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Environmental cleaning

(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is amending its regulation on uses of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), to remove the designation for certain products as "essential uses" under the Clean Air Act. Essential-use products are exempt from the ban by FDA on the use of CFCs and other ODS propellants in FDA-regulated products and from the ban by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the use of ODSs in pressurized dispensers. The products that will no longer constitute an essential use are: Sterile aerosol talc administered intrapleurally by thoracoscopy for human use and metered-dose atropine sulfate aerosol human drugs administered by oral inhalation...
October 26, 2016: Federal Register
Ramesh Ghosh, P K Giri
Semiconductor nanowires (NWs), in particular Si NWs, have attracted much attention in the last decade for their unique electronic properties and potential applications in several emerging areas. With the introduction of heterostructures (HSs) on NWs, new functionalities are obtained and the device performance is improved significantly in many cases. Due to the easy fabrication techniques, excellent optoelectronic properties and compatibility of forming HSs with different inorganic/organic materials, Si NW HSs have been utilized in various configurations and device architectures...
November 28, 2016: Nanotechnology
C E French, C Coope, L Conway, J P T Higgins, J McCulloch, G Okoli, B C Patel, I Oliver
BACKGROUND: In recent years, infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have been increasing globally and present a major public health challenge. AIM: To review the international literature: (i) to describe CPE outbreaks in acute hospital settings globally; and (ii) to identify the control measures used during these outbreaks and report on their effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, abstract lists for key conferences and reference lists of key reviews was undertaken, and information on unpublished outbreaks was sought for 2000-2015...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Mohammad Saberian, Mohammad Mehdi Khabiri
Soil pollution is one of the most dangerous sorts of environmental pollutions because of waste materials, fossil fuels, etc. Unfortunately in developing countries, there are very few arrangements to prevent soil pollution due to the fossil fuels and to improve polluted soil. In this research, influences of gas oil on properties of Kalmand protected area's sandy soil near Yazd, Iran, were studied. It was found that gas oil constituted 5.25% of soil weight in the refueling station in the region. Therefore, cleaning and strengthening of the soil by adding cement rather than expensive and complicated methods were the most important goals of this research...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Nathan Bossa, Perrine Chaurand, Clément Levard, Daniel Borschneck, Hélène Miche, Jérôme Vicente, Christophe Geantet, Olivier Aguerre-Chariol, F Marc Michel, Jérôme Rose
Nanomaterials are increasingly being used to improve the properties and functions of common building materials. A new type of self-cleaning cement incorporating TiO2 nanomaterials (TiO2-NMs) with photocatalytic properties is now marketed. This promising cement might provide air pollution-reducing properties but its environmental impact must be validated. During cement use and aging, an altered surface layer is formed that exhibits increased porosity. The surface layer thickness alteration and porosity increase with the cement degradation rate...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Hudson Carlos Maia Santos, Henrique Leonardo Maranduba, José Adolfo de Almeida Neto, Luciano Brito Rodrigues
Current research identifies, analyzes, and suggests improvements for minimizing environmental impacts in the manufacture of cheese using the life cycle assessment. Data collection and development of the inventory were performed in a small-sized dairy industry in Brazil. A cradle-to-gate approach was conducted based on the primary data from cheese production and secondary data from databases. The ReCiPe method was used for the impact assessment, considering the categories climate change, ozone depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, water depletion, and fossil depletion...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuanhong Zhong, Zhi-Feng Chen, Shuang-Shuang Liu, Xiaoxin Dai, Xinping Zhu, Guangming Zheng, Shugui Liu, Guoguang Liu, Zongwei Cai
Azole fungicides have been reported to be accumulated in fish tissue. In this study, a sensitive and robust method using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with ultrasonic extraction, solid-liquid clean-up, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction (SPE) for enrichment and purification have been proposed for determination of azole fungicides in fish muscle samples. According to the results of non-statistical analysis and statistical analysis, ethyl acetate, primary secondary amine (PSA) and mixed-mode cation exchange cartridge (MCX) were confirmed as the best extraction solvent, clean-up sorbent and SPE cartridge, respectively...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Lucinda A Wallbank, Ross MacKenzie, Paul J Beggs
The health risks of tobacco consumption are well established, but there is less awareness of the global environmental impacts of smoking. The by-products of the 6.3 trillion cigarettes smoked annually are filters (butts) that contain benzene, nicotine, cadmium, and dozens of other chemicals. It is estimated that between one- and two-thirds of all filters are discarded on roads, pavements, and green spaces. Butt litter as an environmental and public health hazard is a relatively new field of study, but recent research and findings have clear global implications...
November 14, 2016: Ambio
Xinyi Niu, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Kin Fai Ho, Yu Huang, Junji Cao, Zhenxing Shen, Jian Sun, Xiumei Wang, Yu Wang, Shuncheng Lee, Rujin Huang
Monoterpene is one class of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) which widely presents in household cleaning products and air fresheners. It plays reactive role in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formation with ozone (O3) in indoor environments. Such ozonolysis can be influenced by the presence of gaseous pollutants such as ammonia (NH3). This study focuses on investigations of ozone-initiated formation of indoor SOAs with d-limonene, one of the most abundant indoor monoterpenes, in a large environmental chamber...
November 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
(no author information available yet)
This article explores the effect of education on environmental cleaning based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) readings in patient care areas of a community hospital. Over two months, an infection control practitioner monitored ATP readings in patient care areas, at any time, and regardless of the time of the previous disinfection.
November 10, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Eliška Čechová, Marta Seifertová, Petr Kukučka, Šimon Vojta, Ilona Quaak, Marijke de Cock, Margot van de Bor, Anton Kočan
The increasing number of children suffering from developmental disorders has raised questions regarding their association with the presence of environmental contaminants in mothers and children. We therefore developed a new method for the determination of 78 proven and potential developmental neurotoxicants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, legacy pesticides, pyrethroids, and old and new halogenated flame retardants in breast milk. The essential part of sample preparation was dialysis as a non-destructive clean-up step which was newly used at 10 °C and showed more efficient lipid removal (up to 96%) than the conventional methods such as gel permeation chromatography or freezing-lipid filtration and thus ensured low limits of detection (LOD) by reducing the sample volume prior to injection...
November 9, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Mehrdad Mohammadpour, Mojtaba Abrishami, Ahmad Masoumi, Hassan Hashemi
PURPOSE: To review the background, epidemiology and current management of trachoma in endemic areas and worldwide. METHODS: Review of literature. RESULTS: Trachoma is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in developing countries. It was reported as one of the seven most neglected tropical diseases that can be prevented via drug administration. Its infliction is primarily aimed at those living in areas deprived of clean water and proper sanitation...
December 2016: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Jungwoo Heo, Gi-Hwan Kim, Jaeki Jeong, Yung Jin Yoon, Jung Hwa Seo, Bright Walker, Jin Young Kim
We report the preparation of Cu2S, In2S3, CuInS2 and Cu(In,Ga)S2 semiconducting films via the spin coating and annealing of soluble tertiary-alkyl thiolate complexes. The thiolate compounds are readily prepared via the reaction of metal bases and tertiary-alkyl thiols. The thiolate complexes are soluble in common organic solvents and can be solution processed by spin coating to yield thin films. Upon thermal annealing in the range of 200-400 °C, the tertiary-alkyl thiolates decompose cleanly to yield volatile dialkyl sulfides and metal sulfide films which are free of organic residue...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Emna Bouhajja, Spiros N Agathos, Isabelle F George
Polluted environments are a reservoir of microbial species able to degrade or to convert pollutants to harmless compounds. The proper management of microbial resources requires a comprehensive characterization of their genetic pool to assess the fate of contaminants and increase the efficiency of bioremediation processes. Metagenomics offers appropriate tools to describe microbial communities in their whole complexity without lab-based cultivation of individual strains. After a decade of use of metagenomics to study microbiomes, the scientific community has made significant progress in this field...
November 5, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
María Ramos-Payan, Santiago Maspoch, Andreu Llobera
In this work, the traditional liquid phase microextraction (LPME) has been miniaturized into a microfluidic device (μLPME) where liquid phase microextraction is combined with an HPLC procedure. This integration enables extraction and determination of acid drugs by μLPME and HPLC, respectively. The analytes selected for the test are five widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): salicylic acid (SAC), ketoprofen (KTP), naproxen (NAX), diclofenac (DIC) and ibuprofen (IBU). They have successfully been detected in biological (urine and saliva) and environmental (lake and river water) samples with excellent clean up, high extraction efficiency and good enrichment factor under stopped-flow conditions...
November 23, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Alba González, Jessica Avivar, Fernando Maya, Carlos Palomino Cabello, Gemma Turnes Palomino, Víctor Cerdà
Herein, we propose for the first time the use of magnetic porous carbons (MPCs) derived from zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) for the automated in-syringe magnetic dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) of environmental pollutants prior to their analysis using GC-MS. MPCs with dual porosity are obtained from the direct combustion of the ZIF-67, obtaining robust and magnetic porous carbons on the micrometer scale. As proof of concept, this material has been applied for the automated D-μ-SPE of estrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol) cataloged as Contaminants of Emergent Concern by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (US-EPA)...
November 4, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
B Miller, M Jimenez, H Bridle
Inertial focusing is a microfluidic based separation and concentration technology that has expanded rapidly in the last few years. Throughput is high compared to other microfluidic approaches although sample volumes have typically remained in the millilitre range. Here we present a strategy for achieving rapid high volume processing with stacked and cascaded inertial focusing systems, allowing for separation and concentration of particles with a large size range, demonstrated here from 30 μm-300 μm. The system is based on curved channels, in a novel toroidal configuration and a stack of 20 devices has been shown to operate at 1 L/min...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ariadna Villanueva, Humberto Guanche
Aim To describe the effect of education on environmental cleaning in patient care areas using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) readings. Method A quality improvement initiative was developed in a community hospital in Qatar. Over a two-month period, an infection-control practitioner monitored ATP readings in patient care areas, at any time and regardless of the time of the previous disinfection. The initiative included staff education, use of ATP readings and the drawing up of quarterly quality reports. The ATP readings were considered 'pass', meaning well cleaned, or 'fail', meaning non-cleaned, according to the following standards:>250 relative light units (RLU) in non-critical units and<200RLU for critical units...
November 1, 2016: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Ji Yeon Lee
Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
(no author information available yet)
The effect of education on environmental cleaning using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in patient care areas is explored in this Nursing Management article.
October 28, 2016: Nursing Older People
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