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Growth Hormone Releasing

Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Mitsuo Yamaguchi-Okada, Kentaro Horiguchi, Noriaki Fukuhara, Hiroshi Nishioka, Shozo Yamada
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is an endocrine disorder characterized by insufficient production of growth hormone (GH). Non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one of common causes of GHD. Although most patients with NFPA have transsphenoidal surgery, the time-dependent changes in GH after operation have yet to be investigated. In this study, we analyzed patients with NFPAs that underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Postoperatively, GH secretion was evaluated in response to GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP2) infusion...
June 15, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Bence Kővári, Lajos Kocsis, Erika Varga, Gábor Cserni
Encouraged by our previous finding of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) expression in metaplastic and neoplastic apocrine breast epithelium, we examined a small series of skin adnexal tumours with various degrees of apocrine (oxyphilic) differentiation, as well as normal axillary and anogenital apocrine sweat glands, for the expression of GHRH-R. Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were immunostained for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) and androgen receptor (AR), to prove apocrine differentiation and correlate it with areas of GHRH-R expression...
2018: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
Yusuke Suzuki, Masaaki Ii, Takashi Saito, Yoshito Terai, Yasuhiko Tabata, Masahide Ohmichi, Michio Asahi
Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumour in women, and an appropriate animal model for leiomyoma would be useful for exploring new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we have been challenged to develop a new simple mouse model for human leiomyoma. Leiomyoma tissues were harvested from myomas resected by different surgical procedures with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment and were subcutaneously implanted into BALB/c nude mice with an estradiol/progesterone-releasing pellet...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Loïze Maréchal, Maximilien Laviolette, Amélie Rodrigue-Way, Baly Sow, Michèle Brochu, Véronique Caron, André Tremblay
Uncovering the biological role of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has greatly advanced our knowledge of the transcriptional control of glucose and energy metabolism. As such, pharmacological activation of PPARγ has emerged as an efficient approach for treating metabolic disorders with the current use of thiazolidinediones to improve insulin resistance in diabetic patients. The recent identification of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) as potent inducers of PPARγ through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36 has defined a novel alternative to regulate essential aspects of lipid and energy metabolism...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
David Aguinaga, Mireia Medrano, Arnau Cordomí, Mireia Jiménez-Rosés, Edgar Angelats, Mireia Casanovas, Ignacio Vega-Quiroga, Enric I Canela, Milos Petrovic, Katia Gysling, Leonardo Pardo, Rafael Franco, Gemma Navarro
Despite ancient knowledge on cocaine appetite-suppressant action, the molecular basis of such fact remains unknown. Addiction/eating disorders (e.g., binge eating, anorexia, bulimia) share a central control involving reward circuits. However, we here show that the sigma-1 receptor (σ1 R) mediates cocaine anorectic effects by interacting in neurons with growth/hormone/secretagogue (ghrelin) receptors. Cocaine increases colocalization of σ1 R and GHS-R1a at the cell surface. Moreover, in transfected HEK-293T and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and in primary neuronal cultures, pretreatment with cocaine or a σ1 R agonist inhibited ghrelin-mediated signaling, in a similar manner as the GHS-R1a antagonist YIL-781...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Oliver Krug, Andreas Thomas, Helle Malerød-Fjeld, Yvette Dehnes, Tim Laussmann, Ingo Feldmann, Albert Sickmann, Mario Thevis
Detecting agents allegedly or evidently promoting growth such as human growth hormone (GH) or growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) in doping controls has represented a pressing issue for sports drug testing laboratories. While GH is a recombinant protein with a molecular weight of 22 kDa, the GHRPs are short (3-6 amino acids long) peptides with GH releasing properties. The endogenously produced GH (22 kDa isoform) consists of 191 amino acids and has a monoisotopic molecular mass of 22,124 Da. Within this study, a slightly modified form of GH was discovered consisting of 192 amino acids carrying an additional alanine at the N-terminus, leading to a monoisotopic mass of 22,195 Da...
May 19, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Masaki Nakano, Itaru Hasunuma, Atsuko Minagawa, Shawichi Iwamuro, Kazutoshi Yamamoto, Sakae Kikuyama, Takeo Machida, Tetsuya Kobayashi
In amphibians, thyrotropin (TSH), corticotropin (ACTH) and prolactin (PRL) are regarded as the major pituitary hormones involved in metamorphosis and known to be controlled by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasotocin (AVT), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), respectively. It is also known that thyrotropes and corticotropes are equipped with CRF type-2 receptor and AVT V1b receptor, respectively. As for PRL cells, information about the type of receptor for TRH (TRHR) through which the action of TRH is mediated to induce the release of PRL is lacking...
June 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ho Yong Kim, Jin Ho Lee, Han A Reum Lee, Ji-Sung Park, Dong Kyun Woo, Hee-Chun Lee, Gyu-Jin Rho, June-Ho Byun, Se Heang Oh
Sustained release of bioactive molecules from delivery systems is a common strategy for ensuring their prolonged bioactivity and for minimizing safety issues. However, residual toxic reagents, the use of harsh organic solvents, and complex fabrication procedures in conventional delivery systems are considered enormous impediments towards clinical use. Herein, we describe bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-immobilized porous polycaprolactone (PCL) particles with unique leaf-stacked structures (</i>LSS<i> particles) prepared using clinically feasible materials and procedures...
June 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ana Freitas, Gabriela Albuquerque, Cláudia Silva, Andreia Oliveira
Identifying the underlying child-eating behaviours that contribute to weight differences across growth has been a constant challenge. This report reviews the various literature approaches for assessing appetite regulation. In doing so, it attempts to understand how appetite control develops and determines the eating habits in early childhood, and its effects on children's weight status. The interaction between homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms largely explains the appetite regulation process. Homeostatic mechanisms are mediated by the biological need to maintain the body's energy reserves, increasing the motivation to eat...
May 29, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Shihai Zhang, Min Tian, Hanqing Song, Kui Shi, Yijiang Wang, Wutai Guan
Recent studies have shown that L-carnitine supplementation of sows during pregnancy and lactation enhances their reproductive performance, but the underlying mechanisms are still needed to be further confirmed. This study was conducted to investigate the function of L-carnitine on placental development, milk nutrient content and release of hormones in sows. In this experiment, 40 multiparous crossbred sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) were allotted to two groups fed diets with or without a supplemental 50 mg/kg L-carnitine...
May 29, 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Donna Sellers, Russ Chess-Williams, Martin C Michel
The epithelial inner layer of the lower urinary tract, i.e., the urothelium, and other parts of the mucosa are not just a passive barrier but play an active role in the sensing of stretching, neurotransmitters, paracrine mediators, hormones, and growth factors and of changes in the extracellular environment. We review the molecular and cellular mechanisms enabling the urothelium to sense such inputs and how this leads to modulation of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation. The urothelium releases various mediators including ATP, acetylcholine, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and nerve growth factor...
May 28, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Florian Lang, Lisann Pelzl, Stefan Hauser, Andreas Hermann, Christos Stournaras, Ludger Schöls
The pore forming Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel (CRAC) isoforms ORAI1-3 and their regulators STIM1,2 accomplish store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Activation of SOCE may lead to cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations, which in turn support cell proliferation and cell survival. ORAI/STIM and thus SOCE are upregulated by the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, a kinase under powerful genomic regulation and activated by phosphorylation via the phosphoinositol-3-phosphate pathway. SGK1 enhances ORAI1 abundance partially by phosphorylation of Nedd4-2, an ubiquitin ligase priming the channel protein for degradation...
May 3, 2018: Cell Calcium
Karen O Klein, Peter A Lee
This review suggests a central theme: that the treatment of each patient presenting with evidence consistent with central precocious puberty (CPP) needs to be individualized. This pertains to multiple factors relating to growth and growth potential, monitoring patients on treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa), evaluating psychological issues with CPP and therapy, and concerns about weight gain during GnRHa therapy. Individual cases are presented. New data on adult height and rate of bone age advance are included...
April 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Tadashi Okada, T M Zaved Waise, Koji Toshinai, Yuichiro Mita, Hideyuki Sakoda, Masamitsu Nakazato
The vagus nerve connects peripheral organs to the central nervous system (CNS), and gastrointestinal hormones transmit their signals to the CNS via the vagal afferent nerve. Ghrelin, a gastric-derived orexigenic peptide, stimulates food intake by transmitting starvation signals via the vagus nerve. To understand peripheral ghrelin signaling via the vagus nerve, we investigated the ghrelin receptor (GHSR)-null mouse. For this purpose, we tried to produce mice in which GHSR was selectively expressed in the hindbrain and vagus nerve...
May 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
I M P Araújo, E Albuquerque-Souza, M H Aguiar-Oliveira, M Holzhausen, L A Oliveira-Neto, R Salvatori, L Saraiva, M P A Mayer, C M Pannuti, A O Ribeiro, G A Romito, F E Pustiglioni
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has been identified as an important regulator of the immune response. We have previously shown that adults with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to a mutation in the GH releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) gene, have a greater chance of having periodontitis. However, the interaction of GH with periodontal tissues is still unknown, and this population has emerged as a unique model to investigate this issue. Therefore, we evaluated the microbiological and immunological periodontal profiles of such individuals...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Takeshi Tokudome, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide that was first discovered in the stomach of rats in 1999, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin exerts its potent growth hormone-releasing and orexigenic activities by binding to specific receptors in the brain. Subsequent studies showed that ghrelin participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance, body weight maintenance, and glucose and fat metabolism, and demonstrated that ghrelin is beneficial for treatment of cardiac diseases...
May 20, 2018: Peptides
Malgorzata Szczesna, Katarzyna Kirsz, Tomasz Misztal, Edyta Molik, Dorota A Zieba
The effects of hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance during gestation are unclear. Leptin, an important neuroendocrine regulator, has anorexic effects, but its interactions with other metabolic hormones during pregnancy are unclear. We examined potential roles of leptin in regulating prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and melatonin plasma concentrations during pregnancy in Polish Longwool ewes. Twelve estrus-synchronized ewes carrying twins after mating were randomly assigned to receive intravenous injections of saline or recombinant ovine leptin (2...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
C L Tan, P W Sheard, C L Jasoni
Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are required for fertility in all mammalian species studied to date. GnRH neuron cell bodies reside in the basal forebrain, and most extend long neurites in the caudal direction to terminate at the median eminence (ME), the site of hormone secretion. Using in vitro neurite growth assays, histological methods, and genetic deletion strategies in mice we have analysed the role of the morphogen and neurite growth and guidance molecule, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), in the growth of GnRH neurites to their target...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Petra Popovics, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Ferenc G Rick, Andrew V Schally
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a key role in the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through multiple pathways involving the stimulation of proliferation by cytokines and growth factors as well as the induction of the focal occurrence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have previously reported that GHRH acts as a prostatic growth factor in experimental BPH and in autoimmune prostatitis models and its blockade with GHRH antagonists offer therapeutic approaches for these conditions...
May 21, 2018: Prostate
Jie Liu, Muyun Xu, Gonzalo M Estavillo, Emmanuel Delhaize, Rosemary G White, Meixue Zhou, Peter R Ryan
We examined the function of OsALMT4 in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) which is a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family. Previous studies showed that OsALMT4 localizes to the plasma membrane and that expression in transgenic rice lines results in a constitutive release of malate from the roots. Here, we show that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in roots, shoots, flowers, and grain but not guard cells. Expression was also affected by ionic and osmotic stress, light and to the hormones ABA, IAA, and salicylic acid...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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