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Growth Hormone Releasing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233620/regulation-of-extracellular-matrix-vesicles-via-rapid-responses-to-steroid-hormones-during-endochondral-bone-formation
#1
REVIEW
Niels Asmussen, Zhao Lin, Michael J McClure, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
Endochondral bone formation is a precise and highly ordered process whose exact regulatory framework is still being elucidated. Multiple regulatory pathways are known to be involved. In some cases, regulation impacts gene expression, resulting in changes in chondrocyte phenotypic expression and extracellular matrix synthesis. Rapid regulatory mechanisms are also involved, resulting in release of enzymes, factors and micro RNAs stored in extracellular matrisomes called matrix vesicles. Vitamin D metabolites modulate endochondral development via both genomic and rapid membrane-associated signaling pathways...
December 9, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233536/leap2-is-an-endogenous-antagonist-of-the-ghrelin-receptor
#2
Xuecai Ge, Hong Yang, Maria A Bednarek, Hadas Galon-Tilleman, Peirong Chen, Michael Chen, Joshua S Lichtman, Yan Wang, Olivier Dalmas, Yiyuan Yin, Hui Tian, Lutz Jermutus, Joseph Grimsby, Cristina M Rondinone, Anish Konkar, Daniel D Kaplan
Ghrelin, an appetite-stimulatory hormone secreted by the stomach, was discovered as a ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Through GHSR, ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion, a function that evolved to protect against starvation-induced hypoglycemia. Though the biology mediated by ghrelin has been described in great detail, regulation of ghrelin action is poorly understood. Here, we report the discovery of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2) as an endogenous antagonist of GHSR...
December 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233485/body-fat-affects-mouse-reproduction-ovarian-hormone-release-and-response-to-follicular-stimulating-hormone
#3
Alexander V Sirotkin, Dušan Fabian, Janka Babeľová Kubandová, Radoslava Vlčková, Saleh Alwasel, Abdel Halim Harrath
We investigated the effects of body fat content on mouse fecundity, ovarian hormone release, and their response to follicle stimulation hormone (FSH). 4 types of females were produced: lean (group 1), normal (group 2), slightly fat (group 3), and significantly fat (group 4). The body weights, fat content, fertility rate, embryo number produced, retarded and degenerated embryo percentage, the release of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) by isolated ovaries cultured with and without FSH (1...
December 7, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231805/understanding-host-parasite-relationship-the-immune-central-nervous-system-microenvironment-and-its-effect-on-brain-infections
#4
Laura Adalid-Peralta, Brenda Sáenz, Gladis Fragoso, Graciela Cárdenas
The central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as an immunologically specialized microenvironment, where immune surveillance takes a distinctive character, and where delicate neuronal networks are sustained by anti-inflammatory factors that maintain local homeostasis. However, when a foreign agent such as a parasite establishes in the CNS, a set of immune defences is mounted and several immune molecules are released to promote an array of responses, which ultimately would control the infection and associated damage...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224665/endocrine-rhythms-of-growth-hormone-release-insights-from-animal-studies
#5
REVIEW
Frederik J Steyn, Shyuan T Ngo
Growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns emerge following birth, and changes in patterning occur throughout life. These secretory patterns are coupled to growth, reproduction and metabolism. Comparing human and animal studies, this review will highlight ultradian patterning of GH release and the mechanisms that contribute to this. Discussions will focus on the emergence in variations in the number and frequency of GH secretory events, and the amounts of GH released (peak and basal). Animal studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the processes that regulate GH release...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219025/the-effect-of-growth-hormone-on-chondral-defect-repair
#6
Natalie R Danna, Bryan G Beutel, Austin J Ramme, Thorsten Kirsch, Oran D Kennedy, Eric Strauss
Objective Focal chondral defects alter joint mechanics and cause pain and debilitation. Microfracture is a surgical technique used to treat such defects. This technique involves penetration of subchondral bone to release progenitor cells and growth factors from the marrow to promote cartilage regeneration. Often this results in fibrocartilage formation rather than structured hyaline cartilage. Some reports have suggested use of growth hormone (GH) with microfracture to augment cartilage regeneration. Our objective was to test whether intra-articular (IA) GH in conjunction with microfracture, improves cartilage repair in a rabbit chondral defect model...
January 2018: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211774/food-restriction-reduces-neurogenesis-in-the-avian-hippocampal-formation
#7
Barbara-Anne Robertson, Lucy Rathbone, Giselda Cirillo, Richard B D'Eath, Melissa Bateson, Timothy Boswell, Peter W Wilson, Ian C Dunn, Tom V Smulders
The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208626/the-effect-of-extended-release-niacin-on-markers-of-mineral-metabolism-in-ckd
#8
Rakesh Malhotra, Ronit Katz, Andrew Hoofnagle, Andrew Bostom, Dena E Rifkin, Ruth Mcbride, Jeffrey Probstfield, Geoffrey Block, Joachim H Ix
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Niacin downregulates intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2b expression and reduces intestinal phosphate transport. Short-term studies have suggested that niacin lowers serum phosphate concentrations in patients with CKD and ESRD. However, the long-term effects of niacin on serum phosphate and other mineral markers are unknown. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing extended release niacin in persons with prevalent cardiovascular disease...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208466/chetomin-induces-apoptosis-in-human-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-by-promoting-calcium-overload-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#9
Jayant Dewangan, Sonal Srivastava, Sakshi Mishra, Prabhash Kumar Pandey, Aman Divakar, Srikanta Kumar Rath
Human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is poorly diagnosed and unresponsive to conventional hormone therapy. Chetomin (CHET), a fungal metabolite synthesized by Chaetomium cochliodes, has been reported as a promising anticancer and antiangiogenic agent but the complete molecular mechanism of its anticancer potential remains to be elucidated. In our study, we explored the anti-neoplastic action of CHET on TNBC cells. Cytotoxicity studies were performed in human TNBC cells viz. MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells by Sulforhodamine B assay...
December 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207253/influence-of-postnatal-prolactin-modulation-on-the-development-and-maturation-of-ventral-prostate-in-young-rats
#10
Ana C L Camargo, Flávia B Constantino, Sérgio A A Santos, Ketlin T Colombelli, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva, Sérgio L Felisbino, Luis A Justulin
Besides androgenic dependence, other hormones also influence the prostate biology. Prolactin has been described as an important hormone associated with maintenance of prostatic morphophysiology; however, there is a lack of information on the involvement of prolactin during prostate development and growth. This study aimed to evaluate whether perinatal prolactin modulation interferes with rat ventral prostate (VP) development and maturation. Therefore, prolactin or bromocriptine (an inhibitor of prolactin release from the pituitary) were administered to Sprague Dawley rats from postnatal Day (PND) 12 to PND 21 or 35...
December 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206714/expression-of-ghrh-r-a-potentially-targetable-biomarker-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#11
Mahsa Khanlari, Andrew V Schally, Norman L Block, Mehrdad Nadji
PURPOSE: Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has been shown to modify the growth behavior of many cancers, including breast. GHRH is produced by tumor cells, acts in an autocrine/paracrine manner, and requires the presence of GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) on the tumor cells to exert its effects. GHRH activity can be effectively blocked by synthetic antagonists of its receptor and hence, the expression of GHRH-R by tumor cells could serve as a predictor of response to GHRH-R antagonist therapy...
January 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203384/do-endometriomas-grow-during-ovarian-stimulation-for-assisted-reproduction-a-three-dimensional-volume-analysis-before-and-after-ovarian-stimulation
#12
Ayse Seyhan, Bulent Urman, Engin Turkgeldi, Baris Ata
Whether endometriomas grow because of supraphysiological oestradiol levels attained during ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction techniques is a concern. In this prospective study, 25 women with 28 endometriomas underwent three-dimensional ultrasound using sono-automated volume calculation software. Endometrioma volume was measured on the first day of gonadotrophin injection (V1) and the day of ovulation trigger (V2). Nine (36%) women were stimulated in a gonadotrophin releasing hormone antagonist protocol (GnRH), 13 (52%) in a long, and three (12%) in an ultra-long GnRH agonist protocol...
November 17, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197784/simulated-photoperiod-influences-testicular-activity-in-quail-via-modulating-local-gnrhr-gnihr-gh-r-cnx-43-and-14-3-3
#13
Somanshu Banerjee, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
The hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis mediated differential photosexual responses in quail kept under different simulated photoperiodic conditions have been studied in details. Local testicular GnRH-GnIH and their receptor system has been hypothesized to be modulated in quail showing different photo-sexual responses and thus influence the testicular activity and steroidogenesis through local (paracrine and autocrine) action. To validate this hypothesis, we studied the expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R), gonadotropin inhibiting hormone receptor (GnIH-R) mRNA, growth hormone receptor (GH-R), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), 14-3-3, Connexin-43 (Cnx-43), steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR), steroidogenic enzyme (3β HSD) in testis as well as androgen receptor (AR) in testis and epididymis of photosensitive (PS), scotorefractory (SR), photorefractory (PR) and scotosensitive (SS) quail...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186429/extracellular-matrix-in-uterine-leiomyoma-pathogenesis-a-potential-target-for-future-therapeutics
#14
Md Soriful Islam, Andrea Ciavattini, Felice Petraglia, Mario Castellucci, Pasquapina Ciarmela
BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyoma (also known as fibroid or myoma) is the most common benign tumor of the uterus found in women of reproductive age. It is not usually fatal but can produce serious clinical symptoms, including excessive uterine bleeding, pelvic pain or pressure, infertility and pregnancy complications. Due to lack of effective medical treatments surgery has been a definitive choice for the management of this tumor. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and remodeling are thought to be crucial for fibrotic diseases such as uterine leiomyoma...
November 23, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185755/vdac1-and-serca3-mediates-progesterone-triggerd-ca2-signaling-in-breast-cancer-cells
#15
Juberiya M Azeez, Vini Ravindran, Viji Remadevi, Arun Surendran, Abdul Jaleel, T R Santhosh Kumar, Sreeja Sreeharshan
Progesterone is a biphasic hormone whose response in breast cancer cells, consisting of an initial proliferative burst, followed by sustained growth arrest. Recently we reported that progesterone induces a time and concentration dependent release of reactive oxygen species and thus regulates the anti-proliferative activity in breast cancer cell line. Furthermore binding of progesterone on progesterone receptor B may regulate the expression of cell cycle control protein p27 and leads to anti proliferative signaling via multiple signaling pathways including p53, PTEN and antioxidant systems...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184538/circulating-irisin-is-reduced-in-male-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-myotonic-dystrophies
#16
Elena Dozio, Elena Passeri, Rosanna Cardani, Stefano Benedini, Carmen Aresta, Rea Valaperta, Massimiliano Corsi Romanelli, Giovanni Meola, Valeria Sansone, Sabrina Corbetta
Context: Myotonic dystrophies (DM) are dominantly inherited muscle disorders characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness, and wasting. The reasons for sarcopenia in DMs are uncleared and multiple factors are involved. Irisin, a positive hormone regulator of muscle growth and bone, may play a role. Objectives: To investigate (1) circulating irisin in a series of DM1 and DM2 male patients compared with healthy controls and (2) the relationships between irisin and anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180438/protective-effects-of-agonists-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-ghrh-in-early-experimental-diabetic-retinopathy
#17
Menaka C Thounaojam, Folami L Powell, Sagar Patel, Diana R Gutsaeva, Amany Tawfik, Sylvia B Smith, Julian Nussbaum, Norman L Block, Pamela M Martin, Andrew V Schally, Manuela Bartoli
The potential therapeutic effects of agonistic analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and their mechanism of action were investigated in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats) were treated with 15 μg/kg GHRH agonist, MR-409, or GHRH antagonist, MIA-602. At the end of treatment, morphological and biochemical analyses assessed the effects of these compounds on retinal neurovascular injury induced by hyperglycemia. The expression levels of GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) measured by qPCR and Western blotting were significantly down-regulated in retinas of STZ-rats and in human diabetic retinas (postmortem) compared with their respective controls...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166288/spirulina-platensis-affects-factors-involved-in-spermatogenesis-and-increases-ghrelin-receptors-in-testis-tissue-of-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#18
O B B Esener, E Gurel-Gurevin, B Isbilen-Basok, F Yigit, T Bilal, A Altiner, N Yilmazer, E I Armutak
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone which plays important role in maintaining growth hormone release and energy homeostasis in vertebrates. Spirulina platensis (SP) has antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects due to its ingredients. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of SP on the testicular structure and relation between ghrelin and testosterone in the testis of rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Sixty four young adult male rats were used and divided to 8 equal groups. Experimental groups received addition of 10% cholesterol (CHL), 43% hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and 3% SP alone or in combination to basal diet while the control group received only basal diet...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163975/on-the-descent-of-the-epididymo-testicular-unit-cryptorchidism-and-prevention-of-infertility
#19
REVIEW
Faruk Hadziselimovic
This comprehensive review provides in-depth coverage of progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cryptorchidism, a frequent pathology first described in about 1786 by John Hunter. The first part focuses on the physiology, embryology, and histology of epididymo-testicular descent. In the last 20 years epididymo-testicular descent has become the victim of schematic drawings with an unjustified rejection of valid histological data. This part also includes discussion on the roles of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, fibroblast growth factors, Müllerian inhibiting substance, androgens, inhibin B, and insulin-like 3 in epididymo-testicular descent...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163019/bile-acid-signaling-pathways-from-the-enterohepatic-circulation-to-the-central-nervous-system
#20
REVIEW
Kim L Mertens, Andries Kalsbeek, Maarten R Soeters, Hannah M Eggink
Bile acids are best known as detergents involved in the digestion of lipids. In addition, new data in the last decade have shown that bile acids also function as gut hormones capable of influencing metabolic processes via receptors such as FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). These effects of bile acids are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, but can affect different tissues throughout the organism. It is still unclear whether these effects also involve signaling of bile acids to the central nervous system (CNS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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