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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915361/neuroscience-literacy-brain-tells-as-signals-of-brain-dysfunction-affecting-daily-life
#1
Charlotte B Royeen, James R Brašić, Leah Dvorak, Casey Provoziak-O'Brien, Chetna Sethi, S Omar Ahmad
The structures and circuits of the central and the peripheral nervous systems provide the basis for thinking, speaking, experiencing sensations, and performing perceptual and motor activities in daily life. Healthy people experience normal functioning without giving brain functions a second thought, while dysfunction of the neural circuits may lead to marked impairments in cognition, communication, sensory awareness, and performing perceptual and motor tasks. Neuroscience literacy provides the knowledge to associate the deficits observed in patients with the underlying deficits in the structures and circuits of the nervous system...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915293/molecular-mechanism-of-divalent-metal-induced-activation-of-ns3-helicase-and-insights-into-zika-virus-inhibitor-design
#2
Xiaocong Cao, Yajuan Li, Xiangyu Jin, Yuelong Li, Feng Guo, Tengchuan Jin
Zika virus has attracted increasing attention because of its potential for causing human neural disorders, including microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Its NS3 helicase domain plays critical roles in NTP-dependent RNA unwinding and translocation during viral replication. Our structural analysis revealed a pre-activation state of NS3 helicase in complex with GTPγS, in which the triphosphate adopts a compact conformation in the absence of any divalent metal ions. In contrast, in the presence of a divalent cation, GTPγS adopts an extended conformation, and the Walker A motif undergoes substantial conformational changes...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915232/quantitative-profiling-of-selective-sox-pou-pairing-on-hundreds-of-sequences-in-parallel-by-coop-seq
#3
Yiming K Chang, Yogesh Srivastava, Caizhen Hu, Adam Joyce, Xiaoxiao Yang, Zheng Zuo, James J Havranek, Gary D Stormo, Ralf Jauch
Cooperative binding of transcription factors is known to be important in the regulation of gene expression programs conferring cellular identities. However, current methods to measure cooperativity parameters have been laborious and therefore limited to studying only a few sequence variants at a time. We developed Coop-seq (cooperativity by sequencing) that is capable of efficiently and accurately determining the cooperativity parameters for hundreds of different DNA sequences in a single experiment. We apply Coop-seq to 12 dimer pairs from the Sox and POU families of transcription factors using 324 unique sequences with changed half-site orientation, altered spacing and discrete randomization within the binding elements...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915225/development-of-a-novel-virtual-reality-gait-intervention
#4
Anna E Boone, Matthew H Foreman, Jack R Engsberg
INTRODUCTION: Improving gait speed and kinematics can be a time consuming and tiresome process. We hypothesize that incorporating virtual reality videogame play into variable improvement goals will improve levels of enjoyment and motivation and lead to improved gait performance. PURPOSE: To develop a feasible, engaging, VR gait intervention for improving gait variables. METHODS: Completing this investigation involved four steps: 1) identify gait variables that could be manipulated to improve gait speed and kinematics using the Microsoft Kinect and free software, 2) identify free internet videogames that could successfully manipulate the chosen gait variables, 3) experimentally evaluate the ability of the videogames and software to manipulate the gait variables, and 4) evaluate the enjoyment and motivation from a small sample of persons without disability...
November 14, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-towards-self-organized-criticality
#5
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915167/examining-fkbp5-mrna-expression-in-human-ipsc-derived-neural-cells
#6
Richard Lieberman, Henry R Kranzler, Eric S Levine, Jonathan Covault
In peripheral blood leukocytes, FKBP5 mRNA expression is upregulated following glucocorticoid receptor activation. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 in FKBP5 is associated with psychiatric illness and has functional molecular effects. However, examination of FKBP5 regulation has largely been limited to peripheral cells, which may not reflect regulation in neural cells. We used 27 human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (iPSCs) derived from 20 subjects to examine FKBP5 mRNA expression following GR activation...
November 24, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915125/artificial-neural-networks-as-a-powerful-numerical-tool-to-classify-specific-features-of-a-tooth-based-on-3d-scan-data
#7
Stefan Raith, Eric Per Vogel, Naeema Anees, Christine Keul, Jan-Frederik Güth, Daniel Edelhoff, Horst Fischer
Chairside manufacturing based on digital image acquisition is gainingincreasing importance in dentistry. For the standardized application of these methods, it is paramount to have highly automated digital workflows that can process acquired 3D image data of dental surfaces. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) arenumerical methods primarily used to mimic the complex networks of neural connections in the natural brain. Our hypothesis is that an ANNcan be developed that is capable of classifying dental cusps with sufficient accuracy...
November 27, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915121/predicting-individual-brain-functional-connectivity-using-a-bayesian-hierarchical-model
#8
Tian Dai, Ying Guo
Network-oriented analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), especially resting-state fMRI, has revealed important association between abnormal connectivity and brain disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression and Alzheimer's disease. Imaging-based brain connectivity measures have become a useful tool for investigating the pathophysiology, progression and treatment response of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have started to explore the possibility of using functional neuroimaging to help predict disease progression and guide treatment selection for individual patients...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915119/neural-correlates-of-pupil-dilation-during-human-fear-learning
#9
Laura Leuchs, Max Schneider, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning and extinction are prevailing experimental and etiological models for normal and pathological anxiety. Pupil dilations in response to conditioned stimuli are increasingly used as a robust psychophysiological readout of fear learning, but their neural correlates remain unknown. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of pupil responses to threat and safety cues during a fear learning task. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pupillometry...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915117/from-intentions-to-actions-neural-oscillations-encode-motor-processes-through-phase-amplitude-and-phase-amplitude-coupling
#10
Etienne Combrisson, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Juan Lp Soto, Golnoush Alamian, Philippe Kahane, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Aymeric Guillot, Karim Jerbi
Goal-directed motor behavior is associated with changes in patterns of rhythmic neuronal activity across widely distributed brain areas. In particular, movement initiation and execution are mediated by patterns of synchronization and desynchronization that occur concurrently across distinct frequency bands and across multiple motor cortical areas. To date, motor-related local oscillatory modulations have been predominantly examined by quantifying increases or suppressions in spectral power. However, beyond signal power, spectral properties such as phase and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) have also been shown to carry information with regards to the oscillatory dynamics underlying motor processes...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915086/metabolism-and-neurogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Marlen Knobloch, Sebastian Jessberger
The generation of neurons in the developing and adult mammalian brain by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) depends on a tight control of NSPC activity and neuronal differentiation that is regulated by a plethora of intrinsic and extrinsic molecular cues. Besides well-studied morphogenic signaling pathways and transcriptional codes that govern the distinct developmental steps from the dividing NSPC to a functional neuron, a critical role of cellular metabolism to determine the functional properties of NSPCs and newborn neurons has been recently identified...
December 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915027/tonotopic-representation-of-loudness-in-the-human-cortex
#12
Andrew Thwaites, Josef Schlittenlacher, Ian Nimmo-Smith, William D Marslen-Wilson, Brian C J Moore
A prominent feature of the auditory system is that neurons show tuning to audio frequency; each neuron has a characteristic frequency (CF) to which it is most sensitive. Furthermore, there is an orderly mapping of CF to position, which is called tonotopic organization and which is observed at many levels of the auditory system. In a previous study (Thwaites et al., 2016) we examined cortical entrainment to two auditory transforms predicted by a model of loudness, instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, using speech as the input signal...
November 30, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915022/concentration-dependent-survival-and-neural-differentiation-of-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-cultured-on-polyethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate-hydrogels-possessing-a-continuous-concentration-gradient-of-n-cadherin-derived-peptide-his-ala-val-asp-lle
#13
Hyun Ju Lim, Matthew C Mosley, Yuki Kurosu, Laura A Smith Callahan
: N-cadherin cell-cell signaling plays a key role in the structure and function of the nervous system. However, few studies have incorporated bioactive signaling from n-cadherin into tissue engineering matrices. The present study uses a continuous gradient approach in polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate hydrogels to identify concentration dependent effects of n-cadherin peptide, His-Ala-Val-Asp-Lle (HAVDI), on murine embryonic stem cell survival and neural differentiation. The n-cadherin peptide was found to affect the expression of pluripotency marker, alkaline phosphatase, in murine embryonic stem cells cultured on n-cadherin peptide containing hydrogels in a concentration dependent manner...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914952/independent-tonotopy-and-thalamocortical-projection-patterns-in-two-adjacent-parts-of-the-classical-primary-auditory-cortex-in-mice
#14
Hiroaki Tsukano, Masao Horie, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Ryuichi Hishida, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsuei Shibuki
Amid recent amendment of delineation of a mouse auditory cortical map, a caudal auditory field, originally defined as the primary auditory cortex (AI), was divided into the AI and dorsomedial field (DM), based on distinct high frequency areas. A low frequency area was not previously established in the DM because responses to low frequency tones were weak in this area. This may lead to the misconception that the DM is an atypical region that lacks a low frequency band. In the current study, we confirmed that the DM has a low frequency area that is completely independent from the AI...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914827/inhibition-of-long-non-coding-rna-igf2as-protects-apoptosis-and-neuronal-loss-in-anesthetic-damaged-mouse-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#15
Chengwei Song, Chengjun Song, Kui Chen, Xiangdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: In vitro culture of neural stem cell-derived neurons serves as an excellent model to study anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. In our study, we examined the functional role of long non-coding RNA, IGF2AS, in regulating ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in murine neural stem cells. METHODS: Murine E18.5 brain-derived neural stem cells were cultured in vitro. During neural differentiation stage, ketamine-induced gene expression changes of IGF2 and IGF2AS were recorded by qRT-PCR...
November 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914685/protein-gene-product-9-5-pgp9-5-expression-in-benign-cutaneous-mesenchymal-histiocytic-and-melanocytic-lesions-comparison-with-cellular-neurothekeoma
#16
Grace Y Wang, Rosalynn M Nazarian, Lili Zhao, Alexandra C Hristov, Rajiv M Patel, Douglas R Fullen, May P Chan
Cellular neurothekeoma (CNTK) frequently enters the differential diagnosis of a benign dermal cellular proliferation. Diagnosis often relies on immunohistochemistry including the use of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5). A previous study demonstrated PGP9.5 expression across a wide variety of soft tissue neoplasms. We explored the utility of this antibody in distinguishing CNTK from other benign dermal-based lesions. A cohort of CNTK (n=7) and benign cutaneous lesions of neural (n=28), fibrohistiocytic (n=23), fibroblastic (n=25), histiocytic (n=18), myofibroblastic (n=7), smooth muscle (n=14), and melanocytic (n=12) differentiations were immunostained with PGP9...
November 30, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914377/evaluating-multipulse-integration-as-a-neural-health-correlate-in-human-cochlear-implant-users-relationship-to-spatial-selectivity
#17
Ning Zhou, Bryan E Pfingst
The decrease of psychophysical detection thresholds as a function of pulse rate for a fixed-duration electrical pulse train is referred to as multipulse integration (MPI). The MPI slopes correlate with anatomical and physiological indices of cochlear health in guinea pigs with cochlear implants. The aim of the current study was to assess whether the MPI slopes were related to the spatial spread of activation by electrical stimulation. The hypothesis was that MPI is dependent on the total number of excitable neurons at the stimulation site, with broader neural excitation producing a steeper threshold decrease as a function of stimulation rate...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914262/a-new-switching-control-for-finite-time-synchronization-of-memristor-based-recurrent-neural-networks
#18
Jie Gao, Peiyong Zhu, Ahmed Alsaedi, Fuad E Alsaadi, Tasawar Hayat
In this paper, finite-time synchronization (FTS) of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MNNs) with time-varying delays is investigated by designing a new switching controller. First, by using the differential inclusions theory and set-valued maps, sufficient conditions to ensure FTS of MNNs are obtained under the two cases of 0<α<1 and α=0, and it is derived that α=0 is the critical value of 0<α<1. Next, it is discussed deeply on the relation between the parameter α and the synchronization time...
November 4, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914042/perfectionism-mediated-the-relationship-between-brain-structure-variation-and-negative-emotion-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#19
Di Wu, Kangcheng Wang, Dongtao Wei, Qunlin Chen, Xue Du, Junyi Yang, Jiang Qiu
In maladaptive respects, perfectionism reflects an individual's concern over making mistakes and doubting the quality of his or her own actions excessively, which would affect one's emotion. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms associated with the perfectionism and negative affect. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in perfectionism, which was measured by the Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (CFMPS), in a large sample of nonclinical young adults...
December 2, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914013/inhibitory-effect-of-homocysteine-on-rat-neural-stem-cell-growth-in-vitro-is-associated-with-reduced-protein-levels-and-enzymatic-activities-of-aconitase-and-respiratory-complex-iii
#20
Xu-Mei Zhang, Ya-Qian Zhao, Hai Yan, Huan Liu, Guo-Wei Huang
Increased blood plasma concentration of the sulphur amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) is considered as an independent risk factor of the neurodegenerative diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which Hcy leads to neurotoxicity have yet to be clarified. Recent research has suggested that neurotoxicity of Hcy may involve negative regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. In the current study, primary NSCs were isolated from neonatal rat brain hippocampus and the inhibition in cell growth was observed after exposure to l50 μM and 500 μM L-Hcy...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
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