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neural dynamics

Srinivas Chivukula, Brian K Pikul, Keith L Black, Nader Pouratian, Susan Y Bookheimer
We evaluated plasticity in speech supplemental motor area (SMA) tissue in two patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), following resection of tumors in or associated with the dominant hemisphere speech SMA. Patient A underwent resection of a anaplastic astrocytoma NOS associated with the left speech SMA, experienced SMA syndrome related mutism postoperatively, but experienced full recovery 14 months later. FMRI performed 32 months after surgery demonstrated a migration of speech SMA to homologous contralateral hemispheric regional tissue...
May 18, 2018: Brain and Language
Yuan Wang, Yao Wang, Yvonne W Lui
Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) is an advanced biophysical model which explicitly describes the entire process from experimental stimuli to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals via neural activity and cerebral hemodynamics. To conduct a DCM study, one needs to represent the experimental stimuli as a compact vector-valued function of time, which is hard in complex tasks such as book reading and natural movie watching. Deep learning provides the state-of-the-art signal representation solution, encoding complex signals into compact dense vectors while preserving the essence of the original signals...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Philipp Berens, Jeremy Freeman, Thomas Deneux, Nicolay Chenkov, Thomas McColgan, Artur Speiser, Jakob H Macke, Srinivas C Turaga, Patrick Mineault, Peter Rupprecht, Stephan Gerhard, Rainer W Friedrich, Johannes Friedrich, Liam Paninski, Marius Pachitariu, Kenneth D Harris, Ben Bolte, Timothy A Machado, Dario Ringach, Jasmine Stone, Luke E Rogerson, Nicolas J Sofroniew, Jacob Reimer, Emmanouil Froudarakis, Thomas Euler, Miroslav Román Rosón, Lucas Theis, Andreas S Tolias, Matthias Bethge
In recent years, two-photon calcium imaging has become a standard tool to probe the function of neural circuits and to study computations in neuronal populations. However, the acquired signal is only an indirect measurement of neural activity due to the comparatively slow dynamics of fluorescent calcium indicators. Different algorithms for estimating spike rates from noisy calcium measurements have been proposed in the past, but it is an open question how far performance can be improved. Here, we report the results of the spikefinder challenge, launched to catalyze the development of new spike rate inference algorithms through crowd-sourcing...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Alva Tang, Ayelet Lahat, Michael J Crowley, Jia Wu, Louis A Schmidt
Although the neural correlates of social exclusion have been well-documented, most studies have examined single age groups. No studies have directly compared specific age-related differences in social exclusion across children, adolescents, and adults using event-related oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics. The authors examined event-related theta EEG power and phase coherence in fair play and social exclusion conditions during the Cyberball task in 166 participants: 42 children (ages 10-12), 56 adolescents (ages 14-17), and 68 adults (ages 18-28)...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
Pavel Mistrík, Claude Jolly, Daniel Sieber, Ingeborg Hochmair
Objective: A design comparison of current perimodiolar and lateral wall electrode arrays of the cochlear implant (CI) is provided. The focus is on functional features such as acoustic frequency coverage and tonotopic mapping, battery consumption and dynamic range. A traumacity of their insertion is also evaluated. Methods: Review of up-to-date literature. Results: Perimodiolar electrode arrays are positioned in the basal turn of the cochlea near the modiolus...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Jeffrey E Markowitz, Winthrop F Gillis, Celia C Beron, Shay Q Neufeld, Keiramarie Robertson, Neha D Bhagat, Ralph E Peterson, Emalee Peterson, Minsuk Hyun, Scott W Linderman, Bernardo L Sabatini, Sandeep Robert Datta
Many naturalistic behaviors are built from modular components that are expressed sequentially. Although striatal circuits have been implicated in action selection and implementation, the neural mechanisms that compose behavior in unrestrained animals are not well understood. Here, we record bulk and cellular neural activity in the direct and indirect pathways of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as mice spontaneously express action sequences. These experiments reveal that DLS neurons systematically encode information about the identity and ordering of sub-second 3D behavioral motifs; this encoding is facilitated by fast-timescale decorrelations between the direct and indirect pathways...
May 10, 2018: Cell
José-Manuel Baizabal, Meeta Mistry, Miguel Turrero García, Nicolás Gómez, Olubusola Olukoya, Diana Tran, Matthew B Johnson, Christopher A Walsh, Corey C Harwell
The epigenetic landscape is dynamically remodeled during neurogenesis. However, it is not understood how chromatin modifications in neural stem cells instruct the formation of complex structures in the brain. We report that the histone methyltransferase PRDM16 is required in radial glia to regulate lineage-autonomous and stage-specific gene expression programs that control number and position of upper layer cortical projection neurons. PRDM16 regulates the epigenetic state of transcriptional enhancers to activate genes involved in intermediate progenitor cell production and repress genes involved in cell migration...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
Josh Chartier, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Keith Johnson, Edward F Chang
When speaking, we dynamically coordinate movements of our jaw, tongue, lips, and larynx. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying articulation, we used direct cortical recordings from human sensorimotor cortex while participants spoke natural sentences that included sounds spanning the entire English phonetic inventory. We used deep neural networks to infer speakers' articulator movements from produced speech acoustics. Individual electrodes encoded a diversity of articulatory kinematic trajectories (AKTs), each revealing coordinated articulator movements toward specific vocal tract shapes...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
Keng Po Lai, Jing Woei Li, Ting Fung Chan, Andy Chen, Cherie Yin Lau Lee, William Shu Biu Yeung, Chris Kong Chu Wong
Cumulating epidemiological studies demonstrated that environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during the early stages of fetal development is associated with the increase in disease susceptibility in later life. The fetal developmental plasticity is considered as a protective mechanism against an undesirable prenatal environment. Dioxin is one of the environmental contaminants and is considered a diabetogenic factor. Experimental animal and human epidemiological studies have revealed that dioxin exposure was associated with insulin resistance and altered beta cell function...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Richard D Mortensen, Regan P Moore, Stephanie M Fogerson, Hellen Y Chiou, Chimdindu V Obinero, Neel K Prabhu, Angela H Wei, Janice M Crawford, Daniel P Kiehart
Cell sheet morphogenesis characterizes key developmental transitions and homeostasis, in vertebrates and throughout phylogeny, including gastrulation, neural tube formation and wound healing. Dorsal closure, a process during Drosophila embryogenesis, has emerged as a model for cell sheet morphogenesis. ∼140 genes are currently known to affect dorsal closure and new genes are identified each year. Many of these genes were identified in screens that resulted in arrested development. Dorsal closure is remarkably robust and many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this complex biological process remain...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Alain Nogaret, Alastair King
Inhibitory neural networks are found to encode high volumes of information through delayed inhibition. We show that inhibition delay increases storage capacity through a Stirling transform of the minimum capacity which stabilizes locally coherent oscillations. We obtain both the exact and asymptotic formulas for the total number of dynamic attractors. Our results predict a (ln2)^{-N}-fold increase in capacity for an N-neuron network and demonstrate high-density associative memories which host a maximum number of oscillations in analog neural devices...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
L Michiels van Kessenich, M Luković, L de Arcangelis, H J Herrmann
In recent years self organized critical neuronal models have provided insights regarding the origin of the experimentally observed avalanching behavior of neuronal systems. It has been shown that dynamical synapses, as a form of short-term plasticity, can cause critical neuronal dynamics. Whereas long-term plasticity, such as Hebbian or activity dependent plasticity, have a crucial role in shaping the network structure and endowing neural systems with learning abilities. In this work we provide a model which combines both plasticity mechanisms, acting on two different time scales...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sook Jin Son, Joon Ho Choi, Jong-Cheol Rah
Although a number of experimental and clinical studies have shown that hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses, the combinatorial effect of the two insults on basic neural function has not been thoroughly investigated. Previous studies have predominantly suggested that hypoxia reduces network activity; however, several studies suggest the opposite effect. Of note, inflammation is known to increase neural activity. In the current study, we examined the effects of limited oxygen in combination with an inflammatory stimulus, as well as the effects of reoxygenation, on synaptic transmission and excitability...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Hao Wang, Weitao Yang
We developed a novel neural network based force field for water based on training with high level ab initio theory. The force field was built based on electrostatically embedded many-body expansion method truncated at binary interactions. Many-body expansion method is a common strategy to partition the total Hamiltonian of large systems into a hierarchy of few-body terms. Neural networks were trained to represent electrostatically embedded one-body and two-body interactions, which require as input only one and two water molecule calculations at the level of ab initio electronic structure method CCSD/aug-cc-pVDZ embedded in the molecular mechanics water environment, making it efficient as a general force field construction approach...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jun Jiang, Kira Bailey, Xiao Xiao
Past attempts to characterize the neural mechanisms of affective priming have conceptualized it in terms of classic cognitive conflict, but have not examined the neural oscillatory mechanisms of subliminal affective priming. Using behavioral and electroencephalogram (EEG) time frequency (TF) analysis, the current study examines the oscillatory dynamics of unconsciously triggered conflict in an emotional facial expressions version of the masked affective priming task. The results demonstrate that the power dynamics of conflict are characterized by increased midfrontal theta activity and suppressed parieto-occipital alpha activity...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Joseph J Paton, Dean V Buonomano
Timing is critical to most forms of learning, behavior, and sensory-motor processing. Converging evidence supports the notion that, precisely because of its importance across a wide range of brain functions, timing relies on intrinsic and general properties of neurons and neural circuits; that is, the brain uses its natural cellular and network dynamics to solve a diversity of temporal computations. Many circuits have been shown to encode elapsed time in dynamically changing patterns of neural activity-so-called population clocks...
May 16, 2018: Neuron
Matthew Swire, Charles Ffrench-Constant
Live imaging studies in mice show that adult-born oligodendrocytes and myelin are remarkably stable. Neural activity enhances oligodendrocyte integration, arguing that internode addition rather than alteration represents the mechanism for any experience-dependent cortical myelination changes that might underpin learning.
May 16, 2018: Neuron
Huaguang Zhang, Qiuxia Qu, Geyang Xiao, Yang Cui
Based on integral sliding mode and approximate dynamic programming (ADP) theory, a novel optimal guaranteed cost sliding mode control is designed for constrained-input nonlinear systems with matched and unmatched disturbances. When the system moves on the sliding surface, the optimal guaranteed cost control problem of sliding mode dynamics is transformed into the optimal control problem of a reformulated auxiliary system with a modified cost function. The ADP algorithm based on single critic neural network (NN) is applied to obtain the approximate optimal control law for the auxiliary system...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Luz Alejo, John Atkinson, Víctor Guzmán-Fierro, Marlene Roeckel
Computational self-adapting methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) are compared with an analytical method in effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Experimental data for the AD of poultry manure were used. The analytical method considers the protein as the only source of ammonia production in AD after degradation. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total volatile solids (TVS) were measured in the influent and effluent of the process...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Chih-Wen Chu is the first author on 'The Ajuba family protein Wtip regulates actomyosin contractility during vertebrate neural tube closure', published in Journal of Cell Science. Chih-Wen is an associate scientist in the lab of Sergei Sokol at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA, investigating apical constriction and planar cell polarity, with a focus on protein dynamics at the cell junctions...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
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