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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818696/cortical-networks-for-reference-frame-processing-are-shared-by-language-and-spatial-navigation-systems
#1
Nikola Vukovic, Yury Shtyrov
To help us live in the three-dimensional world, our brain integrates incoming spatial information into reference frames, which are based either on our own body (egocentric) or independent from it (allocentric). Such frames, however, may be crucial not only when interacting with the visual world, but also in language comprehension, since even the simplest utterance can be understood from different perspectives. While significant progress has been made in elucidating how linguistic factors, such as pronouns, influence reference frame adoption, the neural underpinnings of this ability are largely unknown...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818693/hybrid-photoacoustic-and-electrophysiological-recording-of-neurovascular-communications-in-freely-moving-rats
#2
Lei Xi, Tian Jin, Junli Zhou, Paul Carney, Hubei Jiang
Uncovering the relationships between neural activities and capillary-level hemodynamics such as blood flow and concentration of hemoglobin in the brain plays an important role in the study of animal behaviors and brain disorders. Here, we developed a miniature probe integrating a photoacoustic sensor and micro-electrodes to simultaneously record the dynamics of blood flow and total hemoglobin inside a single capillary and the activities of surrounding neurons with high spatiotemporal resolution in freely-moving rats...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817955/redox-signaling-mechanisms-in-nervous-system-development
#3
Mauricio Olguín-Albuerne, Julio Morán
SIGNIFICANCE: Numerous studies have demonstrated the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as regulators of several physiological processes. Here we discuss how the redox signaling mechanisms operate to control different processes such as neuronal differentiation, oligodendrocyte differentiation, dendritic growth, and axonal growth. Recent Advances: Redox homeostasis regulates the physiology of neural stem cells (NSCs). Notably, the neuronal differentiation process of NSCs is determined by a change towards an oxidative metabolism, increased levels of mitochondrial ROS, increased activity of NOX enzymes, decreased levels of Nrf2, and a differential regulation of different redoxins...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817802/molecular-memory-of-morphologies-by-septins-during-neuron-generation-allows-early-polarity-inheritance
#4
Leila Boubakar, Julien Falk, Hugo Ducuing, Karine Thoinet, Florie Reynaud, Edmund Derrington, Valérie Castellani
Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817708/timing-and-extent-of-finger-force-enslaving-during-a-dynamic-force-task-cannot-be-explained-by-emg-activity-patterns
#5
Mojtaba Mirakhorlo, Huub Maas, DirkJan H E J Veeger
Finger enslaving is defined as the inability of the fingers to move or to produce force independently. Such finger enslaving has predominantly been investigated for isometric force tasks. The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of force enslaving is dependent on relative finger movements. Ten right-handed subjects (22-30 years) flexed the index finger while counteracting constant resistance forces (4, 6 and 8 N) orthogonal to the fingertip. The other, non-instructed fingers were held in extension...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817580/criticality-predicts-maximum-irregularity-in-recurrent-networks-of-excitatory-nodes
#6
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Ralf Wessel
A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816679/adaptive-unknown-input-estimation-by-sliding-modes-and-differential-neural-network-observer
#7
Ivan Salgado, Isaac Chairez
In this paper, a differential neural network (DNN) implemented as a robust observer estimates the dynamics of perturbed uncertain nonlinear systems affected by exogenous unknown inputs. In the first stage, the identification error converges into a neighborhood around the origin. Then, the second-order sliding mode supertwisting algorithm implemented as a robust exact differentiator reconstructed the unknown inputs. The approach proposed in this paper can be applied in the case of full access to the state vector (identification problem) and in the case of partial access to the state vector (estimation problem)...
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814632/intermittent-apnea-elicits-inactivity-induced-phrenic-motor-facilitation-via-a-retinoic-acid-and-protein-synthesis-dependent-pathway
#8
Nathan A Baertsch, Tracy L Baker
Respiratory motoneuron pools must provide rhythmic inspiratory drive that is robust and reliable, yet dynamic enough to respond to respiratory challenges. One form of plasticity that is hypothesized to contribute to motor output stability by sensing and responding to inadequate respiratory neural activity is inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), an increase in inspiratory output triggered by a reduction in phrenic synaptic inputs. Evidence suggests that mechanisms giving rise to iPMF differ depending on the pattern of reduced respiratory neural activity (i...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813981/a-magnetic-compatible-supernumerary-robotic-finger-for-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-acquisitions-device-description-and-preliminary-results
#9
Irfan Hussain, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Leo, Emiliano Ricciardi, Simone Rossi, Domenico Prattichizzo
The Supernumerary robotic limbs are a recently introduced class of wearable robots that, differently from traditional prostheses and exoskeletons, aim at adding extra effectors (i.e., arms, legs, or fingers) to the human user, rather than substituting or enhancing the natural ones. However, it is still undefined whether the use of supernumerary robotic limbs could specifically lead to neural modifications in brain dynamics. The illusion of owning the part of body has been already proven in many experimental observations, such as those relying on multisensory integration (e...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813834/comparing-neural-control-and-mechanically-intrinsic-control-of-powered-ankle-exoskeletons
#10
Jeffrey R Koller, C David Remy, Daniel P Ferris
There are an infinite number of ways to control an assistive robotic device; however, there is little consensus on which ways are better than others and why. We designed this study to compare the control of powered ankle exoskeletons using neural measurements to drive control versus that using mechanically intrinsic measurements. The controller driven by neural measurements was a dynamic gain proportional myoelectric controller using user's soleus muscle activity for an actuation signal. The controller driven by mechanically intrinsic measurements was a timing-based controller using detected heel-strikes of the user to appropriately time actuation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813816/computational-rehabilitation-of-neglect-using-state-space-models-to-understand-the-recovery-mechanisms
#11
Giulia Sedda, Marcella Ottonello, Elena Fiabane, Caterina Pistarini, Anna Sedda, Vittorio Sanguineti
Unilateral spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome often observed in right hemisphere stroke patients. The symptoms differ from subject to subject. A few rehabilitation approaches, e.g. prism adaptation, have demonstrated some effect in reducing the symptoms, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. Recently, neural models have been proposed to qualitatively describe cortical lesions, the resulting neglect symptoms and the effects of treatment. However, these predictions are qualitative and cannot be used to compare different hypotheses or to interpret symptoms at individual subjects level...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813789/simulating-the-impact-of-sensorimotor-deficits-on-reaching-performance
#12
Sean M Sketch, Cole S Simpson, Frederic Crevecoeur, Allison M Okamura
The healthy human nervous system accurately and robustly controls movements despite nonlinear dynamics, noise, and delays. After a stroke, motor ability frequently becomes impaired. To provide insight into the relative impact of specific sensorimotor deficits on motor performance, we modeled neural control of reaching with the human upper limb as a near-optimally feedback-controlled two-degree-of-freedom system with biologically based parameters. We added three sensorimotor impairments commonly associated with post-stroke hemiparesis - abnormal joint coupling, increased noise on internally modeled dynamics, and muscular weakness - and examined the impact on reaching performance...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811819/adaptive-resource-utilization-prediction-system-for-infrastructure-as-a-service-cloud
#13
Qazi Zia Ullah, Shahzad Hassan, Gul Muhammad Khan
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) cloud provides resources as a service from a pool of compute, network, and storage resources. Cloud providers can manage their resource usage by knowing future usage demand from the current and past usage patterns of resources. Resource usage prediction is of great importance for dynamic scaling of cloud resources to achieve efficiency in terms of cost and energy consumption while keeping quality of service. The purpose of this paper is to present a real-time resource usage prediction system...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811481/leaky-integrate-and-fire-neuron-by-charge-discharge-dynamics-in-floating-body-mosfet
#14
Sangya Dutta, Vinay Kumar, Aditya Shukla, Nihar R Mohapatra, Udayan Ganguly
Neuro-biology inspired Spiking Neural Network (SNN) enables efficient learning and recognition tasks. To achieve a large scale network akin to biology, a power and area efficient electronic neuron is essential. Earlier, we had demonstrated an LIF neuron by a novel 4-terminal impact ionization based n+/p/n+ with an extended gate (gated-INPN) device by physics simulation. Excellent improvement in area and power compared to conventional analog circuit implementations was observed. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact conventional 3-terminal partially depleted (PD) SOI- MOSFET (100 nm gate length) to replace the 4-terminal gated-INPN device...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811258/category-selective-human-brain-processes-elicited-in-fast-periodic-visual-stimulation-streams-are-immune-to-temporal-predictability
#15
Genevieve L Quek, Bruno Rossion
Recording direct neural activity when periodically inserting exemplars of a particular category in a rapid visual stream of other objects offers an objective and efficient way to quantify perceptual categorization and characterize its spatiotemporal dynamics. However, since periodicity entails predictability, perceptual categorization processes identified within this framework may be partly generated or modulated by temporal expectations. Here we present a stringent test of the hypothesis that temporal predictability generates or modulates category-selective neural processes as measured in a rapid periodic visual stimulation stream...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810930/sex-differences-in-microrna-mrna-networks-examination-of-novel-epigenetic-programming-mechanisms-in-the-sexually-dimorphic-neonatal-hypothalamus
#16
Christopher P Morgan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Sexual differentiation of the male brain, and specifically the stress circuitry in the hypothalamus, is primarily driven by estrogen exposure during the perinatal period. Surprisingly, this single hormone promotes diverse programs of sex-specific development that vary widely between different cell types and across the developing male brain. The complexity of this phenomenon suggests that additional layers of gene regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs), must act downstream of estrogen to mediate this specificity...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809834/quantifying-infra-slow-dynamics-of-spectral-power-and-heart-rate-in-sleeping-mice
#17
Laura M J Fernandez, Sandro Lecci, Romain Cardis, Gil Vantomme, Elidie Béard, Anita Lüthi
Three vigilance states dominate mammalian life: wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. As more neural correlates of behavior are identified in freely moving animals, this three-fold subdivision becomes too simplistic. During wakefulness, ensembles of global and local cortical activities, together with peripheral parameters such as pupillary diameter and sympathovagal balance, define various degrees of arousal. It remains unclear the extent to which sleep also forms a continuum of brain states-within which the degree of resilience to sensory stimuli and arousability, and perhaps other sleep functions, vary gradually-and how peripheral physiological states co-vary...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809027/in-vitro-and-ex-ovo-culture-of-reptilian-and-avian-neural-progenitor-cells
#18
Wataru Yamashita, Toyo Shimizu, Tadashi Nomura
Reptiles and birds have been highlighted as excellent experimental models for the study of developmental biology; however, due to technical limitations in cellular analysis, dynamics of neural stem/progenitor cells of these animals remain unclear. In this chapter, we introduce the protocols for neurosphere culture and ex ovo embryonic culture of developing reptilian and avian embryos, which are modified from the method originally established for rodent embryos. Applications of these techniques provide powerful strategies for the study of comparative neural development of amniotes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808337/microrna-214-modulates-neural-progenitor-cell-differentiation-by-targeting-quaking-during-cerebral-cortex-development
#19
Pengcheng Shu, Hongye Fu, Xiangyu Zhao, Chao Wu, Xiangbin Ruan, Yi Zeng, Wei Liu, Ming Wang, Lin Hou, Pan Chen, Bin Yin, Jiangang Yuan, Boqin Qiang, Xiaozhong Peng
The accurate generation of an appropriate number of different neuronal and glial subtypes is fundamental to normal brain functions and requires tightly orchestrated spatial and temporal developmental programmes to maintain the balance between the proliferation and the differentiation of neural progenitor cells. However, the molecular mechanism governing this process has not been fully elucidated. Here, we found that miR-214-3p was highly expressed in neural progenitor cells and dynamically regulated during neocortical development...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808316/habituation-based-synaptic-plasticity-and-organismic-learning-in-a-quantum-perovskite
#20
Fan Zuo, Priyadarshini Panda, Michele Kotiuga, Jiarui Li, Mingu Kang, Claudio Mazzoli, Hua Zhou, Andi Barbour, Stuart Wilkins, Badri Narayanan, Mathew Cherukara, Zhen Zhang, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Riccardo Comin, Karin M Rabe, Kaushik Roy, Shriram Ramanathan
A central characteristic of living beings is the ability to learn from and respond to their environment leading to habit formation and decision making. This behavior, known as habituation, is universal among all forms of life with a central nervous system, and is also observed in single-cell organisms that do not possess a brain. Here, we report the discovery of habituation-based plasticity utilizing a perovskite quantum system by dynamical modulation of electron localization. Microscopic mechanisms and pathways that enable this organismic collective charge-lattice interaction are elucidated by first-principles theory, synchrotron investigations, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and in situ environmental breathing studies...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
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