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polymers and gene transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338690/a-viscous-solvent-enables-information-transfer-from-gene-length-nucleic-acids-in-a-model-prebiotic-replication-cycle
#1
Christine He, Isaac Gállego, Brandon Laughlin, Martha A Grover, Nicholas V Hud
Many hypotheses concerning the nature of early life assume that genetic information was once transferred through the template-directed synthesis of RNA, before the emergence of coded enzymes. However, attempts to demonstrate enzyme-free, template-directed synthesis of nucleic acids have been limited by 'strand inhibition', whereby transferring information from a template strand in the presence of its complementary strand is inhibited by the stability of the template duplex. Here, we use solvent viscosity to circumvent strand inhibition, demonstrating information transfer from a gene-length template (>300 nt) within a longer (545 bp or 3 kb) duplex...
April 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330769/difference-in-the-core-shell-dynamics-of-polyethyleneimine-and-poly-l-lysine-dna-polyplexes
#2
Elina Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Ekaterina S Lisitsyna, Tiia-Maaria Ketola, Emmanuelle Morin-Pickardat, Huamin Liang, Martina Hanzlíková, Marjo Yliperttula
Electrostatic polymer-DNA complexes (polyplexes) have been widely investigated for DNA delivery, and remarkable differences in transfection efficacy have been seen among the materials. For example, polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediates DNA transfection more effectively than poly(l-lysine) (PLL). Biophysical properties of the polyplexes may explain their different properties in gene delivery. We investigated the structural dynamics in DNA polyplexes, especially the material exchange between the core and shell regions of the PEI and PLL polyplexes...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327732/properties-of-polyplexes-formed-through-interaction-between-hydrophobically-modified-poly-ethylene-imine-s-and-calf-thymus-dna-in-aqueous-solution
#3
I C Bellettini, S J Fayad, V G Machado, E Minatti
Polycationic polymers and DNA form soluble complexes in aqueous solution, which allows the transfer of genetic material into cells. Therefore, these chemically-modified polymers are of interest for use in studies aimed at better transfection efficiency and gene expression along with reduced cytotoxicity. In this study, branched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) was modified by alkylation with n-alkyl groups (n = 4, 6, 8 and 12 carbons). The polyplexes formed through interaction of the modified PEIs and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, ethidium bromide fluorescence emission, circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering techniques along with the determination of the zeta potential and viscosity...
March 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290156/degradable-polyethylenimine-based-gene-carriers-for-cancer-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Hu-Lin Jiang, Mohammad Ariful Islam, Lei Xing, Jannatul Firdous, Wuji Cao, Yu-Jing He, Yong Zhu, Ki-Hyun Cho, Hui-Shan Li, Chong-Su Cho
Gene therapy using recombinant DNA or gene silencing using siRNA have become a prominent area of research in cancer therapy. However, their use in clinical applications is limited due to overall safety concerns and suboptimal efficacy. Although non-viral vectors such as polycationic polymers do not offer the same level of transfection efficiency as their viral counterparts, they still demonstrate immense potential as alternatives to viral vectors, given their versatility, low immunogenicity, ease of large-scale production, and ability to accelerate gene transfer with well-designed delivery platforms...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284104/development-of-switchable-polymers-to-address-the-dilemma-of-stability-and-cargo-release-in-polycationic-nucleic-acid-carriers
#5
Yilong Cheng, Drew L Sellers, James-Kevin Y Tan, David J Peeler, Philip J Horner, Suzie H Pun
Cationic polymer gene delivery vehicles that effectively resist premature serum degradation often have difficulty releasing their nucleic acid cargoes. In this work, we report a pH-sensitive polymer (SP), poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate)-co-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block- poly(propargyl methacrylate-graft-propyl-(4-methoxy-benzylidene)-amine) (p(PMA-PMBA)-b-(p(OEGMA-DMAEMA)), for successful in vitro and in vivo gene transfer. In the physiological condition, the hydrophobization of p(OEGMA-DMAEMA) polycations by p(PMA-PMBA) significantly enhanced the stability of its polyplexes counterpart...
March 1, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181193/history-of-polymeric-gene-delivery-systems
#6
REVIEW
Peng Zhang, Ernst Wagner
As an option for genetic disease treatment and an alternative for traditional cancer chemotherapy, gene therapy achieves significant attention. Nucleic acid delivery, however, remains a main challenge in human gene therapy. Polymer-based delivery systems offer a safer and promising route for therapeutic gene delivery. Over the past five decades, various cationic polymers have been optimized for increasingly effective nucleic acid transfer. This resulted in a chemical evolution of cationic polymers from the first-generation polycations towards bioinspired multifunctional sequence-defined polymers and nanocomposites...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103676/complete-tetrasaccharide-repeat-unit-biosynthesis-of-the-immunomodulatory-bacteroides-fragilis-capsular-polysaccharide-a
#7
Sunita Sharma, Katelyn M Erickson, Jerry M Troutman
Capsular polysaccharide A (CPSA) is a four-sugar repeating unit polymer found on the surface of the gut symbiont Bacteroides fragilis that has therapeutic potential in animal models of autoimmune disorders. This therapeutic potential has been credited to its zwitterionic character derived from a positively charged N-acetyl-4-aminogalactosamine (AADGal) and a negatively charged 4,6-O-pyruvylated galactose (PyrGal). In this report, using a fluorescent polyisoprenoid chemical probe, the complete enzymatic assembly of the CPSA tetrasaccharide repeat unit is achieved...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100091/the-effects-of-polyethylenimine-dna-nanoparticle-on-transcript-levels-of-apoptosis-related-genes
#8
Elham Pishavar, Mohammad Shafiei, Soghra Mehri, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
CONTEXT: Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a cationic polymer commonly used in gene transfer. Although numerous investigations have indicated that PEI can induce apoptosis/necrosis but the mechanism of its cytotoxicity is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PEI/DNA complexes on the expression of apoptotic genes in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29). METHODS: HT29 cells were exposed to PEI/DNA complex (C/P = 0...
January 18, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095650/bone-tissue-engineering-in-oral-peri-implant-defects-in-preclinical-in-vivo-research-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Siddharth Shanbhag, Nikolaos Pandis, Kamal Mustafa, Jens R Nyengaard, Andreas Stavropoulos
Regeneration and establishment of osseointegration within oral peri-implant bone defects remains a clinical challenge. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is emerging as a promising alternative to autogenous and/or biomaterial-based bone grafting. The objective of this systematic review was to answer the focused question: in animal models, do cell-based BTE strategies enhance bone regeneration and/or implant osseointegration in experimental peri-implant defects, compared to grafting with autogenous bone or only biomaterial scaffolds? Electronic databases were searched for controlled animal studies reporting on peri-implant defects and implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or other cells seeded on biomaterial scaffolds, following PRISMA guidelines...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088691/stability-effect-of-cholesterol-poly-acrylic-acid-in-a-stimuli-responsive-polymer-liposome-complex-obtained-from-soybean-lecithin-for-controlled-drug-delivery
#10
M G Simões, P Alves, Manuela Carvalheiro, P N Simões
The development of polymer-liposome complexes (PLCs), in particular for biomedical applications, has grown significantly in the last decades. The importance of these studies comes from the emerging need in finding intelligent controlled release systems, more predictable, effective and selective, for applications in several areas, such as treatment and/or diagnosis of cancer, neurological, dermatological, ophthalmic and orthopedic diseases, gene therapy, cosmetic treatments, and food engineering. This work reports the development and characterization of a pH sensitive system for controlled release based on PLCs...
April 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008251/coating-with-spermine-pullulan-polymer-enhances-adenoviral-transduction-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Li Wan, Xinglei Yao, Francesco Faiola, Bojun Liu, Tianyuan Zhang, Yasuhiko Tabata, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Shinsaku Nakagawa, Jian-Qing Gao, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with multilineage potential, which makes them attractive tools for regenerative medicine applications. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs is essential not only for basic research in developmental biology but also for therapeutic applications involving gene-modification in regenerative medicine. Adenovirus vectors (Advs) can efficiently and transiently introduce an exogenous gene into many cell types via their primary receptors, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors, but not into MSCs, which are deficient in coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors expression...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872011/aminoclay-as-a-highly-effective-cationic-vehicle-for-enhancing-adenovirus-mediated-gene-transfer-through-nanobiohybrid-complex-formation
#12
Soo-Yeon Kim, Sang-Jin Lee, Hyo-Kyung Han, Soo-Jeong Lim
Electrostatic complexation of adenovirus (Ad) with cationic lipids or polymers has been shown to be an effective means for overcoming the limitations of adenoviral vectors and enhancing gene-transfer efficacy. However, such complexation causes cytotoxicity, limiting the use of this strategy. The present study explored the potential of 3-aminopropyl functionalized magnesium phyllosilicate (aminoclay) as a cationic vehicle for improving Ad-mediated gene transfer without inducing cytotoxicity. Aminoclay complexation produced a dose-dependent increase in Ad-mediated transgene expression in both Ad infection-sensitive and -refractory cells, thereby greatly lowering the Ad dose required for transgene expression...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864442/two-trichome-birefringence-like-proteins-mediate-xylan-acetylation-which-is-essential-for-leaf-blight-resistance-in-rice
#13
Yaping Gao, Congwu He, Dongmei Zhang, Xiangling Liu, Zuopeng Xu, Yanbao Tian, Xue-Hui Liu, Shanshan Zang, Markus Pauly, Yihua Zhou, Baocai Zhang
Acetylation is a ubiquitous modification on cell wall polymers, which play a structural role in plant growth and stress defenses. However, the mechanisms for how crop plants accomplish cell wall polymer O-acetylation are largely unknown. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of two trichome birefringence-like (tbl) mutants in rice (Oryza sativa), which are affected in xylan O-acetylation. ostbl1 and ostbl2 single mutant and the tbl1 tbl2 double mutant displayed a stunted growth phenotype with varied degree of dwarfism...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847224/tetraiodothyroacetic-acid-conjugated-polyethylenimine-for-integrin-receptor-mediated-delivery-of-the-plasmid-encoding-il-12-gene
#14
Fatemeh Sheikhsaran, Hossein Sadeghpour, Bahman Khalvati, Elaheh Entezar-Almahdi, Ali Dehshahri
Targeted delivery by polymer-based nanoparticles has been considered as an efficient approach to transfer genetic materials into cells. Considering the over expression of integrin αVβ3 receptor on tumor cells and the presence of the binding site for tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) on integrin receptor, we hypothesized that the conjugation of tetrac to polyethylenimine (PEI) might be an effective strategy for pDNA delivery into the cells over-expressing integrins on their surfaces. In order to test the hypothesis, tetrac conjugated PEI/plasmid DNA complexes were prepared and their ability in the delivery of plasmid encoding IL-12 gene was investigated...
February 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846677/information-management-in-dna-replication-modeled-by-directional-stochastic-chains-with-memory
#15
J Ricardo Arias-Gonzalez
Stochastic chains represent a key variety of phenomena in many branches of science within the context of information theory and thermodynamics. They are typically approached by a sequence of independent events or by a memoryless Markov process. Stochastic chains are of special significance to molecular biology, where genes are conveyed by linear polymers made up of molecular subunits and transferred from DNA to proteins by specialized molecular motors in the presence of errors. Here, we demonstrate that when memory is introduced, the statistics of the chain depends on the mechanism by which objects or symbols are assembled, even in the slow dynamics limit wherein friction can be neglected...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795328/genes-required-for-bacillus-anthracis-secondary-cell-wall-polysaccharide-synthesis
#16
So-Young Oh, J Mark Lunderberg, Alice Chateau, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas
The secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) is thought to be essential for vegetative growth and surface (S)-layer assembly in Bacillus anthracis; however, the genetic determinants for the assembly of its trisaccharide repeat structure are not known. Here, we report that WpaA (BAS0847) and WpaB (BAS5274) share features with membrane proteins involved in the assembly of O-antigen lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria and propose that WpaA and WpaB contribute to the assembly of the SCWP in B. anthracis Vegetative forms of the B...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746801/developing-pericarp-of-maize-a-model-to-study-arabinoxylan-synthesis-and-feruloylation
#17
Anne-Laure Chateigner-Boutin, José J Ordaz-Ortiz, Camille Alvarado, Brigitte Bouchet, Sylvie Durand, Yves Verhertbruggen, Yves Barrière, Luc Saulnier
Cell walls are comprised of networks of entangled polymers that differ considerably between species, tissues and developmental stages. The cell walls of grasses, a family that encompasses major crops, contain specific polysaccharide structures such as xylans substituted with feruloylated arabinose residues. Ferulic acid is involved in the grass cell wall assembly by mediating linkages between xylan chains and between xylans and lignins. Ferulic acid contributes to the physical properties of cell walls, it is a hindrance to cell wall degradability (thus biomass conversion and silage digestibility) and may contribute to pest resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743797/enhanced-plasmid-loss-in-bacterial-populations-exposed-to-the-antimicrobial-compound-irgasan-delivered-from-interpenetrating-polymer-network-silicone-hydrogels
#18
Leise Riber, Mette Burmølle, Martin Alm, Stefan M Milani, Peter Thomsen, Lars H Hansen, Søren J Sørensen
The spread of antimicrobial resistance, usually mediated by horizontal transfer of plasmids, limits the options of treating bacterial infections and thereby poses a crucial human health problem. The disturbance of plasmid stability within bacterial species in clinical environments serves as a novel strategy to reduce the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. We tested the ability of irgasan to destabilize plasmids from Escherichia coli K-12 cells when added directly into liquid growth medium at concentrations below levels of marked bacterial growth inhibition, or when released into liquid growth medium from irgasan-impregnated Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) silicone hydrogel objects, a novel technology developed as drug-delivery platform...
October 12, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709897/comparing-gene-silencing-and-physiochemical-properties-in-sirna-bound-cationic-star-polymer-complexes
#19
Megan Dearnley, Nicholas P Reynolds, Peter Cass, Xiaohu Wei, Shuning Shi, A Aalam Mohammed, Tam Le, Pathiraja Gunatillake, Mark L Tizard, San H Thang, Tracey M Hinton
The translation of siRNA into clinical therapies has been significantly delayed by issues surrounding the delivery of naked siRNA to target cells. Here we investigate siRNA delivery by cationic acrylic polymers developed by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) mediated free radical polymerization. We investigated cell uptake and gene silencing of a series of siRNA-star polymer complexes both in the presence and absence of a protein "corona". Using a multidisciplinary approach including quantitative nanoscale mechanical-atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis we have characterized the nanoscale morphology, stiffness, and surface charge of the complexes with and without the protein corona...
November 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702685/conjugates-of-ha2-with-octaarginine-grafted-hpma-copolymer-offer-effective-sirna-delivery-and-gene-silencing-in-cancer-cells
#20
Moran Golan, Valeria Feinshtein, Ayelet David
The key for successful gene silencing is to design a safe and efficient siRNA delivery system for the transfer of therapeutic nucleic acids into the target cells. Here, we describe the design of hydrophilic N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer displaying multiple copies of octaarginine (R8) and its use in promoting the effective delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules intracellularly. Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled HPMA copolymer-bound R8 (P-R8-FITC) was synthesized with increasing R8 molar ratios (4-9...
December 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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