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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933518/regeneration-of-a-keystone-semiarid-shrub-over-its-range-in-spain-habitat-degradation-overrides-the-positive-effects-of-plant-animal-mutualisms
#1
Pedro J Rey, Inmaculada Cancio, Antonio J Manzaneda, Ana González-Robles, Francisco Valera, Teresa Salido, Julio M Alcántara
Global change drivers are currently affecting semiarid ecosystems. Because these ecosystems differ from others in biotic and abiotic filters, cues for plant regeneration and management derived from elsewhere may not be applicable to semiarid ecosystems. We sought to determine the extent to which regional variation in regeneration prospects of a long-lived semiarid keystone shrub depends on anthropogenic habitat degradation, plant-animal interactions and climate determinants. We investigated the regeneration ability (via population size structure, juvenile density and juvenile/adult ratio), fruit set and seed dispersal of Ziziphus lotus in 25 localities spanning the range of its threatened habitats in Spain...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933397/human-tscm-cell-dynamics-in-vivo-are-compatible-with-long-lived-immunological-memory-and-stemness
#2
Pedro Costa Del Amo, Julio Lahoz Beneytez, Lies Boelen, Raya Ahmed, Kelly L Miners, Yan Zhang, Laureline Roger, Rhiannon E Jones, Silvia A Fuertes Marraco, Daniel E Speiser, Duncan M Baird, David A Price, Kristin Ladell, Derek Macallan, Becca Asquith
Adaptive immunity relies on the generation and maintenance of memory T cells to provide protection against repeated antigen exposure. It has been hypothesised that a self-renewing population of T cells, named stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells, are responsible for maintaining memory. However, it is not clear if the dynamics of TSCM cells in vivo are compatible with this hypothesis. To address this issue, we investigated the dynamics of TSCM cells under physiological conditions in humans in vivo using a multidisciplinary approach that combines mathematical modelling, stable isotope labelling, telomere length analysis, and cross-sectional data from vaccine recipients...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933003/contemporary-teaching-of-restoration-repair-at-dental-schools-in-germany-close-to-universality-and-consistency
#3
Philipp Kanzow, Annette Wiegand, Nairn H F Wilson, Christopher D Lynch, Igor R Blum
OBJECTIVES: To identify potential changes in various aspects of teaching and to ascertain whether previously found inconsistencies in the teaching of criteria, indications and operative techniques for the repair of defective composite restorations at German dental schools have been resolved. METHODS: A validated questionnaire was used to gain the information sought. It was sent to all dental schools in Germany (n = 30). Whenever possible, data were compared to previous studies conducted in 2000 and 2009...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932979/assessment-of-structurally-modified-plant-virus-as-a-novel-adjuvant-in-toxicity-studies
#4
N A Nikitin, V A Zenin, E A Trifonova, E M Ryabchevskaya, O A Kondakova, A N Fedorov, J G Atabekov, O V Karpova
Spherical particles (SPs) generated by thermally denatured tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein can act as an adjuvant, as they are able to enhance the magnitude and longevity of immune responses to different antigens. Here, the toxicity of TMV SPs was assessed prior to it being offered as a universal safe adjuvant for the development of vaccine candidates. The evaluation included nonclinical studies of a local tolerance following the single administration of TMV SPs, and of the local and systemic effects following repeated administrations of TMV SPs...
June 19, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932289/do-cacti-form-soil-seed-banks-an-evaluation-using-species-from-the-southern-central-andes
#5
Lucía Lindow-López, Guadalupe Galíndez, Silvia Sühring, Valeria Pastrana-Ignes, Pablo Gorostiague, Angela Gutiérrez, Pablo Ortega-Baes
There is controversy over whether cactus species form soil seed banks. Although it is commonly assumed that cacti do not form seed banks, very few studies have evaluated them. In this work, we analyzed whether cactus species form soil seed banks, studying seed distribution, seed density and seed longevity in the Southern Central Andes. Soil samples were collected in two microhabitats (under nurse plants and in bare areas) at 12 selected sites. We determined seed presence-absence, density and distribution for 32 native cactus species...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932287/risk-pattern-and-survival-impact-of-second-primary-tumors-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-following-definitive-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy
#6
James C H Chow, Kwok Hung Au, Oscar W K Mang, Ka Man Cheung, Roger K C Ngan
AIM: Second primary tumor (SPT) is a serious late complication after definitive radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We evaluated the incidence, pattern, risk factors and survival impact of SPT in NPC patients following definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS: A retrospective review of 780 consecutive IMRT-treated NPC patients between February 2003 and September 2011 was conducted. Cumulative SPT incidence and overall survival after SPT diagnosis were estimated...
June 22, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931770/the-influence-of-early-life-allocation-to-antlers-on-male-performance-during-adulthood-evidence-from-contrasted-populations-of-a-large-herbivore
#7
Jean-François Lemaître, Louise Cheynel, Frédéric Douhard, Gilles Bourgoin, François Débias, Hubert Ferté, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Sylvia Pardonnet, Maryline Pellerin, Benjamin Rey, Cécile Vanpé, A J Mark Hewison, Jean-Michel Gaillard
To secure mating opportunities, males often develop and maintain conspicuous traits that are involved in intrasexual and/or intersexual competition. While current models of sexual selection rely on the assumption that producing such traits is costly, quantifying the cost of allocating to secondary sexual traits remains challenging. According to the principle of allocation, high energy allocation to growth or sexual traits in males should lead to reduced energy allocation to the maintenance of cellular and physiological functions, potentially causing them to age faster, with impaired survival...
July 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931286/reduced-prevalence-and-incidence-of-cognitive-impairment-among-centenarian-offspring
#8
Stacy L Andersen, Benjamin Sweigart, Paola Sebastiani, Julia Drury, Sara Sidlowski, Thomas T Perls
Background: Centenarian offspring have better health and lower mortality in comparison to referent cohorts however it is unknown whether they have preserved cognition at older ages. Methods: This prospective study of 491 centenarian offspring and 270 referent participants without familial longevity (mean baseline age 75.5 years) from the New England Centenarian Study analyzed longitudinal cognitive assessments performed using the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status...
June 20, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930368/the-longevity-of-posterior-restorations-in-primary-teeth
#9
Sherry Shiqian Gao
Data sourcesSciVerse Scopus, ISIS Web of Science, Cochrane library, Medline/PubMed. Studies published from 1996 to 2017 in English were considered.Study selectionTwo independent reviewers screened the literature. Randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials with parallel groups or single group, retrospective studies) evaluating different posterior restorations (class I, class II restorations and crowns) with different materials (amalgam, compomer, composite, glass ionomer cement, stainless steel crown) placed in primary teeth by reporting different outcomes measures (survival rate, success rate, annual failure rate)...
June 2018: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930219/naked-mole-rat-cells-display-more-efficient-excision-repair-than-mouse-cells
#10
Alexei Evdokimov, Mikhail Kutuzov, Irina Petruseva, Natalia Lukjanchikova, Elena Kashina, Ekaterina Kolova, Tatyana Zemerova, Svetlana Romanenko, Polina Perelman, Dmitry Prokopov, Andrei Seluanov, Vera Gorbunova, Alexander Graphodatsky, Vladimir Trifonov, Svetlana Khodyreva, Olga Lavrik
Naked mole rat (NMR) is the long-lived and tumor-resistant rodent. NMRs possess multiple adaptations that may contribute to longevity and cancer-resistance. However, whether NMRs have more efficient DNA repair have not been directly tested. Here we compared base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) systems in extracts from NMR and mouse fibroblasts after UVC irradiation. Transcript levels of the key repair enzymes demonstrated in most cases higher inducibility in the mouse vs the NMR cells...
June 20, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929846/development-of-an-oxirane-acrylate-interpenetrating-polymer-network-ipn-resin-system
#11
Robert Danso, Blake Hoedebecke, Kyumin Whang, Shayda Sarrami, Allen Johnston, Sam Flipse, Nancy Wong, H Ralph Rawls
OBJECTIVE: Develop a hydrophobic, degradation-resistant dental restorative based on an Oxirane-Acrylate IPN System (OASys) with low shrinkage-stress to substantially extend clinical lifetime. METHODS: Unfilled OASys blends were prepared using dipenta-erythritol-hexaacrylate (DPHA) and p-cycloaliphatic-diepoxide (EP5000). Varying proportions of camphorquinone/iodonium photoinitiator, with a co-reactant oligomeric-diol, served as the experimental curing system. The effects of oxirane-acrylate ratio on the degree-of-cure (Durometer-D hardness), hydrophobicity (contact angle), mechanical properties (3-point bending), near-infrared FTIR degree-of-conversion (DoC), polymerization shrinkage, and shrinkage stress were determined...
June 18, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929836/sex-differences-in-neuropathic-pain-in-longstanding-diabetes-results-from-the-canadian-study-of-longevity-in-type-1-diabetes
#12
Nancy Cardinez, Leif E Lovblom, Johnny-Wei Bai, Evan Lewis, Alon Abraham, Daniel Scarr, Julie A Lovshin, Yuliya Lytvyn, Genevieve Boulet, Mohammed A Farooqi, Andrej Orszag, Alanna Weisman, Hillary A Keenan, Michael H Brent, Narinder Paul, Vera Bril, David Z Cherney, Bruce A Perkins
AIM: Neuropathy and neuropathic pain are common complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to determine if sex-specific differences in neuropathic pain are present in adults with longstanding T1D. METHODS: Canadians with ≥50 years of T1D (n = 361) completed health history questionnaires that included assessment of neuropathy (defined by Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument questionnaire components ≥3; NEUROPATHYMNSI-Q ) and neuropathic pain. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine sex-differences in neuropathic pain controlling for neuropathy...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927939/opposing-roles-of-microrna-argonautes-during-caenorhabditis-elegans-aging
#13
Antti P Aalto, Ian A Nicastro, James P Broughton, Laura B Chipman, William P Schreiner, Jerry S Chen, Amy E Pasquinelli
Argonaute (AGO) proteins partner with microRNAs (miRNAs) to target specific genes for post-transcriptional regulation. During larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans, Argonaute-Like Gene 1 (ALG-1) is the primary mediator of the miRNA pathway, while the related ALG-2 protein is largely dispensable. Here we show that in adult C. elegans these AGOs are differentially expressed and, surprisingly, work in opposition to each other; alg-1 promotes longevity, whereas alg-2 restricts lifespan. Transcriptional profiling of adult animals revealed that distinct miRNAs and largely non-overlapping sets of protein-coding genes are misregulated in alg-1 and alg-2 mutants...
June 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926914/genome-specific-histories-of-divergence-and-introgression-between-an-allopolyploid-unisexual-salamander-lineage-and-two-ancestral-sexual-species
#14
Robert D Denton, Ariadna E Morales, H Lisle Gibbs
Quantifying introgression between sexual species and polyploid lineages traditionally thought to be asexual is an important step in understanding what drives the longevity of putatively asexual groups. Here, we capitalize on three recent innovations-ultraconserved element (UCE) sequencing, bioinformatic techniques for identifying genome-specific variation in polyploids, and model-based methods for evaluating historical gene flow-to measure the extent and tempo of introgression over the evolutionary history of an allopolyploid lineage of all-female salamanders and two ancestral sexual species...
June 21, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926367/dynamic-assessment-of-human-sperm-dna-damage-i-the-effect-of-seminal-plasma-sperm-co-incubation-after-ejaculation
#15
Eva Tvrdá, Francisca Arroyo, Jaime Gosálvez
AIM: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of seminal plasma in human ejaculates on the sperm DNA quality and DNA longevity. METHODS: Semen samples for this study were obtained from 20 donors with a normal spermiogram. Following centrifugation, the sperm pellet was resuspended either in the seminal plasma proceeding from its respective donor, or in an equal amount of PBS, adjusting the concentration to 50 × 106 /ml. Each set of samples was incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and the sperm DNA damage was assessed using the chromatin-dispersion test following 0, 2, 6, and 24 h of incubation...
June 20, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924818/limb-bone-histology-records-birth-in-mammals
#16
Carmen Nacarino-Meneses, Meike Köhler
The annual cyclicality of cortical bone growth marks (BGMs) allows reconstruction of some important life history traits, such as longevity, growth rate or age at maturity. Little attention has been paid, however, to non-cyclical BGMs, though some record key life history events such as hatching (egg-laying vertebrates), metamorphosis (amphibians), or weaning (suggested for Microcebus and the hedgehog). Here, we investigate the relationship between non-cyclical BGMs and a stressful biological event in mammals: the moment of birth...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924291/happiness-and-inflammatory-responses-to-acute-stress-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Laura Panagi, Lydia Poole, Ruth A Hackett, Andrew Steptoe
Background: Positive psychological characteristics in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with better health and longevity, and one plausible physiological mechanism involves lower markers of inflammation. Positive affect is related to lower basal inflammatory markers and smaller inflammatory responses to acute stress, but this association in people with T2D remains to be examined. Purpose: To examine the relationship between happiness and inflammatory markers at baseline and in response to acute stress in people with T2D...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923942/safety-and-efficacy-of-iv-lidocaine-in-the-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-status-migraine
#18
Marco Antonio Ayulo, Keri Ellen Phillips, Sandeep Tripathi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of IV lidocaine in treating children and adolescents with status migraine. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Single center PICU. PATIENTS: Children and adolescents admitted with status migraine. INTERVENTION: IV lidocaine. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Thirty-three lidocaine infusions were administered to 28 patients with status migraine...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923076/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-insecticides-on-engytatus-varians-heteroptera-miridae-a-predator-of-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#19
Daniel Alberto Pérez-Aguilar, Marianne Araújo Soares, Luis Clepf Passos, Ana Mabel Martínez, Samuel Pineda, Geraldo Andrade Carvalho
The mirid Engytatus varians (Distant) is a promising biological control agent of the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), one of the most destructive pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The effects of five insecticides commonly used on tomato crops in Brazil were evaluated on E. varians in laboratory and semifield conditions. Glass Petri dish with residues of chlorfenapyr, thiamethoxam, and abamectin caused ˃90% mortality in both stages of the predator 72 h post-treatment, except imidacloprid that caused 78% of nymphs mortality...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921925/author-correction-disruption-of-the-beclin-1-bcl2-autophagy-regulatory-complex-promotes-longevity-in-mice
#20
Álvaro F Fernández, Salwa Sebti, Yongjie Wei, Zhongju Zou, Mingjun Shi, Kathryn L McMillan, Congcong He, Tabitha Ting, Yang Liu, Wei-Chung Chiang, Denise K Marciano, Gabriele G Schiattarella, Govind Bhagat, Orson W Moe, Ming Chang Hu, Beth Levine
In this Letter, the graphs in Fig. 2a and c were inadvertently the same owing to a copy and paste error from the original graphs in Prism. The Source Data files containing the raw data were correct. Fig. 2c has been corrected online.
June 19, 2018: Nature
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