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Drosophila neural circuitry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691331/gabaergic-local-interneurons-shape-female-fruit-fly-response-to-mating-songs
#1
Daichi Yamada, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Xiaodong Li, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yuki Ishikawa, Azusa Kamikouchi
Many animals use acoustic signals to attract a potential mating partner. In fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ), the courtship pulse song has a species-specific inter-pulse interval (IPI) that activates mating. Although a series of auditory neurons in the fly brain exhibit different tuning patterns to IPIs, it is unclear how the response of each neuron is tuned. Here we studied the neural circuitry regulating the activity of AMMC-B1 neurons, key secondary auditory neurons in the excitatory neural pathway that relay song information...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673481/cell-autonomous-regulation-of-dendrite-self-avoidance-by-the-wnt-secretory-factor-mig-14-wntless
#2
Chien-Po Liao, Hsun Li, Hsiu-Hsiang Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Chun-Liang Pan
Self-avoidance allows sister dendrites from the same neuron to form non-redundant coverage of the sensory territory and is important for neural circuitry functions. Here, we report an unexpected, cell-autonomous role of the Wnt-secretory factor MIG-14/Wntless in mediating dendrite self-avoidance in the C. elegans multidendritic PVD neurons. Similar findings in Drosophila suggest that this novel function of Wntless is conserved. The mig-14 mutant shows defects in dendrite self-avoidance, and ectopic MIG-14 expression triggers dendrite repulsion...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615868/insect-responses-to-linearly-polarized-reflections-orphan-behaviors-without-neural-circuits
#3
REVIEW
Tanja Heinloth, Juliane Uhlhorn, Mathias F Wernet
The e-vector orientation of linearly polarized light represents an important visual stimulus for many insects. Especially the detection of polarized skylight by many navigating insect species is known to improve their orientation skills. While great progress has been made towards describing both the anatomy and function of neural circuit elements mediating behaviors related to navigation, relatively little is known about how insects perceive non-celestial polarized light stimuli, like reflections off water, leaves, or shiny body surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614291/sleep-helicon-cells-charge-the-circuit
#4
Maria E Yurgel, Alex C Keene
A new study in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has identified a neural circuitry that connects regions that control sleep with those that encode sleep pressure. These novel cells, termed helicon cells for their unique morphology, are modulated by sleep control centers and integrate sensory information, providing a novel mechanism for gating of sleep.
April 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536541/foxp-in-bees-a-comparative-study-on-the-developmental-and-adult-expression-pattern-in-three-bee-species-considering-isoforms-and-circuitry
#5
Adriana Schatton, Ezequiel Mendoza, Kathrin Grube, Constance Scharff
Mutations in the transcription factors FOXP1, FOXP2 and FOXP4 affect human cognition, including language. The FoxP gene locus is evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved in its DNA-binding domain. In Drosophila melanogaster FoxP has been implicated in courtship behavior, decision making and specific types of motor-learning. Because honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) excel at navigation and symbolic dance communication, they are a particularly suitable insect species to investigate a potential link between neural FoxP expression and cognition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502953/identification-of-a-single-pair-of-interneurons-for-bitter-taste-processing-in-the-drosophila-brain
#6
Ali Asgar Bohra, Benjamin R Kallman, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Drosophila has become an excellent model system for investigating the organization and function of the gustatory system due to the relatively simple neuroanatomical organization of its brain and the availability of powerful genetic and transgenic technology. Thus, at the molecular and cellular levels, a great deal of insight into the peripheral detection and coding of gustatory information has already been attained. In contrast, much less is known about the central neural circuits that process this information and induce behaviorally appropriate motor output...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424688/a-sleep-state-in-drosophila-larvae-required-for-neural-stem-cell-proliferation
#7
Milan Szuperak, Matthew A Churgin, Austin J Borja, David M Raizen, Christopher Fang-Yen, Matthew S Kayser
Sleep during development is involved in refining brain circuitry, but a role for sleep in the earliest periods of nervous system elaboration, when neurons are first being born, has not been explored. Here we identify a sleep state in Drosophila larvae that coincides with a major wave of neurogenesis. Mechanisms controlling larval sleep are partially distinct from adult sleep: octopamine, the Drosophila analog of mammalian norepinephrine, is the major arousal neuromodulator in larvae, but dopamine is not required...
February 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261684/neural-mechanisms-underlying-sensitivity-to-reverse-phi-motion-in-the-fly
#8
Aljoscha Leonhardt, Matthias Meier, Etienne Serbe, Hubert Eichner, Alexander Borst
Optical illusions provide powerful tools for mapping the algorithms and circuits that underlie visual processing, revealing structure through atypical function. Of particular note in the study of motion detection has been the reverse-phi illusion. When contrast reversals accompany discrete movement, detected direction tends to invert. This occurs across a wide range of organisms, spanning humans and invertebrates. Here, we map an algorithmic account of the phenomenon onto neural circuitry in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133872/the-core-promoter-factor-trf2-mediates-a-fruitless-action-to-masculinize-neurobehavioral-traits-in-drosophila
#9
Zahid Sadek Chowdhury, Kosei Sato, Daisuke Yamamoto
In fruit flies, the male-specific fruitless (fru) gene product FruBM plays a central role in establishing the neural circuitry for male courtship behavior by orchestrating the transcription of genes required for the male-type specification of individual neurons. We herein identify the core promoter recognition factor gene Trf2 as a dominant modifier of fru actions. Trf2 knockdown in the sexually dimorphic mAL neurons leads to the loss of a male-specific neurite and a reduction in male courtship vigor. TRF2 forms a repressor complex with FruBM, strongly enhancing the repressor activity of FruBM at the promoter region of the robo1 gene, whose function is required for inhibiting the male-specific neurite formation...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112868/drosophila-connectomics-mapping-the-larval-eye-s%C3%A2-mind
#10
Carl Friedrich-Reed Wienecke, Thomas R Clandinin
A new study has mapped the connectome - the shapes and connections of all the neurons- of the visual system of a Drosophila larva, providing a structural basis for understanding the neural circuitry of larval vision.
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109241/optogenetic-activation-of-the-fruitless-labeled-circuitry-in-drosophila-subobscura-males-induces-mating-motor-acts
#11
Ryoya Tanaka, Tomohiro Higuchi, Soh Kohatsu, Kosei Sato, Daisuke Yamamoto
It remains an enigma how the nervous system of different animal species produces different behaviors. We studied the neural circuitry for mating behavior in Drosophila subobscura , a species that displays unique courtship actions not shared by other members of the genera including the genetic model D. melanogaster , in which the core courtship circuitry has been identified. We disrupted the D. subobscura fruitless ( fru ) gene, a master regulator for the courtship circuitry formation in D. melanogaster , resulting in complete loss of mating behavior...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961025/generation-and-evolution-of-neural-cell-types-and-circuits-insights-from-the-drosophila-visual-system
#12
Michael Perry, Nikos Konstantinides, Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Claude Desplan
The Drosophila visual system has become a premier model for probing how neural diversity is generated during development. Recent work has provided deeper insight into the elaborate mechanisms that control the range of types and numbers of neurons produced, which neurons survive, and how they interact. These processes drive visual function and influence behavioral preferences. Other studies are beginning to provide insight into how neuronal diversity evolved in insects by adding new cell types and modifying neural circuits...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893998/engineering-a-light-activated-caspase-3-for-precise-ablation-of-neurons-in-vivo
#13
Ashley D Smart, Roland A Pache, Nathan D Thomsen, Tanja Kortemme, Graeme W Davis, James A Wells
The circuitry of the brain is characterized by cell heterogeneity, sprawling cellular anatomy, and astonishingly complex patterns of connectivity. Determining how complex neural circuits control behavior is a major challenge that is often approached using surgical, chemical, or transgenic approaches to ablate neurons. However, all these approaches suffer from a lack of precise spatial and temporal control. This drawback would be overcome if cellular ablation could be controlled with light. Cells are naturally and cleanly ablated through apoptosis due to the terminal activation of caspases...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803873/neural-circuitry-that-evokes-escape-behavior-upon-activation-of-nociceptive-sensory-neurons-in-drosophila-larvae
#14
Jiro Yoshino, Rei K Morikawa, Eri Hasegawa, Kazuo Emoto
Noxious stimuli trigger a stereotyped escape response in animals. In Drosophila larvae, class IV dendrite arborization (C4 da) sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system are responsible for perception of multiple nociceptive modalities, including noxious heat and harsh mechanical stimulation, through distinct receptors [1-9]. Silencing or ablation of C4 da neurons largely eliminates larval responses to noxious stimuli [10-12], whereas optogenetic activation of C4 da neurons is sufficient to provoke corkscrew-like rolling behavior similar to what is observed when larvae receive noxious stimuli, such as high temperature or harsh mechanical stimulation [10-12]...
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756946/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-requirements-in-activity-dependent-critical-period-neural-circuit-refinement
#15
Caleb A Doll, Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
Activity-dependent synaptic remodeling occurs during early-use critical periods, when naive juveniles experience sensory input. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) sculpts synaptic refinement in an activity sensor mechanism based on sensory cues, with FMRP loss causing the most common heritable autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X syndrome (FXS). In the well-mapped Drosophila olfactory circuitry, projection neurons (PNs) relay peripheral sensory information to the central brain mushroom body (MB) learning/memory center...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710457/methyl-cpg-binding-domain-proteins-inhibit-interspecies-courtship-and-promote-aggression-in-drosophila
#16
Tarun Gupta, Hannah R Morgan, Jonathan C Andrews, Edmond R Brewer, Sarah J Certel
Reproductive isolation and speciation are driven by the convergence of environmental and genetic variation. The integration of these variation sources is thought to occur through epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. Proteins containing a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) bind methylated DNA and interpret epigenetic marks, providing a dynamic yet evolutionarily adapted cellular output. Here, we report the Drosophila MBD-containing proteins, dMBD-R2 and dMBD2/3, contribute to reproductive isolation and survival behavioral strategies...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611607/generating-executable-models-of-the-drosophila-central-complex
#17
Lev E Givon, Aurel A Lazar, Chung-Heng Yeh
The central complex (CX) is a set of neuropils in the center of the fly brain that have been implicated as playing an important role in vision-mediated behavior and integration of spatial information with locomotor control. In contrast to currently available data regarding the neural circuitry of neuropils in the fly's vision and olfactory systems, comparable data for the CX neuropils is relatively incomplete; many categories of neurons remain only partly characterized, and the synaptic connectivity between CX neurons has yet to be fully determined...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448523/semaphorin-1a-prevents-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-dendrites-from-mis-targeting-into-select-antennal-lobe-regions
#18
Hung-Chang Shen, Sao-Yu Chu, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Chun-Han Wang, I-Ya Lin, Hung-Hsiang Yu
Elucidating how appropriate neurite patterns are generated in neurons of the olfactory system is crucial for comprehending the construction of the olfactory map. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs), primarily derived from four neural stem cells (called neuroblasts), populate their cell bodies surrounding to and distribute their dendrites in distinct but overlapping patterns within the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it remains unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms are employed to generate the appropriate dendritic patterns in discrete AL glomeruli among PNs produced from different neuroblasts...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441561/neural-circuits-reduced-inhibition-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#19
Randall M Golovin, Kendal Broadie
The Drosophila Fragile X Syndrome model has long generated insights into this devastating neurological disease state. A recent study of olfactory neural circuitry shows that decreased lateral inhibition onto projection neurons relaying sensory input into higher brain centers causes impaired behavior.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373203/three-tier-regulation-of-cell-number-plasticity-by-neurotrophins-and-tolls-in-drosophila
#20
Istvan Foldi, Niki Anthoney, Neale Harrison, Monique Gangloff, Brett Verstak, Mohanakarthik Ponnadai Nallasivan, Samaher AlAhmed, Bangfu Zhu, Mark Phizacklea, Maria Losada-Perez, Marta Moreira, Nicholas J Gay, Alicia Hidalgo
Cell number plasticity is coupled to circuitry in the nervous system, adjusting cell mass to functional requirements. In mammals, this is achieved by neurotrophin (NT) ligands, which promote cell survival via their Trk and p75(NTR) receptors and cell death via p75(NTR) and Sortilin. Drosophila NTs (DNTs) bind Toll receptors instead to promote neuronal survival, but whether they can also regulate cell death is unknown. In this study, we show that DNTs and Tolls can switch from promoting cell survival to death in the central nervous system (CNS) via a three-tier mechanism...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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