuous-spike-wave-of-sleep-syndrome-after-early-thalamic-lesions
#12
Alberto Leal, Eulália Calado, José P Vieira, Carla Mendonça, José C Ferreira, Hugo Ferreira, Daniel Carvalho, Fátima Furtado, Roseli Gomes, José P Monteiro
OBJECTIVE: Early neonatal thalamic lesions account for about 14% of continuous spike-wave of sleep (CSWS) syndrome, representing the most common etiology in this epileptic encephalopathy in children, and promise useful insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. METHODS: We describe nine patients with unilateral neonatal thalamic lesions which progressed to CSWS. Longitudinal whole-night and high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) were performed, as well as detailed imaging and clinical evaluation...
November 10, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132263/movement-pattern-and-physiological-response-in-recreational-small-sided-football-effect-of-number-of-players-with-a-fixed-pitch-size
#13
Morten B Randers, Christina Ørntoft, Marie Hagman, Jens J Nielsen, Peter Krustrup
Recreational soccer is an effective health-promoting activity, but it is unclear how different game formats influence internal and external load. Thus, to be able to advise how to maximise the outcome of recreational football, we examined movement pattern and physiological response in 11 untrained men (32.6 ± 6.7 yrs, 23.3 ± 4.9 fat%, 43.4 ± 5.3 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) during three football sessions comprising 4 × 12 min of 3v3, 5v5 or 7v7 with a constant pitch size of 20 × 40 m. Movement pattern, heart rate (HR), blood lactate and RPE were measured during and after the 12-min periods...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132105/viscoelastic-drops-moving-on-hydrophilic-and-superhydrophobic-surfaces
#14
H Xu, A Clarke, J P Rothstein, R J Poole
So-called "superhydrophobic" surfaces are strongly non-wetting such that fluid droplets very easily roll off when the surface is tilted. Our interest here is in understanding if this is also true, all else held equal, for viscoelastic fluid drops. We study the movement of Newtonian and well-characterised constant-viscosity elastic liquids when various surfaces, including hydrophilic (smooth glass), weakly hydrophobic (embossed polycarbonate) and superhydrophobic surfaces (embossed PTFE), are impulsively tilted...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131372/reading-emotion-from-mouse-cursor-motions-affective-computing-approach
#15
Takashi Yamauchi, Kunchen Xiao
Affective computing research has advanced emotion recognition systems using facial expressions, voices, gaits, and physiological signals, yet these methods are often impractical. This study integrates mouse cursor motion analysis into affective computing and investigates the idea that movements of the computer cursor can provide information about emotion of the computer user. We extracted 16-26 trajectory features during a choice-reaching task and examined the link between emotion and cursor motions. Participants were induced for positive or negative emotions by music, film clips, or emotional pictures, and they indicated their emotions with questionnaires...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129794/is-hand-selection-modulated-by-cognitive-perceptual-load
#16
Jiali Liang, Krista Wilkinson, Robert L Sainburg
Previous studies proposed that selecting which hand to use for a reaching task appears to be modulated by a factor described as "task difficulty". However, what features of a task might contribute to greater or lesser "difficulty" in the context of hand selection decisions has yet to be determined. There has been evidence that biomechanical and kinematic factors such as movement smoothness and work can predict patterns of selection across the workspace, suggesting a role of predictive cost analysis in hand-selection...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129601/on-chip-signal-amplification-of-magnetic-bead-based-immunoassay-by-aviating-magnetic-bead-chains
#17
Uddin M Jalal, Gyeong Jun Jin, Kyu Shik Eom, Min Ho Kim, Joon S Shim
In this work, a Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform is used to electromagnetically actuate magnetic bead chains for an enhanced immunoassay. Custom-made electromagnets generate a magnetic field to form, rotate, lift and lower the magnetic bead chains (MBCs). The cost-effective, disposable LOC platform was made with a polymer substrate and an on-chip electrochemical sensor patterned via the screen-printing process. The movement of the MBCs is controlled to improve the electrochemical signal up to 230% when detecting beta-type human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG)...
November 6, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129535/genetic-influence-on-eye-movements-to-complex-scenes-at-short-timescales
#18
Daniel P Kennedy, Brian M D'Onofrio, Patrick D Quinn, Sven Bölte, Paul Lichtenstein, Terje Falck-Ytter
Where one looks within their environment constrains one's visual experiences, directly affects cognitive, emotional, and social processing [1-4], influences learning opportunities [5], and ultimately shapes one's developmental path. While there is a high degree of similarity across individuals with regard to which features of a scene are fixated [6-8], large individual differences are also present, especially in disorders of development [9-13], and clarifying the origins of these differences is essential to understand the processes by which individuals develop within the complex environments in which they exist and interact...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128544/experimental-poisoning-by-vernonia-rubricaulis-in-sheep
#19
Kelly C S Godoy, Paula V Leal, Marcelo A Araújo, Alda I Souza, Arnildo Pott, Stephen T Lee, Claudio S L Barros, Ricardo A A de Lemos
In order to evaluate the susceptibility of sheep to V. rubricaulis and to establish the clinical signs, serum biochemistry, and pathological findings, eight sheep were fed varying doses of V. rubricaulis. The onset of clinical signs occurred 6-48 h after the ingestion of V. rubricaulis. Clinical courses lasted 6-56 h after the ingestion of the plant. Serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase were highly elevated and glucose blood levels were low in affected sheep...
November 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127741/plpa-a-pilz-like-protein-regulates-directed-motility-of-the-bacterium-myxococcus-xanthus
#20
Connor B Pogue, Tianyi Zhou, Beiyan Nan
The rod-shaped bacterium Myxococcus xanthus moves on surfaces along its long cell axis and reverses its moving direction regularly. Current models propose that the asymmetric localization of a Ras-like GTPase, MglA, to leading cell poles determines the moving direction of cells. However, cells are still motile in the mutants where MglA localizes symmetrically, suggesting the existence of additional regulators that control moving direction. In this study, we identified PlpA, a PilZ-like protein that regulates the direction of motility...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
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