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Growth Hormone Releasing

Sandra Maria Barbalho, Marcelo Dib Bechara, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Karina Quesada, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cássio Alves de Carvalho, Adriana Maria Ragassi Fiorini
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are two major forms of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Vitamin A (VA) and vitamin D (VD) may be associated with reduction in inflammation in these disorders. The aim of this review was to show the current evidence that may associate VA and VD with IBDs. Data linking VA, VD, and IBDs were studied. Both VA and VD may be related to the immune system in different manners. The active form of VA, retinoic acid, may be related to the growth factor-β and release of interleukin-10 (IL-10), thus involved with the resolution of the inflammation...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Leonid E Fridlyand, Natalia A Tamarina, Andrew V Schally, Louis H Philipson
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Xiangyang Xia, Quanwei Tao, Qunchao Ma, Huiqiang Chen, Jian'an Wang, Hong Yu
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for regenerative medicine because of their multipotency, immune-privilege, and paracrine properties including the potential to promote angiogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the inherent properties of cytoprotection and tissue repair by native MSCs can be enhanced by various preconditioning stimuli implemented prior to cell transplantation. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a stimulator in extrahypothalamus systems including tumors, has attracted great attentions in recent years because GHRH and its agonists could promote angiogenesis in various tissues...
2016: Stem Cells International
Ahmed Bulldan, Mazen Shihan, Sandra Goericke-Pesch, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) implant induces hormonal castration in dogs that is associated with reduced prostate and testes size. We address the molecular events associated with hormonal castration by examining GnRH-A effects on expression and phosphorylation of a number of key signaling proteins. Male beagles were treated for 5 months with a GnRH-A implant, and then surgically castrated at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks after implant removal; untreated animals served as controls. GnRH-A treatment led to activation of c-Raf, Erk1/2, and p53 in the testes...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Nariman Balenga, Pedram Azimzadeh, Joyce A Hogue, Paul N Staats, Yuhong Shi, James Koh, Holly Dressman, John A Olson
Abnormal feedback of serum calcium to parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is the hallmark of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). While the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid neoplasia in PHPT has been linked to abnormal expression of genes involved in cell growth (i.e. cyclin D1, retinoblastoma and β catenin), the molecular basis of abnormal calcium sensing by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and PTH hypersecretion in PHPT are incompletely understood. Through gene expression profiling, we discovered that an orphan adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, GPR64/ADGRG2 is expressed in human normal parathyroid glands and is overexpressed in parathyroid tumors from patients with PHPT...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
S Birla, R Khadgawat, V P Jyotsna, V Jain, M K Garg, A S Bhalla, A Sharma
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) results from variations affecting the production and release of growth hormone (GH) and is of 2 types: isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) and combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). IGHD results from mutations in GH1 and GHRHR while CPHD is associated with defects in transcription factor genes PROP1, POU1F1, and HESX1. The present study reports on screening of POU1F1, PROP1, and HESX1 in CPHD patients and the novel variations identified. Fifty-one CPHD patients from 49 unrelated families clinically diagnosed on the basis of biochemical and imaging investigations along with 100 controls were enrolled...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
M Gálfi, M Radács, Zs Molnár, I Budai, G Tóth, A Pósa, K Kupai, Z Szalai, R Szabó, H A Molnár, J Gardi, Ferenc A László, Cs Varga
The effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were studied in 13-14-day cell cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue. The vasopressin and oxytocin contents of the supernatant were determined by radioimmunoassay after a 1- or 2-h incubation. Significantly increased levels of vasopressin and oxytocin production were detected in the cell culture media following ghrelin administration, depending on the ghrelin doses. The oxytocin level proved to be more elevated than that of vasopressin...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Magdalena Pertynska-Marczewska, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator, the pituitary gonadotropes, the ovaries, and the uterus play a crucial role in female fertility. A decline in reproductive performance represents a complex interplay of actions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Recently, in the field of female reproductive aging attention is drawn to the carbonyl stress theory. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute directly to protein damage, induce a chain of oxidative stress (OS) reactions, and increase inflammatory reactions...
October 3, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Hyoseung Shin, Soon-Jin Choi, A-Ri Cho, Dong Young Kim, Kyu Han Kim, Ohsang Kwon
BACKGROUND: Stress is a known cause of hair loss in many species. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the role of acute stress on hair growth using a rat model. METHODS: Rats were immobilized for 24 hours and blood samples, and skin biopsies were taken. The effect of stress-serum on the in vitro proliferation of rat and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs), as well as serum cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, were measured...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Rie Tadokoro, Shotaro Sato, Fumiko Otsuka, Makoto Ueno, Shinichi Ohkawa, Hideki Katakami, Matsuo Taniyama, Shoichiro Nagasaka
The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH...
2016: Internal Medicine
Erik Nylander, Alfhild Grönbladh, Sofia Zelleroth, Shanti Diwakarla, Fred Nyberg, Mathias Hallberg
Human growth hormone (GH) displays promising protective effects in the central nervous system after damage caused by various insults. Current evidence suggests that these effects may involve N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function, a receptor that also is believed to play a role in opioid-induced neurotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to examine the acute toxic effects of methadone, an opioid receptor agonist and NMDA receptor antagonist, as well as to evaluate the protective properties of recombinant human GH (rhGH) on methadone-induced toxicity...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Radoslava Vlčková, Drahomíra Sopková, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Igor Valocký, Attila Kádasi, Abdel Halim Harrath, Vladimír Petrilla, Alexander V Sirotkin
Yucca (Yucca schidigera) is a popular medicinal plant due to its many positive effects on animal and human physiology, including their reproductive systems. To examine the effect of supplemental yucca feeding on sheep reproduction, including ovarian functions and their hormonal regulators, ewes were fed (or not fed, control) yucca powder (1.5 g/head/day, 30 days). Macromorphometric indexes of the oviduct, ovary, and ovarian folliculogenesis were measured. Reproductive hormone levels in the blood were measured using a radioimmunoassay...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Yanan Shi, Keke Li, Baocheng Tian, Maolei Xu, Qingzhi Lv, Juanjuan Zhao, Jingtian Han, Dongxiao Feng
Daily subcutaneous injection of human growth hormone has been used for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency and growth failure but has led to poor patient compliance and renal toxicity. Thus, it is crucial to develop favorable growth hormone delivery systems to improve patient compliance. In the present study, to increase the oral bioavailability of growth hormone and improve patient compliance, enteric-coated capsules filled with monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared to facilitate oral growth hormone delivery...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Hong-Bo Yang, Meng-Qi Zhang, Hui Pan, Hui-Juan Zhu
<strong>Objective</strong> To evaluate physicians' attitude and knowledge about the management of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) at Peking Union Medical College Hospital and impact factors associated with better decision-making.<strong>Methods</strong> A 21-question anonymous survey was distributed and collected at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, a major teaching hospital in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Data of physicians' educational background, clinical training, patient workload per year and continuing medical education in AGHD were collected...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Chiara Diazzi, Giulia Brigante, Giulia Ferrannini, Anna Ansaloni, Lucia Zirilli, Maria Cristina De Santis, Stefano Zona, Giovanni Guaraldi, Vincenzo Rochira
Biochemical growth hormone deficiency is prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, but if this condition is clinically relevant remains challenging. The aim is to prospectively compare the growth hormone deficiency/insulin-like growth factor-1 status of 71 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with impaired growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone + Arginine with that of 65 hypopituitary patients affected by a true growth hormone deficiency secondary to pituitary disease...
October 11, 2016: Endocrine
Raju Murugananthkumar, Yarikipati Prathibha, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran, Anbazhagan Rajakumar, Hirohiko Kagawa
Gonadal maturation is a critical event wherein gonads, under the influence of several hormones and factors, undergo cyclic morphological and physiological changes to produce functional gametes during the spawning phase. However, artificial induction can be effectively used to advance the maturation of gonad vis-à-vis spawning like behavior in seasonal breeders during the off-breeding season. In the present study, osmotic pumps loaded with 5000IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or saline as control were implanted intraperitoneally for 21days during the pre-spawning phase (May-June) in catfish Clarias batrachus and C...
October 5, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
P Schüssler, M Kluge, W Gamringer, T C Wetter, A Yassouridis, M Uhr, R Rupprecht, A Steiger
We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
A Dance, J Kastelic, J Thundathil
Beef and dairy bull calves fed a low-nutrition diet during early life had decreased concentrations of circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), delayed increases in testosterone, smaller testes and delayed puberty compared with those fed high-nutrition diets. Although IGF-1 has important roles in Sertoli cell function in rats and mice, this has not been well documented in bulls. The objectives of this study were to: (1) isolate Sertoli cells from bull calves at 8 weeks of age, (2) culture them in vitro and (3) determine the effects of IGF-I, FSH and a combination of both hormones on cell proliferation...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kjell E Oberg, Steven Wj Lamberts
Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that arises when the pituitary gland secretes excess growth hormone (GH), which in turn stimulates a concomitant increase in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can secrete serotonin and a variety of peptide hormones that may cause characteristic symptoms known as carcinoid syndrome, or other symptoms and hormonal hypersecretion syndromes depending on the tumour's site of origin...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
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