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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535293/invited-commentary-a-landmark-study-launched-in-a-public-health-maelstrom
#1
Eric A Engels, Charles S Rabkin, James J Goedert
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was first recognized in 1981, and it quickly became a public health emergency. In a 1987 paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(2): 310-318), Richard Kaslow et al. described the launch of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a cohort study of homosexual men in 4 US cities, the purpose of which was to better understand the natural history of AIDS and its determinants. The MACS enrolled participants through a range of community contacts...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534885/modeling-combination-hcv-prevention-among-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-people-who-inject-drugs
#2
Natasha K Martin, Britt Skaathun, Peter Vickerman, David Stuart
People who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are key risk groups for HCV transmission. Mathematical modeling studies can help elucidate what level and combination of prevention intervention scale-up is required to control or eliminate epidemics among these key populations. We discuss the evidence surrounding HCV prevention interventions and provide an overview of the mathematical modeling literature projecting the impact of scaled-up HCV prevention among PWID and HIV-infected MSM...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534849/evaluation-and-comparison-of-the-pathogenicity-and-host-immune-responses-induced-by-a-g2b-taiwan-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-strain-pintung-52-and-its-highly-cell-culture-passaged-strain-in-conventional-5-week-old-pigs
#3
Yen-Chen Chang, Chi-Fei Kao, Chia-Yu Chang, Chian-Ren Jeng, Pei-Shiue Tsai, Victor Fei Pang, Hue-Ying Chiou, Ju-Yi Peng, Ivan-Chen Cheng, Hui-Wen Chang
A genogroup 2b (G2b) porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain was isolated in 2014. The pathogenicity and host antibody responses elicited by low-passage (passage 5; PEDVPT-P5) and high-passage (passage 96; PEDVPT-P96) PEDVPT strains were compared in post-weaning PEDV-seronegative pigs by oral inoculation. PEDVPT-P5-inoculation induced typical diarrhea during 1-9 days post inoculation with fecal viral shedding persisting for 26 days. Compared to PEDVPT-P5, PEDVPT-P96 inoculation induced none-to-mild diarrhea and lower, delayed fecal viral shedding...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533530/the-impact-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-control-policies-in-singapore-a-qualitative-analysis-of-public-perceptions
#4
Karen Siegel, Alex R Cook, Hanh La
Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease in Asia. Most cases are relatively mild and caused by Coxsackie viruses, but in epidemics caused by Enterovirus 71, severe complications can occur. In response to the deaths of dozens of children in a 1997 outbreak (Podin in BMC Public Health 6:180,1 Abubakar in Virus Res 61(1):1-9,2 WHO in3), Singapore practices childcare centre surveillance, case-isolation, and short-term closure of centres. We conducted 44 in-depth interviews with teachers, principals, and parents at four childcare centres in Singapore to better understand experiences with current control policies...
May 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533294/type-2-diabetes-demystifying-the-global-epidemic
#5
Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Shashank R Joshi, Viswanathan Mohan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has attained the status of a global pandemic, spreading from affluent industrialized nations to the emerging economies of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. There is significant global variation in susceptibility to T2D, with Pacific Islanders, Asian Indians, and Native Americans being considerably more prone to develop the disorder. Although genetic factors may play a part, the rapidity with which diabetes prevalence has risen among these populations reflects the far-ranging and rapid socioeconomic changes to which they have been exposed over the past few decades...
June 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533233/epidemic-emergence-in-the-united-states-of-escherichia-coli-sequence-type-131-h30-2000-2009
#6
James R Johnson, Stephen Porter, Paul Thuras, Mariana Castanheira
The H30 subclone of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has become the leading antimicrobial-resistance E. coli lineage in the U.S., and often exhibits resistance to one or both of two key antimicrobial classes for treating Gram-negative infections, extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and fluoroquinolones (FQs). However, the timing of and reasons for its recent emergence are inadequately defined. Accordingly, from E. coli clinical isolates collected systematically across the U.S. by the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Programs in 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009, 234 isolates were selected randomly, stratified by year, within three resistance categories: (i) ESC-reduced susceptibility, regardless of FQ phenotype (hereafter, ESC-RS), (ii) FQ-resistant, ESC-susceptible (hereafter, FQ-R), and (iii) FQ-susceptible, ESC-susceptible (hereafter, FQ-S)...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532551/strengthening-renal-registries-and-esrd-research-in-africa
#7
REVIEW
M Razeen Davids, Fergus J Caskey, Taryn Young, Gillian K Balbir Singh
In Africa, the combination of noncommunicable diseases, infectious diseases, exposure to environmental toxins, and acute kidney injury related to trauma and childbirth are driving an epidemic of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Good registry data can inform the planning of renal services and can be used to argue for better resource allocation, audit the delivery and quality of care, and monitor the impact of interventions. Few African countries have established renal registries and most have failed owing to resource constraints...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532472/an-audit-of-food-and-beverage-advertising-on-the-sydney-metropolitan-train-network-regulation-and-policy-implications
#8
Emma Sainsbury, Stephen Colagiuri, Roger Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Increased marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods has been identified as a driver of the global obesity epidemic and a priority area for preventative efforts. Local and international research has focused on the unhealthiness of television advertising, with limited research into the growing outdoor advertising industry. This study aimed to examine the extent of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network, and to assess the nutritional quality of advertised products against the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532434/hierarchical-genomic-analysis-of-carried-and-invasive-serogroup-a-neisseria-meningitidis-during-the-2011-epidemic-in-chad
#9
Kanny Diallo, Kadija Gamougam, Doumagoum M Daugla, Odile B Harrison, James E Bray, Dominique A Caugant, Jay Lucidarme, Caroline L Trotter, Musa Hassan-King, James M Stuart, Olivier Manigart, Brian M Greenwood, Martin C J Maiden
BACKGROUND: Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) was the cause of the 2011 meningitis epidemics in Chad. This bacterium, often carried asymptomatically, is considered to be an "accidental pathogen"; however, the transition from carriage to disease phenotype remains poorly understood. This study examined the role genetic diversity might play in this transition by comparing genomes from geographically and temporally matched invasive and carried NmA isolates. RESULTS: All 23 NmA isolates belonged to the ST-5 clonal complex (cc5)...
May 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532410/malaria-mortality-characterization-and-the-relationship-between-malaria-mortality-and-climate-in-chimoio-mozambique
#10
João Luís Ferrão, Jorge M Mendes, Marco Painho, Sara Zacarias
BACKGROUND: The United Nation's sustainable development goal for 2030 is to eradicate the global malaria epidemic, primarily as the disease continues to be one of the major concerns for public health in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, the region accounted for 90% of malaria deaths. Mozambique recorded a malaria mortality rate of 42.75 (per 100,000). In Chimoio, Mozambique's fifth largest city, malaria is the fourth leading cause of death (9.4%). Few data on malaria mortality exists in Mozambique, particularly in relation to Chimoio...
May 22, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532304/producing-hiv-estimates-from-global-advocacy-to-country-planning-and-impact-measurement
#11
Mary Mahy, Tim Brown, John Stover, Neff Walker, Karen Stanecki, Wilford Kirungi, Txema Garcia-Calleja, Peter D Ghys
BACKGROUND: The development of global HIV estimates has been critical for understanding, advocating for and funding the HIV response. The process of generating HIV estimates has been cited as the gold standard for public health estimates. OBJECTIVE: This paper provides important lessons from an international scientific collaboration and provides a useful model for those producing public health estimates in other fields. DESIGN: Through the compilation and review of published journal articles, United Nations reports, other documents and personal experience we compiled historical information about the estimates and identified potential lessons for other public health estimation efforts...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531845/artesunate-and-erythropoietin-synergistically-improve-the-outcome-of-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#12
Yunting Du, Guang Chen, Xuexing Zhang, Chunyun Yu, Yaming Cao, Liwang Cui
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological syndrome in humans and the main fatal cause of malaria. In malaria epidemic regions, despite appropriate anti-malarial treatment, 10-20% of deaths still occur during the acute phase. This is largely attributable to poor treatment access, therapeutic complexity and drug resistance; thus, developing additional clinical adjunctive therapies is an urgent necessity. In this study, we investigated the effect of artesunate (AST) and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) using an experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model-C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)...
May 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531788/association-of-dietary-factors-with-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease
#13
Namita Mahalle, M K Garg, S S Naik, M V Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has taken epidemic proportions during past decades. Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to progression of coronary lesions, worsening the patient's prognosis. This study was planned to analyze the association of dietary factors with severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Indian patients. METHODS: Three hundred patients with known coronary disease above the age of 25 years were included in this study. Blood samples were collected for biochemical markers...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531454/preliminary-validation-of-the-malay-yale-food-addiction-scale-factor-structure-and-item-analysis-in-an-obese-population
#14
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Norafidza Ashiquin Abd Patah, Mahalakshmi Ponnusamy Pillai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Researchers suggest that the rise in obesity rates may be explained by the addictive properties of certain types of food. In view of the growing obesity epidemic in South-East Asia, there is a need for a psychometric tool to assess the concept of food addiction amongst high-risk populations. The objective of this study is to translate the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) into the Malay language and subsequently validate its use in an obese population. METHODS: Between the year 2014 and 2015, a total of 250 obese adults were assessed for food addiction utilizing the Malay version of the YFAS at a primary care clinic...
December 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531374/stroke-is-a-global-epidemic-new-developments-in-clinical-and-translational-cerebrovascular-diseases-research
#15
William A Li, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530530/is-fish-oil-a-potential-treatment-for-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#16
Mark Anthony Yorek
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy affects about 50% of the diabetic population. The manifestations range from pain, numbness, paresthesia and ulceration in the extremities and it is the major cause of non-traumatic amputations. Currently there is no effective treatment for peripheral neuropathy. With the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes and associated complications reaching epidemic levels there is a critical need for finding a treatment to preserve nerve function. INTRODUCTION: This article will review the potential for fish oil as a treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy...
May 22, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530308/-influenza-vaccination-among-healthcare-workers-the-data-and-the-duty
#17
Sonia Habib, Shmuel Rishpon, Itamar Grotto, Arnon Afek
Seasonal influenza is a significant disease affecting public health due to substantial morbidity and mortality and a high economic burden. in view of its high propensity for genetic mutations, the virus can easily evade preexisting immunity acquired from prior exposure to it, thereby causing severe seasonal epidemics. Influenza vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective. In many countries, including Israel, it is recommended to all members of the population aged 6 months and older, especially those with a higher risk of developing severe complications...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530044/a-review-of-transition-experiences-in-perinatally-and-behaviourally-acquired-hiv-1-infection-same-same-but-different
#18
Phung Khanh Lam, Sarah Fidler, Caroline Foster
INTRODUCTION: Despite sharing common psychosocial and developmental experiences, adolescents living with perinatally and behaviourally acquired HIV-1 infection are different in terms of timing of HIV infection and developmental stage at infection. Therefore, it is of interest to identify similarities and differences between these two groups of adolescents living with HIV in their experiences, facilitators and barriers during the transition process. METHODS: A detailed literature search of peer-reviewed published papers was conducted on PubMed to identify relevant original research or viewpoints published up to September 2016...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530040/adolescents-with-hiv-and-transition-to-adult-care-in-the-caribbean-central-america-and-south-america-eastern-europe-and-asia-and-pacific-regions
#19
Heather Bailey, Maria Letícia Santos Cruz, Wipaporn Natalie Songtaweesin, Thanyawee Puthanakit
INTRODUCTION: The HIV epidemics in the Caribbean, Central America and South America (CCASA), Eastern Europe (EE) and Asia and Pacific (AP) regions are diverse epidemics affecting different key populations in predominantly middle-income countries. This narrative review describes the populations of HIV-positive youth approaching adolescence and adulthood in CCASA, EE and AP, what is known of their outcomes in paediatric and adult care to date, ongoing research efforts and future research priorities...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530036/living-and-dying-to-be-counted-what-we-know-about-the-epidemiology-of-the-global-adolescent-hiv-epidemic
#20
Amy L Slogrove, Mary Mahy, Alice Armstrong, Mary-Ann Davies
INTRODUCTION: With increasing survival of vertically HIV-infected children and ongoing new horizontal HIV infections, the population of adolescents (age 10-19 years) living with HIV is increasing. This review aims to describe the epidemiology of the adolescent HIV epidemic and the ability of national monitoring systems to measure outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents through the adolescent transition to adulthood. METHODS: Differences in global trends between younger (age 10-14 years) and older (age 15-19 years) adolescents in key epidemic indicators are interrogated using 2016 UNAIDS estimates...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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