keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

neural dynamics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932628/a-novel-in-silico-framework-to-improve-mhc-i-epitopes-and-break-the-tolerance-to-melanoma
#1
Cristian Capasso, Aniket Magarkar, Victor Cervera-Carascon, Manlio Fusciello, Sara Feola, Martin Muller, Mariangela Garofalo, Lukasz Kuryk, Siri Tähtinen, Lucio Pastore, Alex Bunker, Vincenzo Cerullo
Tolerance toward tumor antigens, which are shared by normal tissues, have often limited the efficacy of cancer vaccines. However, wild type epitopes can be tweaked to activate cross-reactive T-cell clones, resulting in antitumor activity. The design of these analogs (i.e., heteroclitic peptides) can be difficult and time-consuming since no automated in silico tools are available. Hereby we describe the development of an in silico framework to improve the selection of heteroclitic peptides. The Epitope Discovery and Improvement System (EDIS) was first validated by studying the model antigen SIINFEKL...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932187/linking-network-activity-to-synaptic-plasticity-during-sleep-hypotheses-and-recent-data
#2
REVIEW
Carlos Puentes-Mestril, Sara J Aton
Research findings over the past two decades have supported a link between sleep states and synaptic plasticity. Numerous mechanistic hypotheses have been put forth to explain this relationship. For example, multiple studies have shown structural alterations to synapses (including changes in synaptic volume, spine density, and receptor composition) indicative of synaptic weakening after a period of sleep. Direct measures of neuronal activity and synaptic strength support the idea that a period of sleep can reduce synaptic strength...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931803/laminar-differences-in-decision-related-neural-activity-in-dorsal-premotor-cortex
#3
Chandramouli Chandrasekaran, Diogo Peixoto, William T Newsome, Krishna V Shenoy
Dorsal premotor cortex is implicated in somatomotor decisions. However, we do not understand the temporal patterns and laminar organization of decision-related firing rates in dorsal premotor cortex. We recorded neurons from dorsal premotor cortex of monkeys performing a visual discrimination task with reaches as the behavioral report. We show that these neurons can be organized along a bidirectional visuomotor continuum based on task-related firing rates. "Increased" neurons at one end of the continuum increased their firing rates ~150 ms after stimulus onset and these firing rates covaried systematically with choice, stimulus difficulty, and reaction time-characteristics of a candidate decision variable...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931613/interacting-networks-of-brain-regions-underlie-human-spatial-navigation-a-review-and-novel-synthesis-of-the-literature
#4
Arne D Ekstrom, Derek J Huffman, Michael Starrett
Navigation is an inherently dynamic and multimodal process, making isolation of the unique cognitive components underlying it challenging. The assumptions of much of the literature on human spatial navigation are that: 1) spatial navigation involves modality independent, discrete metric representations (i.e., egocentric vs. allocentric) 2) such representations can be further distilled to elemental cognitive processes 3) these cognitive processes can be ascribed to unique brain regions. Here, we argue that modality independent spatial representations, instead of providing exact metrics about our surrounding environment, more often involve heuristics for estimating spatial topology useful to the current task at hand...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930991/using-an-adapted-microfluidic-olfactory-chip-for-the-imaging-of-neuronal-activity-in-response-to-pheromones-in-male-c-elegans-head-neurons
#5
Douglas K Reilly, Daniel E Lawler, Dirk R Albrecht, Jagan Srinivasan
The use of calcium indicators has greatly enhanced our understanding of neural dynamics and regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with its completely mapped nervous system and transparent anatomy, presents an ideal model for understanding real-time neural dynamics using calcium indicators. In combination with microfluidic technologies and experimental designs, calcium-imaging studies using these indicators are performed in both free-moving and trapped animals. However, most previous studies utilizing trapping devices, such as the olfactory chip described in Chronis et al...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930691/dna-methylome-analysis-identifies-transcription-factor-based-epigenomic-signatures-of-multilineage-competence-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#6
Tsukasa Sanosaka, Takuya Imamura, Nobuhiko Hamazaki, MuhChyi Chai, Katsuhide Igarashi, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Fumihito Miura, Takashi Ito, Nobuyuki Fujii, Kazuho Ikeo, Kinichi Nakashima
Regulation of the epigenome during in vivo specification of brain stem cells is still poorly understood. Here, we report DNA methylome analyses of directly sampled cortical neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) at different development stages, as well as those of terminally differentiated cortical neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We found that sequential specification of cortical NS/PCs is regulated by two successive waves of demethylation at early and late development stages, which are responsible for the establishment of neuron- and glia-specific low-methylated regions (LMRs), respectively...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930070/rapid-whole-brain-imaging-of-neural-activity-in-freely-behaving-larval-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#7
Lin Cong, Zeguan Wang, Yuming Chai, Wei Hang, Chunfeng Shang, Wenbin Yang, Lu Bai, Jiulin Du, Kai Wang, Quan Wen
The internal brain dynamics that link sensation and action are arguably better studied during natural animal behaviors. Here we report on a novel volume imaging and 3D tracking technique that monitors whole brain neural activity in freely swimming larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). We demonstrated the capability of our system through functional imaging of neural activity during visually evoked and prey capture behaviors in larval zebrafish.
September 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928634/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-mechanisms-and-protocols
#8
REVIEW
Amir V Tavakoli, Kyongsik Yun
Perception, cognition and consciousness can be modulated as a function of oscillating neural activity, while ongoing neuronal dynamics are influenced by synaptic activity and membrane potential. Consequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) may be used for neurological intervention. The advantageous features of tACS include the biphasic and sinusoidal tACS currents, the ability to entrain large neuronal populations, and subtle control over somatic effects. Through neuromodulation of phasic, neural activity, tACS is a powerful tool to investigate the neural correlates of cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927551/impaired-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-mam-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia
#9
Kathryn M Gill, Sarah A Miller, Anthony A Grace
The methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia exhibits aberrant dopamine system activation attributed to hippocampal dysfunction. Context discrimination is a component of numerous behavioral and cognitive functions and relies on intact hippocampal processing. The present study explored context processing behaviors, along with dopamine system activation, during fear learning in the MAM model. Male offspring of dams treated with MAM (20mg/kg, i.p.) or saline on gestational day 17 were used for electrophysiological and behavioral experiments...
September 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927305/discovery-and-application-of-immune-biomarkers-for-hematological-malignancies
#10
Dimitrios Zafeiris, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Sarah Wagner, Alan Graham Pockley, Graham Roy Ball, Sergio Rutella
Hematological malignancies originate and progress in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, where they establish a uniquely immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment. Although high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic approaches are being employed to interrogate immune surveillance and escape mechanisms in patients with solid tumours, and to identify actionable targets for immunotherapy, our knowledge of the immunological landscape of hematological malignancies, as well as our understanding of the molecular circuits that underpin the establishment of immune tolerance, is not comprehensive...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926609/developmental-expression-of-membrane-type-4-matrix-metalloproteinase-mt4-mmp-mmp17-in-the-mouse-embryo
#11
María José Blanco, Iván Rodríguez-Martín, Ana I R Learte, Cristina Clemente, María Gregoria Montalvo, Motoharu Seiki, Alicia G Arroyo, Cristina Sánchez-Camacho
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large group of endoproteases that play important functions during embryonic development, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis by degrading components of the extracellular matrix. Within this family, we focused our study on Mt4-mmp (also called Mmp17) that belongs to a distinct subset that is anchored to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety and with the catalytic site exposed to the extracellular space. Information about its function and substrates is very limited to date, and little has been reported on its role in the developing embryo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926564/probabilistic-models-for-neural-populations-that-naturally-capture-global-coupling-and-criticality
#12
Jan Humplik, Gašper Tkačik
Advances in multi-unit recordings pave the way for statistical modeling of activity patterns in large neural populations. Recent studies have shown that the summed activity of all neurons strongly shapes the population response. A separate recent finding has been that neural populations also exhibit criticality, an anomalously large dynamic range for the probabilities of different population activity patterns. Motivated by these two observations, we introduce a class of probabilistic models which takes into account the prior knowledge that the neural population could be globally coupled and close to critical...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926184/experience-dependent-neural-plasticity-learning-and-memory-in-the-era-of%C3%A2-epitranscriptomics
#13
REVIEW
Laura J Leighton, Ke Ke, Esmi L Zajaczkowski, Jordan Edmunds, Robert C Spitale, Timothy W Bredy
In this short review, we highlight recent findings in the emerging field of epitranscriptomic mechanisms and discuss their potential role in neural plasticity, learning and memory. These include the influence of RNA modifications on activity-induced RNA structure states, RNA editing and RNA localization, and how qualitative state changes in RNA increase the functional diversity and information-carrying capacity of RNA molecules. We predict that RNA modifications may be just as important for synaptic plasticity and memory as quantitative changes in transcript and protein abundance, but with the added advantage of not being required to signal back to the nucleus, and therefore better suited to be coordinated with the temporal dynamics of learning...
September 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924748/a-multi-joint-model-of-quiet-upright-stance-accounts-for-the-uncontrolled-manifold-structure-of-joint-variance
#14
Hendrik Reimann, Gregor Schöner
The upright body in quiet stance is usually modeled as a single-link inverted pendulum. This agrees with most of the relevant sensory organs being at the far end of the pendulum, i.e., the eyes and the vestibular system in the head. Movement of the body in quiet stance has often been explained in terms of the "ankle strategy," where most movement is generated by the ankle musculature, while more proximal muscle groups are only rarely activated for faster movements or in response to perturbations, for instance, by flexing at the hips in what has been called the "hip strategy...
September 18, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924658/two-photon-sted-microscopy-for-nanoscale-imaging-of-neural-morphology-in-vivo
#15
Mirelle J T Ter Veer, Thomas Pfeiffer, U Valentin Nägerl
The advent of super-resolution microscopy offers to bridge the gap between electron and light microscopy. It has opened up the possibility of visualizing cellular structures and dynamic signaling events on the "mesoscale" well below the classic diffraction barrier of light microscopy (10-200 nm), while essentially retaining the advantages of fluorescence microscopy concerning multicolor labeling, detection sensitivity, signal contrast, live-cell imaging, and temporal resolution.From among the new super-resolution techniques, STED microscopy stands out as a laser-scanning imaging modality, which enables nanoscale volume-metric imaging of cellular morphology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923948/cross-scale-effects-of-neural-interactions-during-human-neocortical-seizure-activity
#16
Tahra L Eissa, Koen Dijkstra, Christoph Brune, Ronald G Emerson, Michel J A M van Putten, Robert R Goodman, Guy M McKhann, Catherine A Schevon, Wim van Drongelen, Stephan A van Gils
Small-scale neuronal networks may impose widespread effects on large network dynamics. To unravel this relationship, we analyzed eight multiscale recordings of spontaneous seizures from four patients with epilepsy. During seizures, multiunit spike activity organizes into a submillimeter-sized wavefront, and this activity correlates significantly with low-frequency rhythms from electrocorticographic recordings across a 10-cm-sized neocortical network. Notably, this correlation effect is specific to the ictal wavefront and is absent interictally or from action potential activity outside the wavefront territory...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923596/chemically-activated-luminopsins-allow-optogenetic-inhibition-of-distributed-nodes-in-an-epileptic-network-for-non-invasive-and-multi-site-suppression-of-seizure-activity
#17
Jack K Tung, Fu Hung Shiu, Kevin Ding, Robert E Gross
Although optogenetic techniques have proven to be invaluable for manipulating and understanding complex neural dynamics over the past decade, they still face practical and translational challenges in targeting networks involving multiple, large, or difficult-to-illuminate areas of the brain. We utilized inhibitory luminopsins to simultaneously inhibit multiple limbic structures of the rat brain in a hardware-independent and cell-type specific manner to suppress seizure activity in a rat model of epilepsy. In addition to elucidating mechanisms of seizure suppression never directly demonstrated before, this work also illustrates how precise multi-focal control of pathological circuits can be advantageous for the treatment of epilepsy, which may also be applicable to the treatment and understanding of other neurological disorders involving broad neural circuits...
September 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923480/impact-of-morphine-on-the-expression-of-insulin-receptor-and-protein-levels-of-insulin-igfs-in-rat-neural-stem-cells
#18
Sadegh Salarinasab, AliReza Nourazarian, Masoud Nikanfar, Nima Abdyazdani, Masoumeh Kazemi, Navid Feizy, Reza Rahbarghazi
Alzheimer's disease is correlated with neuronal degeneration and loss of neuronal precursors in different parts of the brain. It has been found disturbance in the homeostasis neural stem cells (NSCs) can cause neurodegeneration. Morphine, an analgesic agent, can disrupt the dynamic and normal state of NSCs. However, more investigations are required to clearly address underlying mechanisms. The current experiment aimed to investigate the effects of morphine on the cell distribution of insulin factor and receptor and insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) in NSCs...
September 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922130/haze-removal-using-radial-basis-function-networks-for-visibility-restoration-applications
#19
Bo-Hao Chen, Shih-Chia Huang, Chian-Ying Li, Sy-Yen Kuo
Restoration of visibility in hazy images is the first relevant step of information analysis in many outdoor computer vision applications. To this aim, the restored image must feature clear visibility with sufficient brightness and visible edges, while avoiding the production of noticeable artifacts. In this paper, we propose a haze removal approach based on the radial basis function (RBF) through artificial neural networks dedicated to effectively removing haze formation while retaining not only the visible edges but also the brightness of restored images...
September 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921756/temporal-alignment-of-anticipatory-motor-cortical-beta-lateralisation-in-hidden-visual-motor-sequences
#20
Simone G Heideman, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
Performance improves when participants respond to events that are structured in repeating sequences, suggesting that learning can lead to proactive anticipatory preparation. Whereas most sequence-learning studies have emphasized spatial structure, most sequences also contain a prominent temporal structure. We used MEG to investigate spatial and temporal anticipatory neural dynamics in a modified serial reaction-time (SRT) task. Performance and brain activity were compared between blocks with learned spatial-temporal sequences and blocks with new sequences...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
69387
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"