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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453740/enhanced-coupling-within-gonadotropic-and-adrenocorticotropic-axes-by-moderate-exercise-in-healthy-men
#1
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Rebecca J Yang, Thomas P Olson, Michael J Joyner, Paul Y Takahashi, Johannes D Veldhuis
Context: Exercise elicits incompletely defined adaptations of metabolic and endocrine milieu, including the gonadotropic and the corticotropic axes. Objective: To quantify the impact of acute exercise on coordinate LH and testosterone and ACTH and cortisol secretion in healthy men in relation to age. Participantsand design: Prospectively randomized, within-subject cross-over, study in 23 men, aged 19-77 yr. Subjects underwent rest and 30 min of mixed exercise at 65% of maximal aerobic capacity with 10-min blood sampling between 0700 and 1300 h 2 wks apart...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448519/zika-infection-of-neural-progenitor-cells-perturbs-transcription-in-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#2
Lynn Yi, Harold Pimentel, Lior Pachter
BACKGROUND: A recent study of the gene expression patterns of Zika virus (ZIKV) infected human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) revealed transcriptional dysregulation and identified cell cycle-related pathways that are affected by infection. However deeper exploration of the information present in the RNA-Seq data can be used to further elucidate the manner in which Zika infection of hNPCs affects the transcriptome, refining pathway predictions and revealing isoform-specific dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data published by Tang et al...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447851/-understanding-the-role-of-speech-production-in-reading-evidence-for-a-print-to-speech-neural-network-using-graphical-analysis-correction-to-cummine-et-al-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Understanding the role of speech production in reading: Evidence for a print-to-speech neural network using graphical analysis" by Jacqueline Cummine, Ivor Cribben, Connie Luu, Esther Kim, Reyhaneh Bahktiari, George Georgiou and Carol A. Boliek (Neuropsychology, 2016[May], Vol 30[4], 385-397). In the article, the fifth author's name [Bakhtiari] was misspelled. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-49069-001...
May 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446864/neural-entrainment-to-polyrhythms-a-comparison-of-musicians-and-non-musicians
#4
Jan Stupacher, Guilherme Wood, Matthias Witte
Music can be thought of as a dynamic path over time. In most cases, the rhythmic structure of this path, such as specific sequences of strong and weak beats or recurring patterns, allows us to predict what and particularly when sounds are going to happen. Without this ability we would not be able to entrain body movements to music, like we do when we dance. By combining EEG and behavioral measures, the current study provides evidence illustrating the importance of ongoing neural oscillations at beat-related frequencies-i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446583/a-shared-neural-integrator-for-human-posture-control
#5
Stephanie E Haggerty, Amy R Wu, Kathleen H Sienko, Arthur D Kuo
Control of standing posture requires fusion of multiple inputs including visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and other sensors, each having distinct dynamics. The semicircular canals, for example, have a high-pass filter response to angular velocity, quickly sensing a step change in head rotational velocity followed by a decay. To stabilize gaze despite this decay, the central nervous system supplies a neural "velocity storage" integrator, a filter that extends the angular velocity signal. Similar filtering might contribute temporal dynamics to posture control, as suggested by some state estimation models...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445778/the-impact-of-bilateral-vagotomy-on-the-physostigmine-induced-airway-constriction-in-ferrets
#6
Burim Neziri, Armond Daci, Shaip Krasniqi, Ramadan Sopi, Musa A Haxhiu
Vagal innervations have a great role in the respiratory function and are the main route of signal transmission from respiratory neural centers into the trachea and others conducting airways. We have investigated the role of central mechanisms related to vagal neural pathways and the cholinergic outflow in tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone and lung mechanics parameters. Parameters of lung mechanics such as lung resistance (RL), dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and pressure in bypassed tracheal segment (Ptseg) were measured before and after vagotomy and asphyxia test...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443696/the-development-and-modelling-of-devices-and-paradigms-for-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#7
Stefan M Goetz, Zhi-De Deng
Magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique that can evoke action potentials and modulate neural circuits through induced electric fields. Biophysical models of magnetic stimulation have become a major driver for technological developments and the understanding of the mechanisms of magnetic neurostimulation and neuromodulation. Major technological developments involve stimulation coils with different spatial characteristics and pulse sources to control the pulse waveform. While early technological developments were the result of manual design and invention processes, there is a trend in both stimulation coil and pulse source design to mathematically optimize parameters with the help of computational models...
April 26, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443007/neuroimaging-of-human-balance-control-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Ellen Wittenberg, Jessica Thompson, Chang S Nam, Jason R Franz
This review examined 83 articles using neuroimaging modalities to investigate the neural correlates underlying static and dynamic human balance control, with aims to support future mobile neuroimaging research in the balance control domain. Furthermore, this review analyzed the mobility of the neuroimaging hardware and research paradigms as well as the analytical methodology to identify and remove movement artifact in the acquired brain signal. We found that the majority of static balance control tasks utilized mechanical perturbations to invoke feet-in-place responses (27 out of 38 studies), while cognitive dual-task conditions were commonly used to challenge balance in dynamic balance control tasks (20 out of 32 studies)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441917/identification-of-il-17a-derived-neural-cell-type-and-dynamic-changes-of-il-17a-in-serum-csf-of-mice-with-ischemic-stroke
#9
Shujuan Li, Qingqing Dai, Jinling Yu, Ting Liu, Shuiqiao Liu, Longhui Ma, Ying Zhang, Song Han, Junfa Li
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-17A was reported to be involved in the development of post-ischemic stroke inflammatory response and functional recovery. However, the IL-17A dynamic changes in serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and its role in neuronal injury following ischemic stroke are unclear. METHODS: In vivo ischemic stroke was induced by 1 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 6 h-7 d reperfusion (R) in mice, while in vitro stroke was induced by 1 h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24 h reoxygenation (R) in cultured cortical neurons...
April 25, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441867/accurate-neural-network-description-of-surface-phonons-in-reactive-gas-surface-dynamics-n2-ru-0001
#10
Khosrow Shakouri, Jörg Behler, Joerg Meyer, Geert-Jan Kroes
Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations enable the accurate description of reactive molecule-surface scattering especially if energy transfer involving surface phonons is important. However, presently the computational expense of AIMD rules out its application to systems where reaction probabilities are smaller than about 1 percent. Here we show that this problem can be overcome by a high-dimensional neural network fit of the molecule-surface interaction potential, which also incorporates the dependence on phonons by taking into account all degrees of freedom of the surface explicitly...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438968/neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-dissonance-revised-an-eeg-study
#11
Marco Colosio, Anna Shestakova, Vadim V Nikulin, Evgeny Blagovechtchenski, Vasily Klucharev
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a post-decisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative fronto-central evoked response similar to error-related negativity (ERN), which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437616/neural-network-and-nearest-neighbour-algorithms-for-enhancing-sampling-of-molecular-dynamics
#12
Raimondas Galvelis, Yuji Sugita
The free energy calculations of complex chemical and biological systems with molecular dynamics (MD) are inefficient due to multiple local minima separated by high-energy barriers. The minima can be escaped using an enhanced sampling method such as metadynamics, which apply bias (i.e. importance sampling) along a set of collective variables (CV), but the maximum number of CVs (or dimensions) is severely limited. We propose a high-dimensional bias potential method (NN2B) based on two machine learning algorithms: the nearest neighbour density estimator (NNDE) and the artificial neural network (ANN) for the bias potential approximation...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437128/neural-dynamics-of-grouping-and-segmentation-explain-properties-of-visual-crowding
#13
Gregory Francis, Mauro Manassi, Michael H Herzog
Investigations of visual crowding, where a target is difficult to identify because of flanking elements, has largely used a theoretical perspective based on local interactions where flanking elements pool with or substitute for properties of the target. This successful theoretical approach has motivated a wide variety of empirical investigations to identify mechanisms that cause crowding, and it has suggested practical applications to mitigate crowding effects. However, this theoretical approach has been unable to account for a parallel set of findings that crowding is influenced by long-range perceptual grouping effects...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436906/nonlinear-decoupling-control-with-anfis-based-unmodeled-dynamics-compensation-for-a-class-of-complex-industrial-processes
#14
Yajun Zhang, Tianyou Chai, Hong Wang, Dianhui Wang, Xinkai Chen
Complex industrial processes are multivariable and generally exhibit strong coupling among their control loops with heavy nonlinear nature. These make it very difficult to obtain an accurate model. As a result, the conventional and data-driven control methods are difficult to apply. Using a twin-tank level control system as an example, a novel multivariable decoupling control algorithm with adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)-based unmodeled dynamics (UD) compensation is proposed in this paper for a class of complex industrial processes...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436891/off-policy-reinforcement-learning-for-synchronization-in-multiagent-graphical-games
#15
Jinna Li, Hamidreza Modares, Tianyou Chai, Frank L Lewis, Lihua Xie
This paper develops an off-policy reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm to solve optimal synchronization of multiagent systems. This is accomplished by using the framework of graphical games. In contrast to traditional control protocols, which require complete knowledge of agent dynamics, the proposed off-policy RL algorithm is a model-free approach, in that it solves the optimal synchronization problem without knowing any knowledge of the agent dynamics. A prescribed control policy, called behavior policy, is applied to each agent to generate and collect data for learning...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434862/consequences-of-the-oculomotor-cycle-for-the-dynamics-of-perception
#16
Marco Boi, Martina Poletti, Jonathan D Victor, Michele Rucci
Much evidence indicates that humans and other species process large-scale visual information before fine spatial detail. Neurophysiological data obtained with paralyzed eyes suggest that this coarse-to-fine sequence results from spatiotemporal filtering by neurons in the early visual pathway. However, the eyes are normally never stationary: rapid gaze shifts (saccades) incessantly alternate with slow fixational movements. To investigate the consequences of this oculomotor cycle on the dynamics of perception, we combined spectral analysis of visual input signals, neural modeling, and gaze-contingent control of retinal stimulation in humans...
April 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434536/scaling-of-rotational-inertia-of-primate-mandibles
#17
Callum F Ross, Jose Iriarte-Diaz, Ellen Platts, Treva Walsh, Liam Heins, Geoffrey E Gerstner, Andrea B Taylor
The relative importance of pendulum mechanics and muscle mechanics in chewing dynamics has implications for understanding the optimality criteria driving the evolution of primate feeding systems. The Spring Model (Ross et al., 2009b), which modeled the primate chewing system as a forced mass-spring system, predicted that chew cycle time would increase faster than was actually observed. We hypothesized that if mandibular momentum plays an important role in chewing dynamics, more accurate estimates of the rotational inertia of the mandible would improve the accuracy with which the Spring Model predicts the scaling of primate chew cycle period...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434166/antibody-uptake-assay-in-the-embryonic-zebrafish-forebrain-to-study-notch-signaling-dynamics-in-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vivo
#18
Kai Tong, Mahendra Wagle, Su Guo
Stem cells can generate cell fate heterogeneity through asymmetric cell division (ACD). ACD derives from the asymmetric segregation of fate-determining molecules and/or organelles in the dividing cell. Radial glia in the embryonic zebrafish forebrain are an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms regulating ACD of stem cells in vertebrates, especially for live imaging concerning in vivo molecular and cellular dynamics. Due to the current difficulty in expressing fluorescent reporter-tagged proteins at physiological levels in zebrafish for live imaging, we have developed an antibody uptake assay to label proteins in live embryonic zebrafish forebrain with high specificity...
April 23, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434057/predictive-control-of-intersegmental-tarsal-movements-in-an-insect
#19
Alicia Costalago-Meruelo, David M Simpson, Sandor M Veres, Philip L Newland
In many animals intersegmental reflexes are important for postural and movement control but are still poorly undesrtood. Mathematical methods can be used to model the responses to stimulation, and thus go beyond a simple description of responses to specific inputs. Here we analyse an intersegmental reflex of the foot (tarsus) of the locust hind leg, which raises the tarsus when the tibia is flexed and depresses it when the tibia is extended. A novel method is described to measure and quantify the intersegmental responses of the tarsus to a stimulus to the femoro-tibial chordotonal organ...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433628/ca-2-dependent-hyperpolarization-hypothesis-for-mammalian-sleep
#20
REVIEW
Fumiya Tatsuki, Koji L Ode, Hiroki R Ueda
The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sleep/wake cycles in mammals are elusive. In this regulation, at least two mechanisms with fast and slow time scales are involved. In the faster time scale, a state of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep can be microscopically characterized by the millisecond-to-second-order electrical behavior of neurons, namely slow-wave oscillations described by electrophysiology. In the slower time scale, the total duration of NREM sleep is homeostatically regulated by sleep pressure (the need for sleep), which is usually sustained for hours or even days and can be macroscopically described by electroencephalogram (EEG)...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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