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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449557/wnt-and-gsk3-signaling-pathways-in-bipolar-disorder-clinical-and-therapeutic-implications
#1
REVIEW
Ather Muneer
The neurobiology of bipolar disorder, a chronic and systemic ailment is not completely understood. The bipolar phenotype manifests in myriad ways, and psychopharmacological agents like lithium have long term beneficial effects. The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has come into focus, as lithium and several other mood stabilizing medications inhibit its activity. This kinase and its key upstream modulator, Wnt are dysregulated in mood disorders and there is a growing impetus to delineate the chief substrates involved in the development of these illnesses...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449372/the-impact-of-mood-on-empathy-for-pain-evidence-from-an-eeg-study
#2
Xiang Li, Xianxin Meng, Hong Li, Jiemin Yang, Jiajin Yuan
The current work investigated whether the neural correlates of empathy for pain are altered by mood valence of observers. Following mood induction, participants watched pictures representing painful or nonpainful situations. We used EEG to record neural activity and assessed event-related desynchronization at central sites during pain observation. Greater mu desynchronization was observed during painful relative to nonpainful situations in positive and neutral mood but not in negative mood. We also found that the pain empathy effect, indexed by mu suppression differences between painful and nonpainful conditions, was smaller in negative than in neutral and positive mood, while this effect was similar between neutral and positive mood...
April 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449295/kbg-syndrome-an-australian-experience
#3
Natalia Murray, Bronwyn Burgess, Robin Hay, Alison Colley, Sulekha Rajagopalan, Julie McGaughran, Chirag Patel, Annabelle Enriquez, Linda Goodwin, Zornitza Stark, Tiong Tan, Meredith Wilson, Tony Roscioli, Mustafa Tekin, Himanshu Goel
In 2011, heterozygous mutations in the ANKRD11 gene were identified in patients with KBG syndrome. Since then, 100 cases have been described with the expansion of the clinical phenotype. Here we present 18 KBG affected individuals from 13 unrelated families, 16 with pathogenic mutations in the ANKRD11 gene. Consistent features included intellectual disability, macrodontia, and the characteristic broad forehead with hypertelorism, and a prominent nasal bridge. Common features included hand anomalies, cryptorchidism, and a large number of palate abnormalities...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449132/sex-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-white-matter-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-plus-meta-analysis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#4
Saba Shahab, Laura Stefanik, George Foussias, Meng-Chuan Lai, Kelly K Anderson, Aristotle N Voineskos
Sex is considered an understudied variable in health research. Schizophrenia is a brain disorder with known sex differences in epidemiology and clinical presentation. We systematically reviewed the literature for sex-based differences of diffusion properties of white matter tracts in schizophrenia. We then conducted a meta-analysis examining sex-based differences in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia. Medline and Embase were searched to identify relevant papers. Studies fulfilling the following criteria were included: (1) included individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, (2) included a control group of healthy individuals, (3) included both sexes in the patient and the control groups, (4) used diffusion tensor imaging, and (5) involved analyzing metrics of white matter microstructural integrity...
April 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449119/mutations-in-thap11-cause-an-inborn-error-of-cobalamin-metabolism-and-developmental-abnormalities
#5
Anita M Quintana, Hung-Chun Yu, Alison Brebner, Mihaela Pupavac, Elizabeth A Geiger, Abigail Watson, Victoria L Castro, Warren Cheung, Shu-Huang Chen, David Watkins, Tomi Pastinen, Flemming Skovby, Bruce Appel, David S Rosenblatt, Tamim H Shaikh
CblX (MIM309541) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by defects in cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism and other developmental defects. Mutations in HCFC1, a transcriptional co-regulator which interacts with multiple transcription factors, have been associated with cblX. HCFC1 regulates cobalamin metabolism via the regulation of MMACHC expression through its interaction with THAP11, a THAP domain-containing transcription factor. The HCFC1/THAP11 complex potentially regulates genes involved in diverse cellular functions including cell cycle, proliferation, and transcription...
April 25, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449116/the-iconography-of-mourning-and-its-neural-correlates-a-functional-neuroimaging-study
#6
Karin Labek, Samantha Berger, Anna Buchheim, Julia Bosch, Jennifer Spohrs, Lisa Dommes, Petra Beschoner, Julia C Stingl, Roberto Viviani
The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus)...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449114/neuro-symbolic-representation-learning-on-biological-knowledge-graphs
#7
Mona Alshahrani, Mohammed Asif Khan, Omar Maddouri, Akira R Kinjo, Núria Queralt-Rosinach, Robert Hoehndorf
Motivation: Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge. Results: We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs...
April 25, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449077/executive-network-activation-is-linked-to-walking-speed-in-older-adults-functional-mri-and-tcd-ultrasound-evidence-from-the-mobilize-boston-study
#8
Azizah J Jor'dan, Victoria N Poole, Ikechukwu Iloputaife, William Milberg, Brad Manor, Michael Esterman, Lewis A Lipsitz
Background: Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF) in response to a cognitive task (task-related ΔCBF) have been shown by Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) to be reduced in slow walkers. However, it is unknown whether reduced task-related ΔCBF is associated with reduced neural activity in specific brain regions, as measured by blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: We assessed the regional changes in neural activity associated with reduced middle cerebral artery (MCA) task-related ΔCBF to an executive task and slow walking speed in 67 community-dwelling older adults from the MOBILIZE Boston Study...
April 26, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449067/using-high-throughput-barcode-sequencing-to-efficiently-map-connectomes
#9
Ian D Peikon, Justus M Kebschull, Vasily V Vagin, Diana I Ravens, Yu-Chi Sun, Eric Brouzes, Ivan R Corrêa, Dario Bressan, Anthony M Zador
The function of a neural circuit is determined by the details of its synaptic connections. At present, the only available method for determining a neural wiring diagram with single synapse precision-a 'connectome'-is based on imaging methods that are slow, labor-intensive and expensive. Here, we present SYNseq, a method for converting the connectome into a form that can exploit the speed and low cost of modern high-throughput DNA sequencing. In SYNseq, each neuron is labeled with a unique random nucleotide sequence-an RNA 'barcode'-which is targeted to the synapse using engineered proteins...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448871/immunomodulatory-effects-of-stem-cells-therapeutic-option-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Martin Caprnda, Peter Kubatka, Katarina Gazdikova, Iveta Gasparova, Vanda Valentova, Nadezda Stollarova, Giampiero La Rocca, Nazarii Kobyliak, Jozef Dragasek, Ioana Mozos, Robert Prosecky, Dario Siniscalco, Dietrich Büsselberg, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak
Stem cells have the capability of self-renewal and can differentiate into different cell types that might be used in regenerative medicine. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) currently lack effective treatments. Although stem cell therapy is still on the way from bench to bedside, we consider that it might provide new hope for patients suffering with neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we will give an overview of recent studies on the potential therapeutic use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and perinatal stem cells to neurodegenerative disorders and we will describe their immunomodulatory mechanisms of action in specific therapeutic modalities...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448745/medium-optimization-for-pyrroloquinoline-quinone-pqq-production-by-methylobacillus-sp-zju323-using-response-surface-methodology-and-artificial-neural-network-genetic-algorithm
#11
Peilian Wei, Zhenjun Si, Yao Lu, Qingfei Yu, Lei Huang, Zhinan Xu
Methylobacillus sp. zju323 was adopted to improve the biosynthesis of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) by systematic optimization of the fermentation medium. The Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was implemented to screen for the key medium components for the PQQ production. CoCl2 · 6H2O, ρ-amino benzoic acid (PABA), and MgSO4 · 7H2O were found capable of enhancing the PQQ production most significantly. A five level-three factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the direct and interactive effects of these variables...
April 27, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448671/disrupted-eye-movements-in-preperimetric-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#12
Raymond P Najjar, Sourabh Sharma, Morgane Drouet, Stephanie Leruez, Mani Baskaran, Monisha E Nongpiur, Tin Aung, Joanne Fielding, Owen White, Michael J Girard, Cédric Lamirel, Dan Milea
Purpose: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) can be associated with abnormal ocular motor behavior, possibly as a compensatory strategy following visual field loss. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of saccadic eye movements in patients with early-stage POAG without any detectable glaucomatous visual field loss (i.e., preperimetric POAG). Methods: Binocular eye movements were explored in 16 patients with bilateral preperimetric POAG and 16 age-matched healthy controls in a cross-sectional, observational study...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448525/brorin-is-required-for-neurogenesis-gliogenesis-and-commissural-axon-guidance-in-the-zebrafish-forebrain
#13
Ayumi Miyake, Yoko Mekata, Hidenori Fujibayashi, Kazuya Nakanishi, Morichika Konishi, Nobuyuki Itoh
Bmps regulate numerous neural functions with their regulators. We previously identified Brorin, a neural-specific secreted antagonist of Bmp signaling, in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Mouse Brorin has two cysteine-rich domains containing 10 cysteine residues in its core region, and these are located in similar positions to those in the cysteine-rich domains of Chordin family members, which are secreted Bmp antagonists. Zebrafish Brorin had two cysteine-rich domains with high similarity to those of mouse Brorin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448523/semaphorin-1a-prevents-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-dendrites-from-mis-targeting-into-select-antennal-lobe-regions
#14
Hung-Chang Shen, Sao-Yu Chu, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Chun-Han Wang, I-Ya Lin, Hung-Hsiang Yu
Elucidating how appropriate neurite patterns are generated in neurons of the olfactory system is crucial for comprehending the construction of the olfactory map. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs), primarily derived from four neural stem cells (called neuroblasts), populate their cell bodies surrounding to and distribute their dendrites in distinct but overlapping patterns within the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it remains unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms are employed to generate the appropriate dendritic patterns in discrete AL glomeruli among PNs produced from different neuroblasts...
April 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448519/zika-infection-of-neural-progenitor-cells-perturbs-transcription-in-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#15
Lynn Yi, Harold Pimentel, Lior Pachter
BACKGROUND: A recent study of the gene expression patterns of Zika virus (ZIKV) infected human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) revealed transcriptional dysregulation and identified cell cycle-related pathways that are affected by infection. However deeper exploration of the information present in the RNA-Seq data can be used to further elucidate the manner in which Zika infection of hNPCs affects the transcriptome, refining pathway predictions and revealing isoform-specific dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data published by Tang et al...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448504/impaired-sense-of-agency-in-functional-movement-disorders-an-fmri-study
#16
Fatta B Nahab, Prantik Kundu, Carine Maurer, Qian Shen, Mark Hallett
The sense of agency (SA) is an established framework that refers to our ability to exert and perceive control over our own actions. Having an intact SA provides the basis for the human perception of voluntariness, while impairments in SA are hypothesized to lead to the perception of movements being involuntary that may be seen many neurological or psychiatric disorders. Individuals with functional movement disorders (FMD) experience a lack of control over their movements, yet these movements appear voluntary by physiology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448499/when-do-correlations-increase-with-firing-rates-in-recurrent-networks
#17
Andrea K Barreiro, Cheng Ly
A central question in neuroscience is to understand how noisy firing patterns are used to transmit information. Because neural spiking is noisy, spiking patterns are often quantified via pairwise correlations, or the probability that two cells will spike coincidentally, above and beyond their baseline firing rate. One observation frequently made in experiments, is that correlations can increase systematically with firing rate. Theoretical studies have determined that stimulus-dependent correlations that increase with firing rate can have beneficial effects on information coding; however, we still have an incomplete understanding of what circuit mechanisms do, or do not, produce this correlation-firing rate relationship...
April 27, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448453/working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#18
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448440/is-polysialylated-ncam-not-only-a-regulator-during-brain-development-but-also-during-the-formation-of-other-organs
#19
REVIEW
Christina E Galuska, Thomas Lütteke, Sebastian P Galuska
In mammals several cell adhesion molecules are involved during the pre- and postnatal development of all organ systems. A very prominent member of this family is the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Interestingly, NCAM can be a target for a special form of posttranslational modification: polysialylation. Whereas nearly all extracellular proteins bear mono-sialic acid residues, only a very small group can be polysialylated. Polysialic acid is a highly negatively-charged sugar polymer and can comprise more than 90 sialic acid residues in postnatal mouse brains increasing dramatically the hydrodynamic radius of their carriers...
April 27, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448253/a-map-of-abstract-relational-knowledge-in-the-human-hippocampal-entorhinal-cortex
#20
Mona M Garvert, Raymond J Dolan, Timothy Ej Behrens
The hippocampal-entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information relies on the same neural system, but it is not known whether the organisational principles governing continuous maps may extend to the implicit encoding of discrete, non-spatial graphs. Here, we show that the human hippocampal-entorhinal system can represent relationships between objects using a metric that depends on associative strength...
April 27, 2017: ELife
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