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Environmental cleaning

Maria Alexandra Bighiu, Ann-Kristin Eriksson-Wiklund, Britta Eklund
The release of harmful metals from antifouling paints to water bodies is a well-known problem. In this study, we measured both the amount of biofouling growth on leisure boats during one season as well as the concentration of metals accumulated by the biofouling matrix. Furthermore, the efficiency of antifouling paints and mechanical boat cleaning as well as the effect of hull colour on biofouling were evaluated. Unlike paint residues, biofouling waste has never been regarded as a source of metal contamination and has previously been neglected in the scientific literature...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
K Luyckx, S Millet, S Van Weyenberg, L Herman, M Heyndrickx, J Dewulf, K De Reu
BACKGROUND: Biosecurity measures such as cleaning, disinfection and a vacancy period between production cycles on pig farms are essential to prevent disease outbreaks. No studies have tested the effect of a longer vacancy period on bacterial load in nursery units. METHODS: The present study evaluated the effect of a 10-day vacancy period in pig nursery units on total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Baoying Li, Yihe Zhang, Ruifeng Du, Lin Gan, Xuelian Yu
In this paper, novel types of Bi2S3-Au heterostructures are fabricated through rationally controlling the growth atmosphere. Under argon condition, Au nanoparticles are preferentially deposited onto the tips of Bi2S3 nanorods to form Bi2S3-Au dumbbelled heterostructures. In contrast, due to the etching effect by amine, Au nanoparticles are randomly anchored onto the surface of nanorods to form Bi2S3-Au nanocorns in the presence of oxygen. Furthermore, the size of gold nanoparticles can be controlled through adjusting the concentration of reaction precursors...
October 18, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Anne-Sophie Voisin, Alexandre Fellous, Ryan L Earley, Frédéric Silvestre
17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is one of the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds found in the aquatic environments, and is known to strongly alter fish reproduction and fitness. While the effects of direct exposure to EE2 are well studied in adults, there is an increasing need to assess the impacts of exposure during early life stages. Sensitivity to pollutants during this critical window can potentially affect the phenotype later in life or in subsequent generations. This study investigated phenotypic outcome of early-life exposure to 17-α-ethinylestradiol during development and in adults of the mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus...
October 4, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Shuai-Ru Zhu, Peng-Fei Liu, Meng-Ke Wu, Wen-Na Zhao, Guo-Chang Li, Kai Tao, Fei-Yan Yi, Lei Han
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are considered as suitable materials for various applications in the area of photocatalysis. On the other hand, 2D BiOBr materials are efficient for the photodegradation of organic dyes under visible light illumination. In this work, BiOBr/NH2-MIL-125(Ti) composite photocatalysts with different NH2-MIL-125(Ti) content were prepared by incorporating NH2-MIL-125(Ti) with BiOBr using a co-precipitation method. A series of characterizations confirmed the strong synergistic effect between BiOBr and NH2-MIL-125(Ti)...
October 17, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Karen Michael, David No, Jennifer Dankoff, Kyoyi Lee, Elisabeth Lara-Crawford, Marilyn C Roberts
Clostridium difficile is both a hospital and community acquired pathogen. The current study determined if C. difficile could be cultured from clinical laundry facility surfaces. A total of 240 surface samples were collected from dirty areas (n = 120), which handle soiled clinical linens, and from clean areas (n = 120), which process and fold the clean linens, within the University of Washington Consolidated Laundry facility in 2015. Sampling was done four times over the course of one year. The dirty area was significantly more contaminated than the clean area (21% vs 2%, p<0...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Yongrui He, Xian-En Zhao, Renjun Wang, Na Wei, Jing Sun, Jun Dang, Guang Chen, Zhiqiang Liu, Shuyun Zhu, Jin-Mao You
A simple, rapid, sensitive, selective and environmentally friendly method, based on in situ derivatization ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ DUADLLME) coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode has been developed for the simultaneous determination of food-related biogenic amines and amino acids. A new mass spectrometry sensitive derivatization reagent 4'-carbonyl chloride rosamine (CCR) was designed, synthesized and firstly reported...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Philippe Jacques, Max Béchet, Muriel Bigan, Delphine Caly, Gabrielle Chataigné, François Coutte, Christophe Flahaut, Egon Heuson, Valérie Leclère, Didier Lecouturier, Vincent Phalip, Rozenn Ravallec, Pascal Dhulster, Rénato Froidevaux
Innovations in novel enzyme discoveries impact upon a wide range of industries for which biocatalysis and biotransformations represent a great challenge, i.e., food industry, polymers and chemical industry. Key tools and technologies, such as bioinformatics tools to guide mutant library design, molecular biology tools to create mutants library, microfluidics/microplates, parallel miniscale bioreactors and mass spectrometry technologies to create high-throughput screening methods and experimental design tools for screening and optimization, allow to evolve the discovery, development and implementation of enzymes and whole cells in (bio)processes...
October 13, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Pauline D Scanlan, Anna M Bischofberger, Alex R Hall
Although experiments indicate that the abiotic environment plays an important role in bacterial interactions with their parasitic viruses (bacteriophages or phages), it is not yet clear how exposure to compounds present in nature alters the impact of phages on bacterial growth and evolution. To address this question we exposed Escherichia coli K12 MG1655, in combination with three lytic phages, to various substances that natural and clinical microbial populations are likely to encounter: bile salts (present in mammalian gastrointestinal tracts), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a common surfactant in cleaning and hygiene products), and four antibiotics (present at variable concentrations in natural and clinical environments)...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Becky M Hess, Brett G Amidan, Kevin K Anderson, Janine R Hutchison
Restoring all facility operations after the 2001 Amerithrax attacks took years to complete, highlighting the need to reduce remediation time. Some of the most time intensive tasks were environmental sampling and sample analyses. Composite sampling allows disparate samples to be combined, with only a single analysis needed, making it a promising method to reduce response times. We developed a statistical experimental design to test three different composite sampling methods: 1) single medium single pass composite (SM-SPC): a single cellulose sponge samples multiple coupons with a single pass across each coupon; 2) single medium multi-pass composite: a single cellulose sponge samples multiple coupons with multiple passes across each coupon (SM-MPC); and 3) multi-medium post-sample composite (MM-MPC): a single cellulose sponge samples a single surface, and then multiple sponges are combined during sample extraction...
2016: PloS One
Sara Nørgaard Sørensen, Hans-Christian Holten Lützhøft, Rose Rasmussen, Anders Baun
Aquatic toxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) is challenged by their dynamic behavior in test suspensions. The resulting difficulties in controlling and characterizing exposure concentrations are detrimental to the generation of concentration-response data needed for hazard identification of NPs. This study explores the applicability of short-term (1, 2 and 3h) pulse exposures as means to keep the exposure stable and at the same time disclose acute and chronic effects of AgNPs and CuONPs in D. magna. Dissolution, agglomeration and sedimentation were found to have less influence on exposure concentrations during 1-3h pulses than for 24-48h continuous exposures...
October 4, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Daniel Petras, Louis-Félix Nothias, Robert A Quinn, Theodore Alexandrov, Nuno Bandeira, Amina Bouslimani, Gabriel Castro-Falcón, Liangyu Chen, Tam Dang, Dimitrios J Floros, Vivian Y H Hook, Neha Garg, Nicole Hoffner, Yike Jiang, Clifford A Kapono, Irina Koester, Rob Knight, Christopher A Leber, Tiejun Ling, Tal Luzzatto-Knaan, Laura-Isobel McCall, Aaron Philip McGrath, Michael J Meehan, Jonathan K Merritt, Robert H Mills, Jamie Morton, Sonia Podvin, Ivan Protsyuk, Trevor Purdy, Kendall Satterfield, Stephen Searles, Sahil Shah, Sarah Shires, Dana Steffen, Margot White, Jelena Todoric, Robert Tuttle, Aneta Wojnicz, Valerie Sapp, Fernando Vargas, Jin Yang, Chao Zhang, Pieter C Dorrestein
The cars we drive, the homes we live in, the restaurants we visit, and the labs and offices we work in are all a part of the modern human habitat. Remarkably, little is known about the diversity of chemicals present in these environments and to what degree molecules from our bodies influence the built environment that surrounds us and vice versa. We therefore set out to visualize the chemical diversity of five built human habitats together with their occupants, to provide a snapshot of the various molecules to which humans are exposed on a daily basis...
October 12, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jennifer Dorts, Elodie Falisse, Emilie Schoofs, Enora Flamion, Patrick Kestemont, Frédéric Silvestre
DNA methylation, a well-studied epigenetic mark, is important for gene regulation in adulthood and for development. Using genetic and epigenetic approaches, the present study aimed at evaluating the effects of heat stress and copper exposure during zebrafish early embryogenesis when patterns of DNA methylation are being established, a process called reprogramming. Embryos were exposed to 325 μg Cu/L from fertilization (<1 h post fertilization - hpf) to 4 hpf at either 26.5 °C or 34 °C, followed by incubation in clean water at 26...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
MacRae F Linton, Vladimir R Babaev, Jiansheng Huang, Edward F Linton, Huan Tao, Patricia G Yancey
Macrophage apoptosis and the ability of macrophages to clean up dead cells, a process called efferocytosis, are crucial determinants of atherosclerosis lesion progression and plaque stability. Environmental stressors initiate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). Unresolved ER stress with activation of the UPR initiates apoptosis. Macrophages are resistant to apoptotic stimuli, because of activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Macrophages express 3 Akt isoforms, Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3, which are products of distinct but homologous genes...
October 8, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Ainara Gredilla, Kátia da Boit, Elba C Teixeira, Carlos H Sampaio, Juan Manuel Madariaga, Luis F O Silva
Soils around coal mining are important reservoir of hazardous elements (HEs), nanominerals, and ultrafine compounds. This research reports and discusses the soil concentrations of HEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in coal residues of abandoned mines. To assess differences regarding environmental impact and risk assessment between coal abandoned mines from the Santa Catarina state, eighteen coal cleaning rejects with different mineralogical and chemical composition, from eight abandoned mines were collected...
October 6, 2016: Chemosphere
Lorenzo Vergani, Francesca Mapelli, Elisabetta Zanardini, Elisa Terzaghi, Antonio Di Guardo, Cristiana Morosini, Giuseppe Raspa, Sara Borin
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic chemicals, recalcitrant to degradation, bioaccumulative and persistent in the environment, causing adverse effects on ecosystems and human health. For this reason, the remediation of PCB-contaminated soils is a primary issue to be addressed. Phytoremediation represents a promising tool for in situ soil remediation, since the available physico-chemical technologies have strong environmental and economic impacts. Plants can extract and metabolize several xenobiotics present in the soil, but their ability to uptake and mineralize PCBs is limited due to the recalcitrance and low bioavailability of these molecules that in turn impedes an efficient remediation of PCB-contaminated soils...
October 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ewan M Harrison, Catherine Ludden, Hayley J Brodrick, Beth Blane, Gráinne Brennan, Dearbháile Morris, Francesc Coll, Sandra Reuter, Nicholas M Brown, Mark A Holmes, Brian O'Connell, Julian Parkhill, M Estee Török, Martin Cormican, Sharon J Peacock
BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities (LTCF) are potential reservoirs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), control of which may reduce MRSA transmission and infection elsewhere in the healthcare system. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been used successfully to understand MRSA epidemiology and transmission in hospitals and has the potential to identify transmission between these and LTCF. METHODS: Two prospective observational studies of MRSA carriage were conducted in LTCF in England and Ireland...
October 3, 2016: Genome Medicine
Caroline M Forrest, Kara McNair, Maria C J Vincenten, L Gail Darlington, Trevor W Stone
BACKGROUND: The related tumour suppressor proteins Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) and neogenin are absent or weakly expressed in many cancers, whereas their insertion into cells suppresses oncogenic behaviour. Serine proteases influence the initiation and progression of cancers although the mechanisms are unknown. METHODS: The effects of environmental (bacterial subtilisin) and endogenous mammalian (chymotrypsin) serine proteases were examined on protein expression in fresh, normal tissue and human neuroblastoma and mammary adenocarcinoma lines...
October 6, 2016: BMC Cancer
Andrew M Subica, Cheryl T Grills, Sandra Villanueva, Jason A Douglas
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in communities of color, partially because of structural inequities in the social and built environment (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, pollution) that restrict healthy eating and active living. Community organizing is an underexamined, grassroots health promotion approach that empowers and mobilizes community residents to advocate for, and achieve, environmental and policy changes to rectify these structural inequities...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
M Sanchez-Arenillas, E Mateo-Marti
We have demonstrated that the annealing process for cleaning pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter in promoting ordering on the surface and driving surface reactivity. Furthermore, we describe a spectroscopic surface characterization of the presence or absence of the surface ordering, as indicated by the Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) pattern, as a function of the surface annealing process. Complementary X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results provide evidence that longer annealing processes of over 3 hours repair the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, making FeS species partially disappear in favor of FeS2 species...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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