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polymers and gene transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181193/history-of-polymeric-gene-delivery-systems
#1
REVIEW
Peng Zhang, Ernst Wagner
As an option for genetic disease treatment and an alternative for traditional cancer chemotherapy, gene therapy achieves significant attention. Nucleic acid delivery, however, remains a main challenge in human gene therapy. Polymer-based delivery systems offer a safer and promising route for therapeutic gene delivery. Over the past five decades, various cationic polymers have been optimized for increasingly effective nucleic acid transfer. This resulted in a chemical evolution of cationic polymers from the first-generation polycations towards bioinspired multifunctional sequence-defined polymers and nanocomposites...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103676/complete-tetrasaccharide-repeat-unit-biosynthesis-of-the-immunomodulatory-bacteroides-fragilis-capsular-polysaccharide-a
#2
Sunita Sharma, Katelyn M Erickson, Jerry M Troutman
Capsular polysaccharide A (CPSA) is a four-sugar repeating unit polymer found on the surface of the gut symbiont Bacteroides fragilis that has therapeutic potential in animal models of autoimmune disorders. This therapeutic potential has been credited to its zwitterionic character derived from a positively charged N-acetyl-4-aminogalactosamine (AADGal) and a negatively charged 4,6-O-pyruvylated galactose (PyrGal). In this report, using a fluorescent polyisoprenoid chemical probe, the complete enzymatic assembly of the CPSA tetrasaccharide repeat unit is achieved...
20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100091/the-effects-of-polyethylenimine-dna-nanoparticle-on-transcript-levels-of-apoptosis-related-genes
#3
Elham Pishavar, Mohammad Shafiei, Soghra Mehri, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
CONTEXT: Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a cationic polymer commonly used in gene transfer. Although numerous investigations have indicated that PEI can induce apoptosis/necrosis but the mechanism of its cytotoxicity is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PEI/DNA complexes on the expression of apoptotic genes in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29). METHODS: HT29 cells were exposed to PEI/DNA complex (C/P = 0...
January 18, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095650/bone-tissue-engineering-in-oral-peri-implant-defects-in-preclinical-in-vivo-research-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Siddharth Shanbhag, Nikolaos Pandis, Kamal Mustafa, Jens R Nyengaard, Andreas Stavropoulos
Regeneration and establishment of osseointegration within oral peri-implant bone defects remains a clinical challenge. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is emerging as a promising alternative to autogenous and/or biomaterial-based bone grafting. The objective of this systematic review was to answer the focused question: in animal models, do cell-based BTE strategies enhance bone regeneration and/or implant osseointegration in experimental peri-implant defects, compared to grafting with autogenous bone or only biomaterial scaffolds? Electronic databases were searched for controlled animal studies reporting on peri-implant defects and implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or other cells seeded on biomaterial scaffolds, following PRISMA guidelines...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088691/stability-effect-of-cholesterol-poly-acrylic-acid-in-a-stimuli-responsive-polymer-liposome-complex-obtained-from-soybean-lecithin-for-controlled-drug-delivery
#5
M G Simões, P Alves, Manuela Carvalheiro, P N Simões
The development of polymer-liposome complexes (PLCs), in particular for biomedical applications, has grown significantly in the last decades. The importance of these studies comes from the emerging need in finding intelligent controlled release systems, more predictable, effective and selective, for applications in several areas, such as treatment and/or diagnosis of cancer, neurological, dermatological, ophthalmic and orthopedic diseases, gene therapy, cosmetic treatments, and food engineering. This work reports the development and characterization of a pH sensitive system for controlled release based on PLCs...
January 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008251/coating-with-spermine-pullulan-polymer-enhances-adenoviral-transduction-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Li Wan, Xinglei Yao, Francesco Faiola, Bojun Liu, Tianyuan Zhang, Yasuhiko Tabata, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Shinsaku Nakagawa, Jian-Qing Gao, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with multilineage potential, which makes them attractive tools for regenerative medicine applications. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs is essential not only for basic research in developmental biology but also for therapeutic applications involving gene-modification in regenerative medicine. Adenovirus vectors (Advs) can efficiently and transiently introduce an exogenous gene into many cell types via their primary receptors, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors, but not into MSCs, which are deficient in coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors expression...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872011/aminoclay-as-a-highly-effective-cationic-vehicle-for-enhancing-adenovirus-mediated-gene-transfer-through-nanobiohybrid-complex-formation
#7
Soo-Yeon Kim, Sang-Jin Lee, Hyo-Kyung Han, Soo-Jeong Lim
: Electrostatic complexation of adenovirus (Ad) with cationic lipids or polymers has been shown to be an effective means for overcoming the limitations of adenoviral vectors and enhancing gene-transfer efficacy. However, such complexation causes cytotoxicity, limiting the use of this strategy. The present study explored the potential of 3-aminopropyl functionalized magnesium phyllosilicate (aminoclay) as a cationic vehicle for improving Ad-mediated gene transfer without inducing cytotoxicity...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864442/two-trichome-birefringence-like-proteins-mediate-xylan-acetylation-which-is-essential-for-leaf-blight-resistance-in-rice
#8
Yaping Gao, Congwu He, Dongmei Zhang, Xiangling Liu, Zuopeng Xu, Yanbao Tian, Xue-Hui Liu, Shanshan Zang, Markus Pauly, Yihua Zhou, Baocai Zhang
Acetylation is a ubiquitous modification on cell wall polymers, which play a structural role in plant growth and stress defenses. However, the mechanisms for how crop plants accomplish cell wall polymer O-acetylation are largely unknown. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of two trichome birefringence-like (tbl) mutants in rice (Oryza sativa), which are affected in xylan O-acetylation. ostbl1 and ostbl2 single mutant and the tbl1 tbl2 double mutant displayed a stunted growth phenotype with varied degree of dwarfism...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847224/tetraiodothyroacetic-acid-conjugated-polyethylenimine-for-integrin-receptor-mediated-delivery-of-the-plasmid-encoding-il-12-gene
#9
Fatemeh Sheikhsaran, Hossein Sadeghpour, Bahman Khalvati, Elaheh Entezar-Almahdi, Ali Dehshahri
Targeted delivery by polymer-based nanoparticles has been considered as an efficient approach to transfer genetic materials into cells. Considering the over expression of integrin αVβ3 receptor on tumor cells and the presence of the binding site for tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) on integrin receptor, we hypothesized that the conjugation of tetrac to polyethylenimine (PEI) might be an effective strategy for pDNA delivery into the cells over-expressing integrins on their surfaces. In order to test the hypothesis, tetrac conjugated PEI/plasmid DNA complexes were prepared and their ability in the delivery of plasmid encoding IL-12 gene was investigated...
February 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846677/information-management-in-dna-replication-modeled-by-directional-stochastic-chains-with-memory
#10
J Ricardo Arias-Gonzalez
Stochastic chains represent a key variety of phenomena in many branches of science within the context of information theory and thermodynamics. They are typically approached by a sequence of independent events or by a memoryless Markov process. Stochastic chains are of special significance to molecular biology, where genes are conveyed by linear polymers made up of molecular subunits and transferred from DNA to proteins by specialized molecular motors in the presence of errors. Here, we demonstrate that when memory is introduced, the statistics of the chain depends on the mechanism by which objects or symbols are assembled, even in the slow dynamics limit wherein friction can be neglected...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795328/genes-required-for-bacillus-anthracis-secondary-cell-wall-polysaccharide-synthesis
#11
So-Young Oh, J Mark Lunderberg, Alice Chateau, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas
: The secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) is thought to be essential for vegetative growth and surface (S)-layer assembly in Bacillus anthracis; however, the genetic determinants for the assembly of its trisaccharide repeat structure are not known. Here, we report that WpaA (BAS0847) and WpaB (BAS5274) share features with membrane proteins involved in the assembly of O-antigen lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria and propose that WpaA and WpaB contribute to the assembly of the SCWP in B...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746801/developing-pericarp-of-maize-a-model-to-study-arabinoxylan-synthesis-and-feruloylation
#12
Anne-Laure Chateigner-Boutin, José J Ordaz-Ortiz, Camille Alvarado, Brigitte Bouchet, Sylvie Durand, Yves Verhertbruggen, Yves Barrière, Luc Saulnier
Cell walls are comprised of networks of entangled polymers that differ considerably between species, tissues and developmental stages. The cell walls of grasses, a family that encompasses major crops, contain specific polysaccharide structures such as xylans substituted with feruloylated arabinose residues. Ferulic acid is involved in the grass cell wall assembly by mediating linkages between xylan chains and between xylans and lignins. Ferulic acid contributes to the physical properties of cell walls, it is a hindrance to cell wall degradability (thus biomass conversion and silage digestibility) and may contribute to pest resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743797/enhanced-plasmid-loss-in-bacterial-populations-exposed-to-the-antimicrobial-compound-irgasan-delivered-from-interpenetrating-polymer-network-silicone-hydrogels
#13
Leise Riber, Mette Burmølle, Martin Alm, Stefan M Milani, Peter Thomsen, Lars H Hansen, Søren J Sørensen
The spread of antimicrobial resistance, usually mediated by horizontal transfer of plasmids, limits the options of treating bacterial infections and thereby poses a crucial human health problem. The disturbance of plasmid stability within bacterial species in clinical environments serves as a novel strategy to reduce the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. We tested the ability of irgasan to destabilize plasmids from Escherichia coli K-12 cells when added directly into liquid growth medium at concentrations below levels of marked bacterial growth inhibition, or when released into liquid growth medium from irgasan-impregnated Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) silicone hydrogel objects, a novel technology developed as drug-delivery platform...
October 12, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709897/comparing-gene-silencing-and-physiochemical-properties-in-sirna-bound-cationic-star-polymer-complexes
#14
Megan Dearnley, Nicholas P Reynolds, Peter Cass, Xiaohu Wei, Shuning Shi, A Aalam Mohammed, Tam Le, Pathiraja Gunatillake, Mark L Tizard, San H Thang, Tracey M Hinton
The translation of siRNA into clinical therapies has been significantly delayed by issues surrounding the delivery of naked siRNA to target cells. Here we investigate siRNA delivery by cationic acrylic polymers developed by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) mediated free radical polymerization. We investigated cell uptake and gene silencing of a series of siRNA-star polymer complexes both in the presence and absence of a protein "corona". Using a multidisciplinary approach including quantitative nanoscale mechanical-atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis we have characterized the nanoscale morphology, stiffness, and surface charge of the complexes with and without the protein corona...
November 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702685/conjugates-of-ha2-with-octaarginine-grafted-hpma-copolymer-offer-effective-sirna-delivery-and-gene-silencing-in-cancer-cells
#15
Moran Golan, Valeria Feinshtein, Ayelet David
The key for successful gene silencing is to design a safe and efficient siRNA delivery system for the transfer of therapeutic nucleic acids into the target cells. Here, we describe the design of hydrophilic N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer displaying multiple copies of octaarginine (R8) and its use in promoting the effective delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules intracellularly. Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled HPMA copolymer-bound R8 (P-R8-FITC) was synthesized with increasing R8 molar ratios (4-9...
December 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693719/attomolar-electrochemical-detection-of-the-bcr-abl-fusion-gene-based-on-an-amplifying-self-signal-metal-nanoparticle-conducting-polymer-hybrid-composite
#16
Karen Y P S Avelino, Isaac A M Frias, Norma Lucena-Silva, Renan G Gomes, Celso P de Melo, Maria D L Oliveira, César A S Andrade
In the last ten years, conjugated polymers started to be used in the immobilization of nucleic acids via non-covalent interactions. In the present study, we describe the construction and use of an electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a nanostructured polyaniline-gold composite, specifically developed for the detection of the BCR/ABL chimeric oncogene. This chromosome translocation is used as a biomarker to confirm the clinical diagnosis of both chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)...
December 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538359/virus-inspired-polymer-for-efficient-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-gene-delivery
#17
Yilong Cheng, Roma C Yumul, Suzie H Pun
Clinical translation of nucleic acids drugs has been stunted by limited delivery options. Herein, we report a synthetic polymer designed to mimic viral mechanisms of delivery called VIPER (virus-inspired polymer for endosomal release). VIPER is composed of a polycation block for condensation of nucleic acids, and a pH-sensitive block for acid-triggered display of a lytic peptide to promote trafficking to the cell cytosol. VIPER shows superior efficiencies compared to commercial agents when delivering genes to multiple immortalized cell lines...
September 19, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506207/characterization-of-n-succinylation-of-l-lysylphosphatidylglycerol-in-bacillus-subtilis-using-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Metin Atila, George Katselis, Paulos Chumala, Yu Luo
Phospholipids generally dominate in bacterial lipids. The negatively charged nature of phospholipids renders bacteria susceptible to cationic antibiotic peptides. In comparison with Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria in general have much less zwitterionic phosphatidylethanolamine. However, they are known for producing aminoacylated phosphatidylglycerol (PG), especially positively charged L-lysyl-PG, which is catalyzed by lysyl-PG synthase MprF, which appears to have a broad range of specificity for L-aminoacyl transfer RNAs...
October 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478960/supramolecular-host-guest-polycationic-gene-delivery-system-based-on-poly-cyclodextrin-and-azobenzene-terminated-polycations
#19
Qimin Jiang, Yunti Zhang, Renxi Zhuo, Xulin Jiang
This article describes the supramolecular host-guest polycationic gene delivery system based on poly(β-cyclodextrin) (PCD) and azobenzene-terminated polycations. The azobenzene-terminated linear (Az-LPDM) and branched (Az-BPDM) cationic polymers were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). The formation and photosensitive behavior of the supramolecular polycations of azobenzene-terminated polycations Az-LPDM and Az-BPDM with PCD were confirmed by UV-vis and NMR analysis...
November 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426103/protein-cages-and-synthetic-polymers-a-fruitful-symbiosis-for-drug-delivery-applications-bionanotechnology-and-materials-science
#20
Martin Rother, Martin G Nussbaumer, Kasper Renggli, Nico Bruns
Protein cages are hollow protein nanoparticles, such as viral capsids, virus-like particles, ferritin, heat-shock proteins and chaperonins. They have well-defined capsule-like structures with a monodisperse size. Their protein subunits can be modified by genetic engineering at predetermined positions, allowing for example site-selective introduction of attachment points for functional groups, catalysts or targeting ligands on their outer surface, in their interior and between subunits. Therefore, protein cages have been extensively explored as functional entities in bionanotechnology, as drug-delivery or gene-delivery vehicles, as nanoreactors or as templates for the synthesis of organic and inorganic nanomaterials...
July 18, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
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