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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738210/neural-activity-and-emotional-processing-following-military-deployment-effects-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Daniel V Zuj, Kim L Felmingham, Matthew A Palmer, Ellie Lawrence-Wood, Miranda Van Hooff, Andrew J Lawrence, Richard A Bryant, Alexander C McFarlane
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are common comorbidities during military deployment that affect emotional brain processing, yet few studies have examined the independent effects of mTBI and PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine distinct differences in neural responses to emotional faces in mTBI and PTSD. Twenty-one soldiers reporting high PTSD symptoms were compared to 21 soldiers with low symptoms, and 16 soldiers who reported mTBI-consistent injury and symptoms were compared with 16 soldiers who did not sustain an mTBI...
July 21, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736792/double-injected-human-stem-cells-enhance-rehabilitation-in-tbi-mice-via-modulation-of-survival-and-inflammation
#2
Chul Kim, Ji-Min Park, TaeHo Kong, Seungmin Lee, Ki-Weon Seo, Yuri Choi, Young Sook Song, Jisook Moon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a complicated form of brain damage, is a major cause of mortality in adults. Following mechanical and structural primary insults, a battery of secondary insults, including neurotransmitter-mediated cytotoxicity, dysregulation of calcium and macromolecule homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress, exacerbate brain injury and functional deficits. Although stem cell therapy is considered to be an alternative treatment for brain injuries, such as TBI and stroke, many obstacles remain...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734749/understanding-the-main-route-of-drug-entry-in-adult-fasciola-hepatica-further-insights-into-closantel-pharmacological-activity
#3
L Ceballos, C Canton, G Cadenazzi, K Larsen, G Virkel, L Moreno, I Fairweather, C Lanusse, L Alvarez
Closantel (CLS) is highly effective against adult liver flukes after its oral or subcutaneous (sc) administration in ruminants. Trans-tegumental diffusion and oral ingestion are the two potential routes available for the entry of drugs into Fasciola hepatica. The work reported here contributes to improve the understanding of CLS pharmacology. The main goals of were: I) to determine the pattern of in vivo CLS accumulation into adult F. hepatica and relevant tissues in CLS-treated sheep; II) to investigate the influence of the physicochemical composition of the incubation medium on the CLS diffusion process into adult F...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734574/early-reduction-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-8-serum-levels-is-associated-with-leptin-drop-and-predicts-diabetes-remission-after-bariatric-surgery
#4
Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Federico Carbone, Maria Bertolotto, Paola Contini, Nicola Scopinaro, Giovanni Bruno Camerini, Francesco Saverio Papadia, Renzo Cordera, Giovanni Guido Camici, Franco Dallegri, Gian Franco Adami, Fabrizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: We aimed at investigating whether the acute abrogation of leptin after bariatric surgery is able to reduce neutrophil activation and potentially affect type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission. METHODS: Metabolic and inflammatory parameters (i.e. leptin, IL-6 and neutrophil products) were compared at baseline (before bariatric surgery), one month, one and three years after surgery in morbid obese (MOB) T2DM patients (n=12) and non-MOB controls (n=32)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733645/hdac3-is-a-molecular-brake-of-the-metabolic-switch-supporting-white-adipose-tissue-browning
#5
Alessandra Ferrari, Raffaella Longo, Erika Fiorino, Rui Silva, Nico Mitro, Gaia Cermenati, Federica Gilardi, Béatrice Desvergne, Annapaola Andolfo, Cinzia Magagnotti, Donatella Caruso, Emma De Fabiani, Scott W Hiebert, Maurizio Crestani
White adipose tissue (WAT) can undergo a phenotypic switch, known as browning, in response to environmental stimuli such as cold. Post-translational modifications of histones have been shown to regulate cellular energy metabolism, but their role in white adipose tissue physiology remains incompletely understood. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) regulates WAT metabolism and function. Selective ablation of Hdac3 in fat switches the metabolic signature of WAT by activating a futile cycle of de novo fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation that potentiates WAT oxidative capacity and ultimately supports browning...
July 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732855/effects-of-thermosensitive-chitosan-gelatin-based-hydrogel-containing-glutathione-on-cisd2-deficient-chondrocytes-under-oxidative-stress
#6
Yung-Hsin Cheng, Eddy Chavez, Kun-Ling Tsai, Kai-Chiang Yang, Wei-Ting Kuo, Yi-Ping Yang, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Feng-Huei Lin
Aging is considered as a primary risk factor in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) which associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (Cisd2) deficiency causes mitochondrial dysfunction and drive premature aging. In the present study, thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin based hydrogel containing glutathione was developed as injectable drug delivery system for administration by minimal invasive surgery for the treatment of OA. Cisd2 deficiency (Cisd2(-/-)) mouse induced pluripotent stem cells-derived chondrocytes were established and characterized...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732770/pharmacologic-modeling-of-primary-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-dysfunction-in-zebrafish
#7
James Byrnes, Rebecca Ganetzky, Richard Lightfoot, Michael Tzeng, Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso, Christoph Seiler, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease is a heterogeneous and highly morbid group of energy deficiency disorders for which no proven effective therapies exist. Robust vertebrate animal models of primary RC dysfunction are needed to explore the effects of variation in RC disease subtypes, tissue-specific manifestations, and major pathogenic factors contributing to each disorder, as well as their pre-clinical response to therapeutic candidates. We have developed a series of zebrafish (Danio rerio) models that inhibit, to variable degrees, distinct aspects of RC function, and enable quantification of animal development, survival, behaviors, and organ-level treatment effects on function as well as mitochondrial biochemistry and physiology...
July 18, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732557/a-negative-slope-conductance-of-the-persistent-sodium-current-prolongs-subthreshold-depolarizations
#8
Cesar C Ceballos, Antonio C Roque, Ricardo M Leão
Neuronal subthreshold voltage-dependent currents determine membrane properties such as the input resistance (Rin) and the membrane time constant (τm) in the subthreshold range. In contrast with classical cable theory predictions, the persistent sodium current (INaP), a non-inactivating mode of the voltage-dependent sodium current, paradoxically increases Rin and τm when activated. Furthermore, this current amplifies and prolongs synaptic currents in the subthreshold range. Here, using a computational neuronal model, we showed that the creation of a region of negative slope conductance by INaP activation is responsible for these effects and the ability of the negative slope conductance to amplify and prolong Rin and τm relies on the fast activation of INaP...
July 18, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732480/metformin-and-longevity-metal-a-window-of-opportunity-study-investigating-the-biological-effects-of-metformin-in-localised-prostate-cancer
#9
Danielle Crawley, Ashish Chandra, Massimo Loda, Cheryl Gillett, Paul Cathcart, Ben Challacombe, Gary Cook, Declan Cahill, Aida Santa Olalla, Fidelma Cahill, Gincy George, Sarah Rudman, Mieke Van Hemelrijck
BACKGROUND: Metformin is a biguanide oral hypoglycaemic agent commonly used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to its anti-diabetic effect, metformin has also been associated with a reduced risk of cancer incidence of a number of solid tumours, including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the underlying biological mechanisms for these observations have not been fully characterised in PCa. One hypothesis is that the indirect insulin lowering effect may have an anti-neoplastic action as elevated insulin and insulin like growth factor - 1 (IGF-1) levels play a role in PCa development and progression...
July 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731502/histologic-scoring-indices-for-evaluation-of-disease-activity-in-crohn-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Gregor Novak, Claire E Parker, Rish K Pai, John K MacDonald, Brian G Feagan, William J Sandborn, Geert D'Haens, Vipul Jairath, Reena Khanna
BACKGROUND: Histologic assessment of mucosal disease activity has been increasingly used in clinical trials of treatment for Crohn's disease. However, the operating properties of the currently existing histologic scoring indices remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the development and operating characteristics of available histologic disease activity indices in Crohn's disease. SEARCH METHODS: Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases from inception to 20 July 2016 were supplemented by manual reviews of bibliographies and abstracts submitted to major gastroenterology meetings (Digestive Disease Week, United European Gastroenterology Week, European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation)...
July 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730837/molecular-basis-of-trpa1-regulation-in-nociceptive-neurons-a-review
#11
A Kádková, V Synytsya, J Krusek, L Zímová, V Vlachová
Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is an excitatory ion channel that functions as a cellular sensor, detecting a wide range of proalgesic agents such as environmental irritants and endogenous products of inflammation and oxidative stress. Topical application of TRPA1 agonists produces an acute nociceptive response through peripheral release of neuropeptides, purines and other transmitters from activated sensory nerve endings. This, in turn, further regulates TRPA1 activity downstream of G-protein and phospholipase C-coupled signaling cascades...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730712/slow-conduction-through-an-arc-of-block-a-basis-for-arrhythmia-formation-post-myocardial-infarction
#12
Eugene Patterson, Benjamin J Scherlag, Edward J Berbari, Ralph Lazzara
INTRODUCTION: The electrophysiologic basis for characteristic rate-dependent, constant-late-coupled (390+54 msec) premature ventricular beats (PVBs) present 4-5 days following coronary artery occlusion were examined in 108 anesthetized dogs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fractionated/double potentials were observed in injured zone bipolar and composite electrograms at prolonged sinus cycle lengths (1296 ± 396 msec). At shorter cycle lengths, conduction of the delayed potential decremented, separating from the initial electrogram by a progressively prolonged isoelectric interval...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729442/adaptive-encoding-of-outcome-prediction-by-prefrontal-cortex-ensembles-supports-behavioral-flexibility
#13
Alberto Del Arco, Junchol Park, Jesse Wood, Yunbok Kim, Bita Moghaddam
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play a critical role in behavioral flexibility by monitoring action-outcome contingencies. How PFC ensembles represent shifts in behavior in response to changes in these contingencies remains unclear. We recorded single-unit activity and local field potentials (LFPs) in the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) of male rats during a set-shifting task that required them to update their behavior, among competing options, in response to changes in action-outcome contingencies. As behavior was updated, a subset of PFC ensembles encoded current trial outcome before the outcome was presented...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729428/fluorine-18-labeled-carboplatin-derivative-for-pet-imaging-of-platinum-drug-distribution
#14
Narottam Lamichhane, Gajanan K Dewkar, Sundaresan Gobalakrishnan, Li Wang, Purnima Jose, Muhammad Otabashi, Jean-Luc Morelle, Nicholas Farrell, Jamal Zweit
Increasing evidence indicates that reduced intracellular drug accumulation is the parameter most consistently associated with platinum drug resistance, and emphasizes the need to directly measure intra-tumor drug concentration. In the era of precision medicine and with the advent of powerful imaging and proteomics technologies, there is an opportunity to better understand drug resistance, by exploiting these techniques to provide new knowledge on drug-target interactions. Here, we are contributing to this endeavor by reporting on the development of a fluorine-18 labeled carboplatin derivative ((18)F-FCP) that can be used to potentially image drug uptake and retention, including intra-tumoral distribution, by positron emission tomography (PET)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729348/a-new-target-for-caffeine-in-the-developing-lung-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#15
Philipp Rath, Claudio Nardiello, Rory E Morty
The utility of caffeine to manage apnea of prematurity is widely accepted, however, much controversy surrounds the potential for caffeine to drive post-natal lung maturation in settings of arrested lung development. Many studies have reported pathways relevant to lung injury and lung development are modulated by caffeine in vitro and in vivo, leading to the application of caffeine in experimental animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). These studies have generated exciting, but at times confusing data...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729062/pharmacological-activation-of-ampk-inhibits-incision-evoked-mechanical-hypersensitivity-and-the-development-of-hyperalgesic-priming-in-mice
#16
Michael D Burton, Dipti V Tillu, Khadijah Mazhar, Galo L Mejia, Marina N Asiedu, Kufreobong Inyang, Travis Hughes, Bo Lian, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price
New therapeutics to manage post-surgical pain are needed to mitigate the liabilities of opioid and other analgesics. Our previous work shows that key modulators of excitability in peripheral nociceptors, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) are inhibited by activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK). We hypothesized that AMPK activation would attenuate acute incision-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and the development of hyperalgesic priming caused by surgery in mice...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729000/airway-microbiota-signals-anabolic-and-catabolic-remodeling-in-the-transplanted-lung
#17
Stéphane Mouraux, Eric Bernasconi, Céline Pattaroni, Angela Koutsokera, John-David Aubert, Johanna Claustre, Christophe Pison, Pierre-Joseph Royer, Antoine Magnan, Romain Kessler, Christian Benden, Paola M Soccal, Benjamin J Marsland, Laurent P Nicod
BACKGROUND: Homeostatic turnover of the extracellular matrix conditions the structure and function of the healthy lung. In lung transplantation, long-term management remains limited by Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction (CLAD), an umbrella term used for a heterogeneous entity ultimately associated with pathological airway and/or parenchyma remodeling. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the local cross-talk between the pulmonary microbiota and host cells is a key determinant in the control of lower airway remodeling post-transplantation...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728770/don-t-push-your-luck-educational-family-board-not-bored-game-for-school-age-children-living-with-chronic-conditions
#18
Andrea Kennedy, Lisa Semple, Kerri Alderson, Vanessa Bouskill, Janice Karasevich, Brenda Riske, Sheri van Gunst
PURPOSE: Children who are living with chronic conditions may be supported in self-care through enjoyable active learning and family social processes. This research focused on development and evaluation of "Don't Push Your Luck!", an educational board game designed to inspire family discussion about chronic conditions, and help affected children learn about self-care choices and consequences. DESIGN AND METHODS: Mixed-method research was conducted with families from one outpatient Cystic Fibrosis Clinic and four Hemophilia Treatment Centres in Canada and United States (N=72)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726589/proteomic-study-of-sumoylation-during-solanum-tuberosum-phytophthora-infestans-in-compatible-interactions
#19
Bertrand Colignon, Marc Dieu, Catherine Demazy, Edouard Delaive, Yordan Muhovski, Martine Raes, Sergio Mauro
Invasive plant pathogens have developed the ability to modify the metabolism of their host, promoting metabolic processes which facilitate the growth of the pathogen; at the general expense of the host. The particular enzymatic process SUMOylation which performs post-translational modification of target proteins, leading to changes in many aspects of protein activity and hence metabolism has been demonstrated to be active in many eukaryotic organisms, both animals and plants. Here we provide experimental evidence which indicates that in leaves of Solanum tuberosum which have been infected by Phytophthora infestans, the SUMO pathway enzymes of the host are partially under transcriptional control exerted by the oomycete...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725581/direct-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-biopsy-of-the-prostate-lessons-learned-in-establishing-a-regional-referral-center
#20
REVIEW
Benjamin Addicott, Bryan R Foster, Chenara Johnson, Alice Fung, Christopher L Amling, Fergus V Coakley
MRI-targeted biopsy of the prostate appears to have the potential to reduce the high rates of underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis associated with the current diagnostic standard of transrectal ultrasound guided systematic biopsy. Direct or "in bore" MRI-guided biopsy is one of the three methods for MRI-targeted core needle sampling of suspicious, generally Pi-RADS 4 or 5, foci within the prostate, and our early experience suggests the approach demonstrates substantial utility and promise in the care of patients with prostate cancer...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
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