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Growth Hormone Releasing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102330/new-insights-into-fetal-mammary-gland-morphogenesis-differential-effects-of-natural-and-environmental-estrogens
#1
Lucia Speroni, Maria Voutilainen, Marja L Mikkola, Skylar A Klager, Cheryl M Schaeberle, Carlos Sonnenschein, Ana M Soto
An increased breast cancer risk during adulthood has been linked to estrogen exposure during fetal life. However, the impossibility of removing estrogens from the feto-maternal unit has hindered the testing of estrogen's direct effect on mammary gland organogenesis. To overcome this limitation, we developed an ex vivo culture method of the mammary gland where the direct action of estrogens can be tested during embryonic days (E)14 to 19. Mouse mammary buds dissected at E14 and cultured for 5 days showed that estrogens directly altered fetal mammary gland development...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091641/effects-of-pomegranate-extract-in-supplementing-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-therapy-on-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty-in-chinese-girls-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#2
Jinsheng Liu, Jiulai Tang
Central precocious puberty (CPP) without organic abnormality is called idiopathic CPP (ICPP). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy on ICPP-affected girls in the Chinese population. 286 girls, diagnosed with ICPP were initially enrolled into this trial, and among them 225 eligible patients were randomized to receive a combinational GnRH analog treatment supplemented with either a placebo or pomegranate extract on a daily basis for a period of 3 months...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090719/diversity-oriented-synthesis-of-cyclic-azapeptides-by-a-3-macrocyclization-provides-high-affinity-cd36-modulating-peptidomimetics
#3
Jinqiang Zhang, Mukandila Mulumba, Huy Ong, William D Lubell
Macrocyclization has enabled the use of peptides in drug discovery creating a need for methods to synthesize diverse peptide macrocycles. Azapeptides have advanced to clinically used drugs, however, few cyclic azapeptides have been studied. A multiple component "A(3) -macrocyclization" strategy is described for the preparation of diverse cyclic azapeptides and is demonstrated by the synthesis of 15 growth hormone releasing hormone-6 (GHRP-6) analogs. Certain cyclic aza-GHRP-6 analogs exhibited unprecedented affinity for the CD36 receptor, and capacity to modulate Toll-like receptor agonist-induced overproduction of nitric oxide, and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088007/impairment-of-host-liver-repopulation-by-transplanted-hepatocytes-in-aged-rats-and-the-release-by-short-term-growth-hormone-treatment
#4
Peggy Stock, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin S Staege, Mei-Ju Hsu, Martin Bidlingmaier, Bruno Christ
Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative to whole liver transplantation. Yet, efficient liver repopulation by transplanted hepatocytes is low in livers of old animals. This restraint might be because of the poor proliferative capacity of aged donor hepatocytes or the regenerative impairment of the recipient livers. The age-dependent liver repopulation by transplanted wild-type hepatocytes was investigated in juvenile and senescent rats deficient in dipeptidyl-peptidase IV. Repopulation was quantified by flow cytometry and histochemical estimation of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV enzyme activity of donor cells in the negative host liver...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076448/igf-1-induces-ghrh-neuronal-axon-elongation-during-early-postnatal-life-in-mice
#5
Lyvianne Decourtye, Erik Mire, Maud Clemessy, Victor Heurtier, Tatiana Ledent, Iain C Robinson, Patrice Mollard, Jacques Epelbaum, Michael J Meaney, Sonia Garel, Yves Le Bouc, Laurent Kappeler
Nutrition during the perinatal period programs body growth. Growth hormone (GH) secretion from the pituitary regulates body growth and is controlled by Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. We observed that dietary restriction during the early postnatal period (i.e. lactation) in mice influences postnatal growth by permanently altering the development of the somatotropic axis in the pituitary gland. This alteration may be due to a lack of GHRH signaling during this critical developmental period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063801/effect-of-mid-follicular-phase-recombinant-lh-versus-urinary-hcg-supplementation-in-poor-ovarian-responders-undergoing-ivf-a-prospective-double-blinded-randomized-study
#6
Sze Man Jennifer Mak, Wai Yee Wong, Hoi Sze Chung, Pui Wah Chung, Grace Wing Shan Kong, Tin Chiu Li, Lai Ping Cheung
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is crucial for the development of follicular growth and oocyte maturation, especially in the management of poor ovarian responders (PORs). This study presents the results of a prospective double-blinded randomized study to compare the effect of mid-follicular phase recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation with urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin (uHCG) supplementation when using a fixed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol in IVF cycles. A total of 49 women with poor ovarian response (POR) according to the Bologna criteria were recruited...
December 16, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049241/predictive-value-of-dental-maturity-for-a-positive-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-stimulation-test-result-in-girls-with-precocious-puberty
#7
Jee Seon Baik, Jin Woo Choi, Su Jin Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Sollip Kim, Jae Hyun Kim
Dental maturity is associated with skeletal maturity, which is advanced in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). We investigated the performance of dental maturity as a screening method for CPP using mandibular second premolar and molar calcification stages, assessed the associated anthropometric and laboratory factors, and evaluated pubertal response predictors using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test (GnRHST) in prepubertal and pubertal girls. A prospective case-control study was conducted in girls, aged 7...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041654/effects-of-dietary-soybean-isoflavones-si-on-reproduction-in-the-young-breeder-rooster
#8
Dai Heng, Tao Zhang, Ye Tian, Shangyu Yu, Wenbo Liu, Kaili Xu, Juan Liu, Yu Ding, Baochang Zhu, Yanzhou Yang, Cheng Zhang
Soybean isoflavones (SIs) are phytoestrogens that competitive with estrogens in body. Although SIs play an important role in reproduction, their role in testicular development in roosters is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of SIs on testicular development and serum reproductive hormone profiles in young breeder roosters (70-133days old). Gene expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which are related to testosterone synthesis, in rooster testis were also evaluated after treatment with different SI doses...
December 26, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032599/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-antagonist-inhibits-the-invasiveness-of-human-endometrial-cancer-cells-by-down-regulating-twist-and-n-cadherin-expression
#9
Hsien-Ming Wu, Hong-Yuan Huang, Andrew V Schally, Angel Chao, Hung-Hsueh Chou, Peter C K Leung, Hsin-Shih Wang
More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in reproduction. Here, we examined the effect of a GHRH antagonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and the mechanisms of action of the antagonist in endometrial cancer. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GHRH receptor protein. The activity of Twist and N-cadherin was determined by Western blotting...
December 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-gaba-release
#10
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ coactivator1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers; an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018463/concomitant-occurrence-of-turner-syndrome-and-growth-hormone-deficiency
#11
Jung Yu, Ha Young Shin, Chong Guk Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder in phenotypic females that has characteristic physical features and presents as partial or complete absence of the second sex chromosome. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a condition caused by insufficient release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. The concomitant occurrence of TS and GHD is rare and has not yet been reported in Korea. Here we report 2 cases of TS and GHD. In case 1, GHD was initially diagnosed. Karyotyping was performed because of the presence of the typical phenotype and poor response to growth hormone therapy, which revealed 45,X/45,X+mar...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011402/the-impact-of-the-appetite-regulating-orexigenic-peptide-ghrelin-on-alcohol-use-disorders-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-data
#12
Anne Koopmann, Rilana Schuster, Falk Kiefer
Ghrelin, which is mainly released from the stomach, is the most important orexigenic regulator of food intake, inducing appetite, enhancing adiposity and releasing growth hormone. Besides the hypothalamus, ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) are also expressed in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, which increases the possibility that ghrelin plays an important role in reward regulation for substance use disorders such as alcohol addiction, especially through activating the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. In this review we focus on the impact of ghrelin on the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction/dependence, alcohol consumption, alcohol craving and alcohol withdrawal, attempting to integrate preclinical and clinical studies concerning the intriguing relationship between appetite regulation, reward and alcohol addiction...
December 21, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008585/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogues-inhibit-proliferation-and-increase-apoptosis-of-human-prostate-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#13
X-N Li, H-M Bu, X-H Ma, Sh Lu, Sh Zhao, Y-L Cui, J Sun
Background: Research has shown that the incidence of prostate cancer is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gastrointestinal hormone that enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppresses glucagon release. Method: Here, we examined the effect of exenatide and liraglutide, 2 types of GLP-1 analogues, on prostate cancer cells growth by CCK-8 assay, Hoechst33258 staining assay, and western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2...
December 22, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007961/cjun-dimerization-protein-2-jdp2-is-a-transcriptional-repressor-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-fsh-%C3%AE-and-is-required-for-preventing-premature-reproductive-senescence-in-female-mice
#14
Carrie R Jonak, Nancy M Lainez, Lacey L Roybal, Alexa D Williamson, Djurdjica Coss
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulates follicular growth and stimulates estrogen synthesis in the ovaries. FSH is a heterodimer consisting of an α; subunit, also present in luteinizing hormone, and of a unique β; subunit, which is transcriptionally regulated by gonadotropin releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1). Since most FSH is constitutively secreted, tight transcriptional regulation is critical for maintaining FSH levels within a narrow physiological range. Previously, we reported that GNRH induces FSHβ; transcription via induction of the AP1 transcription factor, a heterodimer of cFos and cJun...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997127/pt-mal-lhrh-a-newly-synthesized-compound-attenuating-breast-cancer-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-by-targeting-overexpression-of-the-lhrh-receptor
#15
Lindsay E Calderon, Jonathan K Keeling, Joseph Rollins, Carrie A Black, Kendall Collins, Nova Arnold, Diane E Vance, Margaret W Ndinguri
A new targeting chemotherapeutic agent, Pt-Mal-LHRH, was synthesized by linking activated cisplatin to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). The compound's efficacy and selectivity toward 4T1 breast cancer cells were evaluated. Carboplatin was selected as the comparative platinum complex, since the Pt-Mal-LHRH malonate linker chelates platinum in a similar manner to carboplatin. Breast cancer and normal cell viability were analyzed by an MTT assay comparing Pt-Mal-LHRH with carboplatin. Cells were also treated with either Pt-Mal-LHRH or carboplatin to evaluate platinum uptake by ICP-MS and cell migration using an in vitro scratch-migration assay...
December 20, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987906/%C3%AE-polyglutamic-acid-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-the-plant-growth-regulator-gibberellic-acid-characterization-and-evaluation-of-biological-activity
#16
A E S Pereira, I E Sandoval-Herrera, S A Zavala-Betancourt, H C Oliveira, A S Ledezma-Pérez, J Romero, L F Fraceto
The growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3) has several uses in the field, improving germination, plant development, productivity, and the quality of food. This work describes the development of a nanocarrier system for GA3, based on the poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and chitosan (CS) polymers, Nanoparticles without GA3 (nano-γPGA/CS-GA3) showed colloidal characteristics, with an average size of 117±9nm, PDI of 0.43±0.07, and zeta potential of -29±0.5mV. The encapsulated nanoparticles (nano-γPGA/CS-GA3) presented an average size of 134±9nm, PDI of 0...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982500/growth-hormone-igf-1-axis-longitudinal-evaluation-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-patients-on-interferon-%C3%AE-1b-therapy-stimulation-tests-and-correlations-with-clinical-and-radiological-conversion-to-multiple-sclerosis
#17
R Lanzillo, C Di Somma, M Quarantelli, A Carotenuto, C Pivonello, M Moccia, A Cianflone, A Marsili, G Puorro, F Saccà, C V Russo, C De Luca Picione, F Ausiello, A Colao, V Brescia Morra
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest their role in its pathogenesis. Interferon β (IFN-β) efficacy could be mediated also by an increase of IGF-1 levels. A 2-year longitudinal study was performed to estimate the prevalence of GH and/or IGF-1 deficiency in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients and their correlation with conversion to MS in IFN treated patients. METHODS: Clinical and demographic features of CIS patients were collected before the start of IFN-β-1b...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982202/a-boy-with-prader-willi-syndrome-unmasking-precocious-puberty-during-growth-hormone-replacement-therapy
#18
Natasha G Ludwig, Rafael F Radaeli, Mariana M X Silva, Camila M Romero, Alexandre J F Carrilho, Danielle Bessa, Delanie B Macedo, Maria L Oliveira, Ana Claudia Latronico, Tânia L Mazzuco
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder frequently characterized by obesity, growth hormone deficiency, genital abnormalities, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Incomplete or delayed pubertal development as well as premature adrenarche are usually found in PWS, whereas central precocious puberty (CPP) is very rare. This study aimed to report the clinical and biochemical follow-up of a PWS boy with CPP and to discuss the management of pubertal growth. By the age of 6, he had obesity, short stature, and many clinical criteria of PWS diagnosis, which was confirmed by DNA methylation test...
November 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974874/effects-of-a-single-use-of-the-gnrh-analog-buserelin-on-the-induction-of-ovulation-and-endocrine-profiles-in-heavy-draft-mares
#19
Wataru Miki, Hiroyuki Oniyama, Naomasa Takeda, Yuki Kimura, Shingo Haneda, Motozumi Matsui, Kazuyoshi Taya, Yasuo Nambo
We observed structural changes in the follicles and uterus of heavy draft mares during estrus and examined the effect of a single injection of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog buserelin on ovulation and endocrine profiles. Twenty-two heavy draft mares were divided into a buserelin-treated group (n=8) and a control group (n=14). Mares were given an intramuscular injection of 40 µg buserelin when they presented signs of estrus to a teaser stallion, had ≥45 mm diameter follicles, and presented decreased uterine edema compared with the previous examination...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974199/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling-in-acinar-cells-causes-growth-dependent-release-of-pancreatic-enzymes
#20
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Reidar Albrechtsen, Lasse Bremholm, Berit Svendsen, Rune E Kuhre, Steen S Poulsen, Charlotte B Christiansen, Elisa P Jensen, Charlotte Janus, Linda Hilsted, Carolyn F Deacon, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
Incretin-based therapies are widely used for type 2 diabetes and now also for obesity, but they are associated with elevated plasma levels of pancreatic enzymes and perhaps a modestly increased risk of acute pancreatitis. However, little is known about the effects of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on the exocrine pancreas. Here, we identify GLP-1 receptors on pancreatic acini and analyze the impact of receptor activation in humans, rodents, isolated acini, and cell lines from the exocrine pancreas...
December 13, 2016: Cell Reports
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