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Epidemics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778013/using-google-trends-and-ambient-temperature-to-predict-seasonal-influenza-outbreaks
#1
Yuzhou Zhang, Hilary Bambrick, Kerrie Mengersen, Shilu Tong, Wenbiao Hu
BACKGROUND: The discovery of the dynamics of seasonal and non-seasonal influenza outbreaks remains a great challenge. Previous internet-based surveillance studies built purely on internet or climate data do have potential error. METHODS: We collected influenza notifications, temperature and Google Trends (GT) data between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2016. We performed time-series cross correlation analysis and temporal risk analysis to discover the characteristics of influenza epidemics in the period...
May 16, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777948/escherichia-coli-hyperepidemic-clone-st410-a-harboring-bla-ctx-m-15-isolated-from-fresh-vegetables-in-a-municipal-market-in-quito-ecuador
#2
David Ortega-Paredes, Pedro Barba, Santiago Mena-López, Nathaly Espinel, Jeannete Zurita
Dissemination of Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae is a major medical threat. Vegetables and fruits, which are usually consumed raw, are a very suitable pathway for the spread of these bacteria from farm-to-fork. However, limited information exists regarding resistant bacteria and epidemic clones that are disseminated in vegetables and tap water in South America. We processed a total of 90 samples in triplicate of nine typically consumed raw vegetables from a central municipal market, and tap water samples were processed from twenty-one locations in Quito, Ecuador...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777871/pain-therapeutics-from-cone-snail-venoms-from-ziconotide-to-novel-non-opioid-pathways
#3
Helena Safavi-Hemami, Shane E Brogan, Baldomero M Olivera
There have been numerous attempts to develop non-opioid drugs for severe pain, but the vast majority of these efforts have failed. A notable exception is Ziconotide (Prialt®), approved by the FDA in 2004. In this review, we summarize the present status of Ziconotide as a therapeutic drug and introduce a wider framework: the potential of venom peptides from cone snails as a resource providing a continuous pipeline for the discovery of non-opioid pain therapeutics. An auxiliary theme that we hope to develop is that these venoms, already a validated starting point for non-opioid drug leads, should also provide an opportunity for identifying novel molecular targets for future pain drugs...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777802/derivation-and-characterization-of-a-ucp1-reporter-human-es-cell-line
#4
Suranjit Mukherjee, Tuo Zhang, Lauretta A Lacko, Lei Tan, Jenny Zhaoying Xiang, Jason M Butler, Shuibing Chen
Interest in human brown fat as a novel therapeutic target to tackle the growing obesity and diabetes epidemic has increased dramatically in recent years. While much insight into brown fat biology has been gained from murine cell lines and models, few resources are available to study human brown fat in vitro, which makes the need for new ways to derive and study human brown adipocytes imperative. Human ES cell based reporter systems present an excellent tool to identify, mark, and purify cell populations of choice...
April 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777749/burden-of-liver-disease-in-europe-epidemiology-and-analysis-of-risk-factors-to-identify-prevention-policies
#5
REVIEW
Laura Pimpin, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Francesco Negro, Emily Corbould, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Laura Webber, Nick Sheron
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. METHODS: As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776671/guidelines-on-diabetic-eye-care-the-international-council-of-ophthalmology-recommendations-for-screening-follow-up-referral-and-treatment-based-on-resource-settings
#6
REVIEW
Tien Y Wong, Jennifer Sun, Ryo Kawasaki, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Neeru Gupta, Van Charles Lansingh, Mauricio Maia, Wanjiku Mathenge, Sunil Moreker, Maji M K Muqit, Serge Resnikoff, Juan Verdaguer, Peiquan Zhao, Frederick Ferris, Lloyd P Aiello, Hugh R Taylor
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global epidemic and affects populations in both developing and developed countries, with differing health care and resource levels. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major complication of DM and a leading cause of vision loss in working middle-aged adults. Vision loss from DR can be prevented with broad-level public health strategies, but these need to be tailored to a country's and population's resource setting. Designing DR screening programs, with appropriate and timely referral to facilities with trained eye care professionals, and using cost-effective treatment for vision-threatening levels of DR can prevent vision loss...
May 15, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776347/stabilization-of-the-obesity-epidemic-and-increasing-thinness-in-children-in-caribbean-bonaire
#7
Joana Kist-van Holthe, Tirza Blom, Laura Melchers, Alcira Janga-Jansen, Tahirih van Kanten, Marian Luinstra-Passchier, Teatske Altenburg, Remy HiraSing, Mai Chinapaw
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Bonaire was twice as high as the prevalence in northern Europe but comparable to that of other Caribbean islands and the United States. The aim of this study was to examine change in the body mass index status of children in Bonaire and report children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB) in 2015. METHODS: Two school-based cross sectional surveys of children age 4-14 years were conducted in 2008 and 2015...
May 17, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776104/interplay-between-cost-and-benefits-triggers-nontrivial-vaccination-uptake
#8
Benjamin Steinegger, Alessio Cardillo, Paolo De Los Rios, Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes, Alex Arenas
The containment of epidemic spreading is a major challenge in science. Vaccination, whenever available, is the best way to prevent the spreading, because it eventually immunizes individuals. However, vaccines are not perfect, and total immunization is not guaranteed. Imperfect immunization has driven the emergence of antivaccine movements that totally alter the predictions about the epidemic incidence. Here, we propose a mathematically solvable mean-field vaccination model to mimic the spontaneous adoption of vaccines against influenzalike diseases and the expected epidemic incidence...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776021/tuning-the-overlap-and-the-cross-layer-correlations-in-two-layer-networks-application-to-a-susceptible-infectious-recovered-model-with-awareness-dissemination
#9
David Juher, Joan Saldaña
We study the properties of the potential overlap between two networks A,B sharing the same set of N nodes (a two-layer network) whose respective degree distributions p_{A}(k),p_{B}(k) are given. Defining the overlap coefficient α as the Jaccard index, we prove that α is very close to 0 when A and B are random and independently generated. We derive an upper bound α_{M} for the maximum overlap coefficient permitted in terms of p_{A}(k), p_{B}(k), and N. Then we present an algorithm based on cross rewiring of links to obtain a two-layer network with any prescribed α inside the range (0,α_{M})...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775680/assessing-the-effects-of-daily-commuting-in-two-patch-dengue-dynamics-a-case-study-of-cali-colombia
#10
Edwin Barrios, Sunmi Lee, Olga Vasilieva
There are many infectious diseases that can be spread by daily commuting of people and dengue fever is one of them. The absence of vaccine and irregularities in ongoing vector control programs make this disease the most frequent and persistent in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This paper targets to access the effects of daily commuting on dengue transmission dynamics by using a deterministic two-patch model fitted to observed data gathered in Cali, Colombia where dengue fever is highly persistent and exhibits endemo-epidemic patterns...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775667/identification-of-novel-hla-a11-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-in-the-ebola-virus-nucleoprotein
#11
Dan Li, Pei Li, Nianping Song, Yuting Jiang, Yang Zeng, Guangyu Zhao, Yunzhi Fa, Huahu Ye, Yuchun Lone, Yusen Zhou, Shihui Sun, Lin Zeng
The Ebola virus (EBOV) is a very contagious virus that is highly fatal in humans and animals. The largest epidemic was in West Africa in 2014, in which over 11,000 people died. However, to date, there are no licensed vaccines against it. Studies show that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, especially cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, play key roles in protecting individuals from EBOV infection. Since HLA-restricted epitope vaccines are likely to be effective and safe immunization strategies for infectious diseases, the present study screened for CTL epitopes in the EBOV-nucleoprotein that are restricted by HLA-A11 (a common allele in Chinese people)...
May 15, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774861/use-of-bead-based-serologic-assay-to-evaluate-chikungunya-virus-epidemic-haiti
#12
Eric W Rogier, Delynn M Moss, Kimberly E Mace, Michelle Chang, Samuel E Jean, Stevan M Bullard, Patrick J Lammie, Jean Frantz Lemoine, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
The index case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Haiti was reported during early 2014; the vector, the pervasive Aedes aegypti mosquito, promoted rapid spread throughout the country. During December 2014-February 2015, we collected blood samples from 4,438 persons at 154 sites (62 urban, 92 rural) throughout Haiti and measured CHIKV IgG by using a multiplex bead assay. Overall CHIKV seroprevalence was 57.9%; differences between rural (mean 44.9%) and urban (mean 78.4%) areas were pronounced. Logistic modeling identified the urban environment as a strong predictor of CHIKV exposure (adjusted odds ratio 3...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774859/novel-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-genotype-levels-as-herald-of-seasonal-salmonellosis-epidemics
#13
Cristina Sotomayor, Qinning Wang, Alicia Arnott, Peter Howard, Kirsty Hope, Ruiting Lan, Vitali Sintchenko
We examined the population dynamics of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium during seasonal salmonellosis epidemics in New South Wales, Australia, during 2009-2016. Of 15,626 isolates, 5%-20% consisted of novel genotypes. Seasons with salmonellosis epidemics were associated with a reduction in novel genotypes in the preceding winter and spring.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774210/hypertension-in-children-role-of-obesity-simple-carbohydrates-and-uric-acid
#14
REVIEW
Antonina Orlando, Emanuela Cazzaniga, Marco Giussani, Paola Palestini, Simonetta Genovesi
Over the past 60 years there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents, ranging from 4% in 1975 to 18% in 2016. Recent estimates indicate that overweight or obese children and adolescents are more than 340 million. Obesity is often associated with hypertension, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Recent studies show that the presence of hypertension is a frequent finding in the pediatric age. Hypertensive children easily become hypertensive adults...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774093/distribution-of-virulence-associated-genes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-clinical-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates
#15
Chao Liu, Yaowen Chang, Ying Xu, Yun Luo, Linrong Wu, Zhanjun Mei, Shigang Li, Rui Wang, Xu Jia
Acinetobacter baumannii is undoubtedly one of the most clinically significant pathogens. The multidrug resistance and virulence potential of A. baumannii are responsible for hospital-acquired nosocomial infections. Unlike numerous investigations on the drug-resistant epidemiology of A. baumanni , virulence molecular epidemiology is less studied. Here, we collected 88 A. baumannii clinical isolates, tested their antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 commonly used antibiotics and analyzed the distribution of 9 selected virulence-associated genes, aims to investigate the primary characteristics of the virulence-associated genes that exist in clinically multidrug resistant (MDR) and non-MDR isolates of A...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773773/cuban-epidemic-neuropathy-insights-into-the-toxic-nutritional-hypothesis-through-international-collaboration
#16
Alina González-Quevedo, Rosaralis Santiesteban-Freixas, Janis T Eells, Lucimey Lima, Alfredo A Sadun
From 1991 to 1993, an epidemic of optic and peripheral neuropathy-the largest of the century-broke out in Cuba, affecting more than 50,000 people. Initially the main clinical features were decreased visual acuity, central and cecocentral scotomas, impaired color vision and absence of the papillomacular bundle. Later, peripheral and mixed optic-peripheral forms began to appear. Due to the magnitude of the epidemic, the Cuban government requested help from the international community at the 46th World Health Assembly in 1993...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773480/must-i-respond-if-my-health-is-at-risk
#17
Kenneth V Iserson
BACKGROUND: Widespread epidemics, pandemics, and other risk-prone disasters occur with disturbing regularity. When such events occur, how should, and will, clinicians respond? The moral backbone of medical professionals-a duty to put the needs of patients first-may be sorely tested. DISCUSSION: It is incumbent on health care professionals to ask what we must do and what we should do if a dangerous health care situation threatens both ourselves and our community...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773334/plague-bridging-gaps-towards-better-disease-control
#18
REVIEW
E D'Ortenzio, N Lemaître, C Brouat, P Loubet, F Sebbane, M Rajerison, L Baril, Y Yazdanpanah
After centuries of epidemics and more than a hundred years since the identification of the causative bacterium, very little is known about the plague dynamics in animal reservoirs, vectors and the changing vulnerabilities for humans. The recent plague epidemic in Madagascar in 2017 highlights these gaps existing within the knowledge of the disease dynamics, the factors influencing it, the performance of diagnostic tests and the best recommended treatment. As the eradication of plague will not be possible due to the widespread existence of the bacterium in wildlife, a One Health approach, drawing on animal, human and environmental health disciplines is needed to better control this poverty-related disease...
May 14, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773243/impact-of-diabetes-and-increasing-body-mass-index-category-on-left-ventricular-systolic-and-diastolic-function
#19
Arnold C T Ng, Francesca Prevedello, Giulia Dolci, Cornelis J Roos, Roxana Djaberi, Matteo Bertini, See Hooi Ewe, Christine Allman, Dominic Y Leung, Nina Ajmone Marsan, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and obesity are both worldwide growing epidemics, and both are independently associated with increased risk for heart failure and death. The aim of this study was to examine the additive detrimental effect of both diabetes and increasing body mass index (BMI) category on left ventricular (LV) myocardial systolic and diastolic function. METHODS: The present retrospective multicenter study included 653 patients (337 with type 2 diabetes and 316 without diabetes) of increasing BMI category...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773017/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-a-review-of-symptomatic-management
#20
Elsa S Tabrez, Azhar Hussain, Seetharama Rao, Ashraya Jagadeesh, Jagannadha Rao Peela, Shams S M Tabrez
Considered as a chronic illness, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has manifested itself as a widespread condition throughout the adult population. As a growing epidemic, GERD has reached a staggering prevalence of 10% to 20% in the Western world, by affecting up to 30 million people in the United States alone. Sixty percent of individuals in an adult population will experience symptoms and the impact of GERD over a period of 12 months, whereas a remarkable 20% to 30% of individuals will have weekly symptoms...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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