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Growth Hormone Releasing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633506/role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1and-gastric-inhibitory-peptide-in-anorexia-induction-following-oral-exposure-to-the-trichothecene-mycotoxin-deoxynivalenol-vomitoxin
#1
Hui Jia, Wen-Da Wu, Xi Lu, Jie Zhang, Cheng-Hua He, Hai-Bin Zhang
Deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a Type B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium, frequently contaminates cereal staples, such as wheat, barley and corn. DON threatens animal and human health by suppressing food intake and impairing growth. While anorexia induction in mice exposed to DON has been linked to the elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY3-36(PYY3-36) in plasma, the effects of DON on the release of other satiety hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), have not been established...
June 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630022/lamprey-metamorphosis-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-a-basal-vertebrate
#2
REVIEW
Richard G Manzon, Lori A Manzon
As one of the most basal living vertebrates, lampreys represent an excellent model system to study the evolution of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. The lamprey hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and reproductive axes overlap functionally. Lampreys have 3 gonadotropin releasing hormones and a single glycoprotein hormone from the hypothalamus and pituitary, respectively, that regulate both the reproductive and thyroid axes. TH synthesis in larval lampreys takes place in an endostyle that transforms into typical vertebrate thyroid tissue during metamorphosis; both the endostyle and follicular tissue have all the typical TH synthetic components found in other vertebrates...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627654/bioinformatics-analysis-of-transcription-profiling-of-solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas
#3
Yongping Zhang, Xu Han, Hao Wu, Yifeng Zhou
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a low-grade malignant neoplasm that accounts for ~5% of cystic pancreatic tumors and ~0.9‑2.7% of exocrine pancreatic tumors. The transcription profiling data (GSE43795) of 14 SPN and 6 control samples were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Using the Limma package, Student's t‑tests were performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between SPN and control samples [with the following criterion: False discovery rate (FDR)<0...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627423/severe-developmental-timing-defects-in-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-deficient-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#4
Miwa Uchibori-Asano, Takumi Kayukawa, Hideki Sezutsu, Tetsuro Shinoda, Takaaki Daimon
The insect neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) triggers the biosynthesis and release of the molting hormone ecdysone in the prothoracic gland (PG), thereby controlling the timing of molting and metamorphosis. Despite the well-documented physiological role of PTTH and its signaling pathway in the PG, it is not clear whether PTTH is an essential hormone for ecdysone biosynthesis and development. To address this question, we established and characterized a PTTH knockout line in the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
June 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626954/isolated-growth-hormone-deficiency-due-to-the-r183h-mutation-in-gh1-clinical-analysis-of-a-four-generation-family
#5
Catalina Cabrera-Salcedo, Amy S Shah, Melissa Andrew, Leah Tyzinski, Vivian Hwa, Iris Gutmark-Little, Philippe Backeljauw, Andrew Dauber
The R183H mutation in the growth hormone gene (GH1) is a well-described genetic variant that causes autosomal dominant isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) type II. Previous studies have demonstrated that individuals with this mutation have releasable growth hormone (GH) stores, but such release is severely impaired. Hess et al. reported variable height deficits (-4.5 to -1.0 SDS), variable IGF-I concentrations (-2.9 to -0.8 SDS), and low but detectable, or even normal stimulated peak GH in several patients with the R183H mutation...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626214/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-is-produced-by-adipocytes-and-regulates-lipolysis-through-growth-hormone-receptor
#6
F Rodríguez-Pacheco, C Gutierrez-Repiso, S García-Serrano, A Ho-Plagaro, J M Gómez-Zumaquero, S Valdes, M Gonzalo, J Rivas-Becerra, C Montiel-Casado, G Rojo-Martínez, E García-Escobar, E Garcia-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays a crucial role in growth hormone (GH) secretion, but little is known about its production by adipocytes and its involvement in adipocyte metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To determine if GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) are present in human adipocytes and to study their levels in obesity. Also, to analize the effects of GHRH on human adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis. METHODS: GHRH/GHRH-R and GH/GH-R mRNA expression levels were analyzed in human mature adipocytes from non-obese and morbidly obese subjects...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623445/laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-resolves-low-ghrp-2-stimulated-growth-hormone-levels-in-obese-patients
#7
Emi Ohara, Hirotake Tokuyama, Takumi Kitamoto, Aya Kitahara, Aiko Hayashi, Hideki Hayashi, Minoru Takemoto, Koutaro Yokote
Because growth hormone (GH) secretion is reportedly decreased in obese patients, we examined not only the factors associated with the decreased GH secretion but also GH response to the GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2-load test before and after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LSG). The study comprised 28 individuals aged 19-65 years [mean body mass index (BMI), 39.4 ± 9.4 kg/m(2)]. In the univariate analysis, GH secretion peaks correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.59, p = 0.001), visceral adipose tissue (r = -0...
June 16, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623008/yucca-schidigera-can-promote-rabbit-growth-fecundity-affect-the-release-of-hormones-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-induce-pathological-changes-in-liver-and-reduce-ovarian-resistance-to-benzene
#8
Martina Földešiová, Andrej Baláži, Ľubica Chrastinová, Juraj Pivko, Jan Kotwica, Abdel Halim Harrath, Peter Chrenek, Alexander V Sirotkin
This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera (YS) extract on the physiological, reproductive, and endocrine indexes of New Zealand White rabbit does. Six-week-old rabbit does were fed a standard diet (control group) or a diet enriched with 5 or 20g of Y powder extract per 100-kg feed mixture for 350days. The does were artificially inseminated after induction of superovulation. Weight gain; conception and kindling rate; viability of pups and mothers; histopathological state of liver and muscle; plasma levels of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), and prostaglandin F (PGF); and the release of P4, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), OT, and PGF by isolated ovarian fragments and their response to the addition of benzene were analyzed...
June 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621684/expression-of-hypothalamic-neurohormones-and-their-receptors-in-the-human-eye
#9
Sander R Dubovy, Maria P Fernandez, Jose J Echegaray, Norman L Block, Noriyuki Unoki, Roberto Perez, Irving Vidaurre, Richard K Lee, Mehrdad Nadji, Andrew V Schally
Extrapituitary roles for hypothalamic neurohormones have recently become apparent and clinically relevant, based on the use of synthetic peptide analogs for the treatment of multiple conditions including cancers, pulmonary edema and myocardial infarction. In the eye, it has been suggested that some of these hormones and their receptors may be present in the ciliary body, iris, trabecular meshwork and retina, but their physiological role has yet to be elucidated. Our study intends to comprehensively demonstrate the expression of some hypothalamic neuroendocrine hormones and their receptors within different retinal and extraretinal structures of the human eye...
June 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621564/the-emerging-role-of-anamorelin-hydrochloride-in-the-management-of-patients-with-cancer-anorexia-cachexia
#10
David C Currow, Richard Je Skipworth
Cancer cachexia affects many patients with advanced cancer. This multifactorial syndrome, which involves loss of muscle mass and body weight, profoundly affects patients' physical functioning and quality of life. Pharmacologic interventions that target weight loss and also improve patient-reported measures are required. Anamorelin hydrochloride is an oral ghrelin receptor agonist for the treatment of cancer anorexia-cachexia that stimulates release of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1, and improves food intake and body weight...
June 16, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618089/crh-promotes-human-colon-cancer-cell-proliferation-via-il-6-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-and-vegf-induced-tumor-angiogenesis
#11
Xianjun Fang, Yali Hong, Li Dai, Yuanyuan Qian, Chao Zhu, Biao Wu, Shengnan Li
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been demonstrated to participate in various diseases. Our previous study showed that its receptor CRHR1 mediated the development of colitis-associated cancer in mouse model. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we explored the oncogenetic role of CRH/CRHR1 signaling in colon cancer cells. Cell proliferation and colony formation assays revealed that CRH contributed to cell proliferation. Moreover, tube formation assay showed that CRH-treated colon cancer cell supernatant significantly promoted tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617838/safety-and-metabolic-effects-of-tesamorelin-a-growth-hormone-releasing-factor-analogue-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
David R Clemmons, Sam Miller, Jean-Claude Mamputu
OBJECTIVE: Use of growth hormone is associated with side effects, including insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine whether tesamorelin, a stabilized growth hormone-releasing hormone analogue, would alter insulin sensitivity or control of diabetes. DESIGN: A 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled study of 53 patients with type 2 diabetes. Three treatment groups: placebo, 1 and 2 mg tesamorelin. MEASUREMENTS: Fasting glucose, glucose and insulin from oral glucose tolerance test, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), home blood glucose, insulin-like growth factor-1, and lipids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611445/insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-its-binding-protein-3-are-regulators-of-lactation-and-maternal-responsiveness
#13
András H Lékó, Melinda Cservenák, Éva Rebeka Szabó, János Hanics, Alán Alpár, Árpád Dobolyi
Adaptation to motherhood includes maternal behaviour and lactation during the postpartum period. The major organizing centres of maternal behaviour and lactation are located in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the arcuate nucleus, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an effector of the growth hormone axis; however, its function in the brain is largely unexplored. We identified increased maternal IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression in preoptic rat microarray data and confirmed it by RT-PCR...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601930/survival-improvement-in-hormone-responsive-young-breast-cancer-patients-with-endocrine-therapy
#14
Tae In Yoon, Ui-Kang Hwang, Eui Tae Kim, SaeByul Lee, Guiyun Sohn, Beom Seok Ko, Jong Won Lee, Byung Ho Son, Seonok Kim, Sei Hyun Ahn, Hee Jeong Kim
PURPOSE: We investigated the oncologic outcomes by intrinsic subtype and age in young breast cancer patients and whether survival differences were related to treatment changes over time. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 9633 invasive breast cancer patients treated at Asan Medical Center from January 1989 to December 2008. We also enrolled a matched cohort adjusting for tumor size, lymph node metastasis, subtypes, and tumor grade. Patients aged <35 years were included in the younger group (n = 602) and those aged ≥35 years were included in the older group (n = 3009)...
June 10, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601518/biochemical-responses-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-ethylene-insensitive-mutants-of-arabidopsis-thialiana-subjected-to-bisphenol-a-exposure
#15
Imran Ali, Mehmood Jan, Abdul Wakeel, Azizullah Azizullah, Bohan Liu, Faisal Islam, Abid Ali, M K Daud, Yihua Liu, Yinbo Gan
Bisphenol A (BPA), an important raw material in plastic industry, has become a serious environmental contaminant due to its wide spread use in different products and increasing release into the environment. BPA is known to cause adverse effects in living organisms including plants. Several studies reported that BPA affects growth and development in plants, mainly through oxidative stress. Plants are known to generally cope with stress mainly through hormonal regulation and adaptation, but little is known about the role of plant hormones in plants under BPA stress...
June 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600049/intravenous-leiomyomatosis-of-the-uterus-a-clinicopathological-analysis-of-nine-cases-and-literature-review
#16
Hui-Ying Low, Yu Zhao, Kuo-Shu Huang, Huang-Pin Shen, Pei-Ju Wu, Chih-Jen Tseng
OBJECTIVE: Intravenous/intravascular leiomyomatosis is characterized by intravenous proliferation of a histologically benign smooth muscle cell tumor mass that is non-tissue-invasive. Although benign, intravenous leiomyomatosis may cause remarkable systematic complications, presents significant diagnostic difficulties, and also is characterized by a relatively increased possibility of recurrence. We determine patients' characteristics, and recurrence and treatment of intravenous leiomyomatosis...
June 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598597/azapeptide-synthesis-methods-for-expanding-side-chain-diversity-for-biomedical-applications
#17
Ramesh Chingle, Caroline Proulx, William D Lubell
Mimicry of bioactive conformations is critical for peptide-based medicinal chemistry because such peptidomimetics may augment stability, enhance affinity, and increase specificity. Azapeptides are peptidomimetics in which the α-carbon(s) of one or more amino acid residues are substituted by nitrogen. The resulting semicarbazide analogues have been shown to reinforce β-turn conformation through the combination of lone pair-lone pair repulsion of the adjacent hydrazine nitrogen and urea planarity. Substitution of a semicarbazide for an amino amide residue in a peptide may retain biological activity and add benefits such as improved metabolic stability...
June 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591825/corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-and-corticosterone-impair-development-of-preimplantation-embryos-by-inducing-oviductal-cell-apoptosis-via-activating-the-fas-system-an-in-vitro-study
#18
Xiu-Wen Tan, Chang-Li Ji, Liang-Liang Zheng, Jie Zhang, Hong-Jie Yuan, Shuai Gong, Jiang Zhu, Jing-He Tan
STUDY QUESTION: What are the mechanisms by which corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone impair the development of preimplantation embryos in the oviduct. SUMMARY ANSWER: CRH and corticosterone do not affect preimplantation embryos directly, but impair their development indirectly by triggering apoptosis of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) through activation of the Fas system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies report that stress impairs embryo development with facilitated secretion of CRH and glucocorticoids...
June 7, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591479/hypothalamic-hamartoma-with-epilepsy-review-of-endocrine-comorbidity
#19
Victor S Harrison, Oliver Oatman, John F Kerrigan
The most common, and usually the only, endocrine disturbance in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) and epilepsy is central precocious puberty (CPP). The mechanism for CPP associated with HH may relate to ectopic generation and pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the HH, but this remains an unproven hypothesis. Possible regulators of GnRH release that are intrinsic to HH tissue include the following: (1) glial factors (such as transforming growth factor α[TGFα) and (2) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated excitation...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590310/medical-management-of-endometriosis
#20
Saima Rafique, Alan H Decherney
Endometriosis is a chronic medical condition that affects around 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and infertility are the most common presenting symptoms. The disease is characterized by estrogen-dependent growth of the endometrial glands and stroma outside the endometrial cavity. The diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion and can be only confirmed on histopathology. Treatment includes medical and surgical options. Both hormonal and nonhormonal medical options are available and are tried at first with a goal to control pain and stop the growth of the endometriotic lesions...
June 5, 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
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