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Drosophila neural circuitry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611607/generating-executable-models-of-the-drosophila-central-complex
#1
Lev E Givon, Aurel A Lazar, Chung-Heng Yeh
The central complex (CX) is a set of neuropils in the center of the fly brain that have been implicated as playing an important role in vision-mediated behavior and integration of spatial information with locomotor control. In contrast to currently available data regarding the neural circuitry of neuropils in the fly's vision and olfactory systems, comparable data for the CX neuropils is relatively incomplete; many categories of neurons remain only partly characterized, and the synaptic connectivity between CX neurons has yet to be fully determined...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448523/semaphorin-1a-prevents-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-dendrites-from-mis-targeting-into-select-antennal-lobe-regions
#2
Hung-Chang Shen, Sao-Yu Chu, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Chun-Han Wang, I-Ya Lin, Hung-Hsiang Yu
Elucidating how appropriate neurite patterns are generated in neurons of the olfactory system is crucial for comprehending the construction of the olfactory map. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs), primarily derived from four neural stem cells (called neuroblasts), populate their cell bodies surrounding to and distribute their dendrites in distinct but overlapping patterns within the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it remains unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms are employed to generate the appropriate dendritic patterns in discrete AL glomeruli among PNs produced from different neuroblasts...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441561/neural-circuits-reduced-inhibition-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Randall M Golovin, Kendal Broadie
The Drosophila Fragile X Syndrome model has long generated insights into this devastating neurological disease state. A recent study of olfactory neural circuitry shows that decreased lateral inhibition onto projection neurons relaying sensory input into higher brain centers causes impaired behavior.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373203/three-tier-regulation-of-cell-number-plasticity-by-neurotrophins-and-tolls-in-drosophila
#4
Istvan Foldi, Niki Anthoney, Neale Harrison, Monique Gangloff, Brett Verstak, Mohanakarthik Ponnadai Nallasivan, Samaher AlAhmed, Bangfu Zhu, Mark Phizacklea, Maria Losada-Perez, Marta Moreira, Nicholas J Gay, Alicia Hidalgo
Cell number plasticity is coupled to circuitry in the nervous system, adjusting cell mass to functional requirements. In mammals, this is achieved by neurotrophin (NT) ligands, which promote cell survival via their Trk and p75(NTR) receptors and cell death via p75(NTR) and Sortilin. Drosophila NTs (DNTs) bind Toll receptors instead to promote neuronal survival, but whether they can also regulate cell death is unknown. In this study, we show that DNTs and Tolls can switch from promoting cell survival to death in the central nervous system (CNS) via a three-tier mechanism...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880074/what-does-the-fruitless-gene-tell-us-about-nature-vs-nurture-in-the-sex-life-of-drosophila
#5
Daisuke Yamamoto, Soh Kohatsu
The fruitless (fru) gene in Drosophila has been proposed to play a master regulator role in the formation of neural circuitries for male courtship behavior, which is typically considered to be an innate behavior composed of a fixed action pattern as generated by the central pattern generator. However, recent studies have shed light on experience-dependent changes and sensory-input-guided plasticity in courtship behavior. For example, enhanced male-male courtship, a fru mutant "hallmark," disappears when fru-mutant males are raised in isolation...
April 3, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855059/neural-circuitry-coordinating-male-copulation
#6
Hania J Pavlou, Andrew C Lin, Megan C Neville, Tetsuya Nojima, Fengqiu Diao, Brian E Chen, Benjamin H White, Stephen F Goodwin
Copulation is the goal of the courtship process, crucial to reproductive success and evolutionary fitness. Identifying the circuitry underlying copulation is a necessary step towards understanding universal principles of circuit operation, and how circuit elements are recruited into the production of ordered action sequences. Here, we identify key sex-specific neurons that mediate copulation in Drosophila, and define a sexually dimorphic motor circuit in the male abdominal ganglion that mediates the action sequence of initiating and terminating copulation...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751233/continuous-lateral-oscillations-as-a-core-mechanism-for-taxis-in-drosophila-larvae
#7
Antoine Wystrach, Konstantinos Lagogiannis, Barbara Webb
Taxis behaviour in Drosophila larva is thought to consist of distinct control mechanisms triggering specific actions. Here, we support a simpler hypothesis: that taxis results from direct sensory modulation of continuous lateral oscillations of the anterior body, sparing the need for 'action selection'. Our analysis of larvae motion reveals a rhythmic, continuous lateral oscillation of the anterior body, encompassing all head-sweeps, small or large, without breaking the oscillatory rhythm. Further, we show that an agent-model that embeds this hypothesis reproduces a surprising number of taxis signatures observed in larvae...
October 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710784/direct-measurement-of-correlation-responses-in-drosophila-elementary-motion-detectors-reveals-fast-timescale-tuning
#8
Emilio Salazar-Gatzimas, Juyue Chen, Matthew S Creamer, Omer Mano, Holly B Mandel, Catherine A Matulis, Joseph Pottackal, Damon A Clark
Animals estimate visual motion by integrating light intensity information over time and space. The integration requires nonlinear processing, which makes motion estimation circuitry sensitive to specific spatiotemporal correlations that signify visual motion. Classical models of motion estimation weight these correlations to produce direction-selective signals. However, the correlational algorithms they describe have not been directly measured in elementary motion-detecting neurons (EMDs). Here, we employed stimuli to directly measure responses to pairwise correlations in Drosophila's EMD neurons, T4 and T5...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702892/predictability-and-hierarchy-in-drosophila-behavior
#9
Gordon J Berman, William Bialek, Joshua W Shaevitz
Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent among the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested subclusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683892/developmental-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-first-synapse-of-the-drosophila-olfactory-circuit
#10
REVIEW
Randall M Golovin, Kendal Broadie
Evidence accumulating over the past 15 years soundly refutes the dogma that the Drosophila nervous system is hardwired. The preponderance of studies reveals activity-dependent neural circuit refinement driving optimization of behavioral outputs. We describe developmental, sensory input-dependent plasticity in the brain olfactory antennal lobe, which we term long-term central adaption (LTCA). LTCA is evoked by prolonged exposure to an odorant during the first week of posteclosion life, resulting in a persistently decreased response to aversive odors and an enhanced response to attractive odors...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328844/gustatory-processing-and-taste-memory-in-drosophila
#11
Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Taste allows animals to discriminate the value and potential toxicity of food prior to ingestion. Many tastants elicit an innate attractive or avoidance response that is modifiable with nutritional state and prior experience. A powerful genetic tool kit, well-characterized gustatory system, and standardized behavioral assays make the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, an excellent system for investigating taste processing and memory. Recent studies have used this system to identify the neural basis for acquired taste preference...
June 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265393/fruitless-represses-robo1-transcription-to-shape-male-specific-neural-morphology-and-behavior-in-drosophila
#12
Hiroki Ito, Kosei Sato, Shu Kondo, Ryu Ueda, Daisuke Yamamoto
The Drosophila fruitless (fru) gene is regarded as a master regulator of the formation of male courtship circuitry, yet little is known about its molecular basis of action. We show that roundabout 1 (robo1) knockdown in females promotes formation of the male-specific neurite in sexually dimorphic mAL interneurons and that overexpression of the male-specific Fru(BM) diminishes the expression of Robo1 in the fly brain. Our electrophoretic mobility shift and reporter assays identify the 42-bp segment encompassing the palindrome sequence T T C G C T G C G C C G T G A A in the 5' UTR of robo1 exon1 as the Fru(BM)-responsive element...
June 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185554/the-neural-circuitry-that-functions-as-a-switch-for-courtship-versus-aggression-in-drosophila-males
#13
Masayuki Koganezawa, Ken-Ichi Kimura, Daisuke Yamamoto
Courtship and aggression are induced in a mutually exclusive manner in male Drosophila melanogaster, which quickly chooses one of these behavioral repertoires to run depending on whether the encountered conspecific is a female or male, yet the neural mechanism underlying this decision making remains obscure. By targeted excitation and synaptic blockage in a subset of brain neurons, we demonstrate here that the fruitless (fru)-negative subfraction (∼20 cells) of a doublesex-positive neural cluster, pC1, acts as the aggression-triggering center whereas the fru-positive subfraction (∼20 cells) of pC1 acts as the courtship-triggering center, and that the mutually exclusive activation of these two centers is attained by a double-layered inhibitory switch composed of two fru single-positive clusters, LC1 and mAL...
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163287/morphogenetic-studies-of-the-drosophila-da1-ventral-olfactory-projection-neuron
#14
Hung-Chang Shen, Jia-Yi Wei, Sao-Yu Chu, Pei-Chi Chung, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Hung-Hsiang Yu
In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044678/transgenerational-influence-of-sensorimotor-training-on-offspring-behavior-and-its-neural-basis-in-drosophila
#15
Ziv M Williams
Whether specific learning experiences by parents influence the behavior of subsequent generations remains unclear. This study examines whether and what aspects of parental sensorimotor training prior to conception affect the behavior of subsequent generations and identifies the neural circuitries in Drosophila responsible for mediating these effects. Using genetic and anatomic techniques, I find that both first- and second-generation offspring of parents who underwent prolonged olfactory training over many days displayed a weak but selective approach bias to the same trained odors...
May 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015359/clustered-regulatory-interspaced-short-palindromic-repeats-crispr-mediated-mutagenesis-and-phenotype-rescue-by-piggybac-transgenesis-in-a-nonmodel-drosophila-species
#16
R Tanaka, H Murakami, M Ote, D Yamamoto
How behavioural diversity emerged in evolution is an unexplored subject in biology. To tackle this problem, genes and circuits for a behaviour need to be determined in different species for phylogenetic comparisons. The recently developed clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system made such a challenge possible by providing the means to induce mutations in a gene of interest in any organism. Aiming at elucidating diversification in genetic and neural networks for courtship behaviour, we attempted to generate a genetic tool kit in Drosophila subobscura, a nonmodel species distantly related to the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster...
August 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013449/shared-neurocircuitry-underlying-feeding-and-drugs-of-abuse-in-drosophila
#17
REVIEW
Dan Landayan, Fred W Wolf
The neural circuitry and molecules that control the rewarding properties of food and drugs of abuse appear to partially overlap in the mammalian brain. This has raised questions about the extent of the overlap and the precise role of specific circuit elements in reward and in other behaviors associated with feeding regulation and drug responses. The much simpler brain of invertebrates including the fruit fly Drosophila, offers an opportunity to make high-resolution maps of the circuits and molecules that govern behavior...
December 2015: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928063/asymmetry-of-drosophila-on-and-off-motion-detectors-enhances-real-world-velocity-estimation
#18
Aljoscha Leonhardt, Georg Ammer, Matthias Meier, Etienne Serbe, Armin Bahl, Alexander Borst
The reliable estimation of motion across varied surroundings represents a survival-critical task for sighted animals. How neural circuits have adapted to the particular demands of natural environments, however, is not well understood. We explored this question in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, as in many mammalian retinas, motion is computed in parallel streams for brightness increments (ON) and decrements (OFF). When genetically isolated, ON and OFF pathways proved equally capable of accurately matching walking responses to realistic motion...
May 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851502/neuron-class-specific-requirements-for-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-in-critical-period-development-of-calcium-signaling-in-learning-and-memory-circuitry
#19
Caleb A Doll, Kendal Broadie
Neural circuit optimization occurs through sensory activity-dependent mechanisms that refine synaptic connectivity and information processing during early-use developmental critical periods. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), the gene product lost in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), acts as an activity sensor during critical period development, both as an RNA-binding translation regulator and channel-binding excitability regulator. Here, we employ a Drosophila FXS disease model to assay calcium signaling dynamics with a targeted transgenic GCaMP reporter during critical period development of the mushroom body (MB) learning/memory circuit...
May 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26826948/studying-small-brains-to-understand-the-building-blocks-of-cognition
#20
REVIEW
Hannah Haberkern, Vivek Jayaraman
Cognition encompasses a range of higher-order mental processes, such as attention, working memory, and model-based decision-making. These processes are thought to involve the dynamic interaction of multiple central brain regions. A mechanistic understanding of such computations requires not only monitoring and manipulating specific neural populations during behavior, but also knowing the connectivity of the underlying circuitry. These goals are experimentally challenging in mammals, but are feasible in numerically simpler insect brains...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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