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Growth Hormone Releasing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239333/postnatal-light-effects-on-pup-stress-axis-development-are-independent-of-maternal-behavior
#1
Georgia Coleman, Maria M Canal
Postnatal environment shapes brain development during key critical periods. We have recently found that postnatal light environment has long-term effects on the stress and circadian systems, which can lead to altered stress responses, circadian behavior and a depressive phenotype in adulthood. However, it is still unclear how light experience affects the postnatal development of specific stress markers in the pup brain and the role played by maternal behavior and stress. To test this, we raised mice under either light-dark cycles (LD), constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) during the suckling stage...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238732/ghrelin-and-cancer-progression
#2
REVIEW
Tsung-Chieh Lin, Michael Hsiao
Ghrelin is a small peptide with 28 amino acids, and has been characterized as the ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). In addition to its original function in stimulating pituitary growth hormone release, ghrelin is multifunctional which plays role in the regulation of energy balance, gastric acid release, appetite, insulin secretion, gastric motility and the turnover of gastric and intestinal mucosa. The discovery of ghrelin and GHSR expression beyond normal tissues suggests its role other than physiological function...
February 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236846/the-prevention-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-bph
#3
W G Roper
Barry Marshall and Robin Warren were the first to show that the chronic diseases (gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis) were caused by an infection (Helicobacter pylori). The chronic disease benign prostatic hyperplasia belongs to the same ilk, except that the infection process is much more subtle and complex. The enzyme Phospholipase D (PLD) which is attached to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli (E. coli) has now been almost completely proven to be the basic cause of BPH. The evidence for this process is now extremely strong and compelling...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222044/endocrine-system-on-chip-for-a-diabetes-treatment-model
#4
Dao Thi Thuy Nguyen, Danny van Noort, In-Kyung Jeong, Sungsu Park
The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion...
February 21, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205459/effects-of-an-antagonistic-analog-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-on-endometriosis-in-a-mouse-model-and-in-vitro
#5
Frank Köster, Li Jin, Yuanming Shen, Andrew V Schally, Ren-Zhi Cai, Norman L Block, Daniela Hornung, Gabriele Marschner, Achim Rody, Jörg B Engel, Dominique Finas
Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disorder causing dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and subfertility. Receptors for the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) were found in endometriotic tissues. Antagonists of GHRH have been used to inhibit the growth of endometriotic endometrial stromal cells. In this study, the GHRH receptor splice variant (SV) 1 was detected in human endometrial tissue samples by Western blots and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The highest messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of SV1 were found in eutopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis compared to ectopic endometriotic tissues and endometrium from normal patients...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203372/diagnostic-challenges-and-management-of-a-patient-with-acromegaly-due-to-ectopic-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-secretion-from-a-bronchial-carcinoid-tumour
#6
Nikolaos Kyriakakis, Jacqueline Trouillas, Mary N Dang, Julie Lynch, Paul Belchetz, Márta Korbonits, Robert D Murray
: A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197916/regulation-of-plant-cellular-and-organismal-development-by-sumo
#7
Nabil Elrouby
This chapter clearly demonstrates the breadth and spectrum of the processes that SUMO regulates during plant development. The gross phenotypes observed in mutants of the SUMO conjugation and deconjugation enzymes reflect these essential roles, and detailed analyses of these mutants under different growth conditions revealed roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses, phosphate starvation, nitrate and sulphur metabolism, freezing and drought tolerance and response to excess copper. SUMO functions also intersect with those regulated by several hormones such as salicylic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellins and auxin, and detailed studies provide mechanistic clues of how sumoylation may regulate these processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196799/a-phase-2-trial-of-long-acting-transcon-growth-hormone-in-adult-gh-deficiency
#8
Charlotte Höybye, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Diego Ferone, Jens S Christiansen, David Gilfoyle, Eva Dam Christoffersen, Eva Mortensen, Jonathan A Leff, Michael Beckert
TransCon growth hormone is a sustained release human growth hormone prodrug in development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope)...
February 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193499/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-ghrh-promotes-metastatic-phenotypes-through-egfr-her2-transactivation-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#9
Laura Muñoz-Moreno, Ana M Bajo, Juan C Prieto, María J Carmena
The involvement of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in several relevant processes that contribute to prostate cancer progression was analyzed. Firstly, we evaluated GHRH effects on cell proliferation and adhesion in human cancer prostate cell lines, LNCaP and PC3, by using specific assays (BrdU incorporation and collagen adhesion). The expression levels of the main marker molecules of these processes were measured by RT-PCR, Western blotting and zymography assays. GHRH increased both cell proliferation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels in LNCaP cells and in PC3 cells; however, such a rise was faster in the PC3 cells that represent the most aggressive stage of prostate cancer...
February 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190758/intercellular-signalling-cross-talk-to-kill-to-heal-and-to-rejuvenate
#10
REVIEW
Egor Y Plotnikov, Denis N Silachev, Vasily A Popkov, Ljubava D Zorova, Irina B Pevzner, Savva D Zorov, Stanislovas S Jankauskas, Valentina A Babenko, Gennady T Sukhikh, Dmitry B Zorov
Intercellular cross-talk is a fundamental process for spreading cellular signals between neighbouring and distant cells to properly regulate their metabolism, to coordinate homeostasis, adaptation and survival as a functional tissue and organ. In this review, we take a close molecular view of the underpinning molecular mechanisms of such complex intercellular communications. There are several studied forms of cell-to-cell communications considered crucial for the maintenance of multicellular organisms. The most explored is paracrine signalling which is realised through the release of diffusible signalling factors (e...
January 23, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173651/-rapidly-progressive-puberty-in-a-patient-with-mosaic-turner-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Y Liang, H Wei, X Yu, W Huang, X P Luo
Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr...
February 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167663/fusion-pores-and-their-control-of-neurotransmitter-and-hormone-release
#12
REVIEW
Che-Wei Chang, Chung-Wei Chiang, Meyer B Jackson
Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis functions broadly in the secretion of chemical signals, enabling neurons to release neurotransmitters and endocrine cells to release hormones. The biological demands on this process can vary enormously. Although synapses often release neurotransmitter in a small fraction of a millisecond, hormone release can be orders of magnitude slower. Vesicles usually contain multiple signaling molecules that can be released selectively and conditionally. Cells are able to control the speed, concentration profile, and content selectivity of release by tuning and tailoring exocytosis to meet different biological demands...
February 6, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166990/use-of-fsh-in-two-different-regimens-for-ovarian-superstimulation-prior-to-ovum-pick-up-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-embryo-production-in-holstein-cows
#13
Júlio César Barboza da Silva, Roberta Machado Ferreira, Milton Maturana Filho, Julianne de Rezende Naves, Thiago Santin, Guilherme Pugliesi, Ed Hoffmann Madureira
We aimed with the present study to evaluate the effects of FSH treatment (200 mg) split in four or six administrations on ovarian follicle stimulation and in vitro oocyte competence for embryo production in dairy cows with synchronized follicular wave emergence. On random days of the estrous cycle (Day 0), non-lactating Holstein cows received a progesterone (P4)-releasing intravaginal device and 2 mg estradiol benzoate IM. On Day 3, they received 0.530 mg sodium cloprostenol (PGF2α) IM. Control cows (n = 35) received no further treatments, whereas FSH-treated cows received 200 mg FSH split in four (FSH4 group; n = 33) or six (FSH6 group; n = 33) administration regimens...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166977/caloric-restriction-and-igf-i-administration-promote-rabbit-fecundity-possible-interrelationships-and-mechanisms-of-action
#14
Alexander V Sirotkin, Iveta Koničková Florkovičová, Olga Østrup Švarcová, Jan Rafay, Jozef Laurincik, Abdel Halim Harrath
The aim of these in vivo and in vitro studies was to examine the influence of caloric restriction (CR), and the administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), on rabbit fecundity and to understand the interrelationships between CR and IGF-I, as well as the endocrine and intracellular mechanisms of their effects. Female rabbits were subjected to 50% CR, injections of IGF-I (20 μg/animal/day) and a combination of the two for 10 d before and 2 d after ovulation induced by 25 IU PMSG and 0.25 IU hCG...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165551/thyroid-disorders-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
K Kowalczyk, G Franik, D Kowalczyk, D Pluta, Ł Blukacz, P Madej
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid disorders, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), are observed significantly more often in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in the general population - approximately 27% and 8%, respectively. This is extremely important in young women, because both disorders are connected with fertility problems. As HT and PCOS occur together, fertility problems may become a serious clinical issue in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review in PubMed of PCOS- and HT-related articles in English, published until December 2015 was conducted...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164078/an-11-month-old-girl-with-central-precocious-puberty-caused-by-hypothalamic-hamartoma
#16
Da Young Yoon, Jae Hyun Kim
Central precocious puberty (CPP) is caused by premature activation of the hypothalamic-gonadal axis, and must be treated adequately. In particular, CPP that occurs at a relatively young age or in boys is likely to be caused by an organic lesion. Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is the most common organic cause of CPP. The present case report describes an 11-month-old female infant who presented with vaginal bleeding and rapidly progressive secondary sex characteristics from the age of 6 months. She was diagnosed with CPP following the detection of HH via magnetic resonance imaging...
December 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163019/interrelationships-between-ovarian-follicles-grown-in-culture-and-possible-mediators
#17
Alexander V Sirotkin, Iveta Florkovičová Koničková, Hans-Jorg Schaeffer, Jozef Laurincik, Abdel Halim Harrath
Dominance or cooperation between ovarian follicles can determine the number of ovulations and fecundity, but interrelationships between follicles in mono- and poly-ovulatory species and their mechanisms are poorly understood. The goals of this work were to determine the existence and compare the character of mutual influence of cultured ovarian follicles from a mono-ovulatory species (cow) with established follicular dominance with those from a poly-ovulatory species (pig), in which interrelationship between follicles remain unknown, and to examine the role of ovarian cell proliferation, the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)- oxytocin (OT) system, and steroid hormones in mediating interrelationships among ovarian follicles...
February 2, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150932/biomimetic-human-serum-albumin-nanoparticle-for-efficiently-targeting-therapy-to-metastatic-breast-cancers
#18
Lisha Liu, Yunke Bi, Muru Zhou, Xinli Chen, Xi He, Yujie Zhang, Tao Sun, Chunhui Ruan, Qinjun Chen, Hao Wang, Chen Jiang
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), devoid of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2/Neu expression, bring about poor prognosis and induce a high rate of systematic metastases. The ineffectiveness of current therapies on TNBCs could be attributed to the lack of efficient targeted therapy. Paclitaxel (PTX) is considered as one of first-line chemotherapeutics for TNBC treatment, while due to the low aqueous solubility and non-specific accumulation, resulting in poor antitumor efficacy...
February 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145861/molecular-talk-of-adipokines-in-dermatological-diseases
#19
REVIEW
S Aydin
Adipose tissue is not a passive tissue storing triglycerides, but one that releases hormones, enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines. Currently, known to release more than 600 adipokines, the adipose is an active tissue involved in energy homeostasis and serving paracrine, autocrine and endocrinal functions. Besides, some adipokines (irisin and ghrelin, for example) are synthesized in the sebaceous glands of the skin and play important roles in certain dermatological diseases. This review will provide a systemic overview of adipokines, focusing on their tissue and organ distribution, functions in biological systems, and roles in dermatological diseases...
December 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144395/new-therapeutic-approaches-to-metastatic-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-glimpse-into-the-future
#20
REVIEW
Esther Una Cidon
Neuroendocrine (NE) gastroenteropancreatic tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasias arising from neuroendocrine cells of the embryological gut. Their incidence have increased significantly over the past 3 decades probably due to the improvements in imaging and diagnosis. The recent advances in molecular biology have translated into an expansion of therapeutic approaches to these patients. Somatostatin analogs, which initially were approved for control of hormonal syndromes, have recently been proven to inhibit tumor growth...
January 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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