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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161383/basal-forebrain-gating-by-somatostatin-neurons-drives-prefrontal-cortical-activity
#1
Nelson Espinosa, Alejandra Alonso, Cristian Morales, Pedro Espinosa, Andrés E Chávez, Pablo Fuentealba
The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160744/modulation-of-neural-oscillatory-activity-during-dynamic-face-processing
#2
Elaine Foley, Gina Rippon, Carl Senior
Various neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods have been used to examine neural activation patterns in response to faces. However, much of previous research has relied on static images of faces, which do not allow a complete description of the temporal structure of face-specific neural activities to be made. More recently, insights are emerging from fMRI studies about the neural substrates that underpin our perception of naturalistic dynamic face stimuli, but the temporal and spectral oscillatory activity associated with processing dynamic faces has yet to be fully characterized...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160172/neural-differentiation-of-spheroids-derived-from-hipsc-msc-co-culture
#3
Liqing Song, Ang-Chen Tsai, Xuegang Yuan, Julie Bejoy, Sébastien Sart, Teng Ma, Yan Li
Organoids, the condensed 3-D tissues emerged at the early stage of organogenesis, are a promising approach to regenerate functional and vascularized organ mimics. While incorporation of heterotypic cell types such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived neural progenitors aid neural organ development, the interactions of secreted factors during neurogenesis have not been well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the composition and structure of 3-D hybrid spheroids of hiPSCs and hMSCs on dorsal cortical differentiation and the secretion of extracellular matrices and trophic factors in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158879/changes-in-effective-connectivity-network-patterns-in-drug-abusers-treated-with-different-methods
#4
Arash Zare Sadeghi, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamid Reza Salighehrad, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Samira Raminfard, Hamed Ekhtiari
Introduction: Various treatment methods for drug abusers will result in different success rates. This is partly due to different neural assumptions and partly due to various rate of relapse in abusers because of different circumstances. Investigating the brain activation networks of treated subjects can reveal the hidden mechanisms of the therapeutic methods. Methods: We studied three groups of subjects: heroin abusers treated with abstinent based therapy (ABT) method, heroin abusers treated with Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) method, and a control group...
July 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158322/optogenetic-activation-of-ephb2-receptor-in-dendrites-induced-actin-polymerization-by-activating-arg-kinase
#5
Clifford Locke, Kazuya Machida, Yi Wu, Ji Yu
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptors regulate a wide array of developmental processes by responding to cell-cell contacts. EphB2 is well-expressed in brain and known to be important for dendritic spine development, as well as for the maintenance of the synapses, although the mechanisms of these functions have not been fully understood. Here we studied EphB2's functions in hippocampal neurons with an optogenetic approach, which allows us to specify spatial regions of signal activation and monitor in real-time the consequences of signal activation...
November 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157416/the-temporal-dynamics-involved-in-object-representation-updating-to-predict-change
#6
Naomi du Bois, Mark A Elliott
The synchronization of cortically disparate neural assemblies at frequencies in the gamma-band range (30-70Hz) is considered to be involved in the perceptual organization of the environment. In support of this Elliott (2014) demonstrated improved detection of a target stimulus when this target was primed in a matrix that flickered at specific frequencies in the gamma-band range, each found to be separated by regular intervals which correspond with a 6.69Hz period. This can be explained in terms of the interaction of the stimulus (and stimulus-induced) rhythm with a slow endogenous theta rhythm...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155814/optimal-synaptic-signaling-connectome-for-locomotory-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-design-minimizing-energy-cost
#7
Franciszek Rakowski, Jan Karbowski
The detailed knowledge of C. elegans connectome for 3 decades has not contributed dramatically to our understanding of worm's behavior. One of main reasons for this situation has been the lack of data on the type of synaptic signaling between particular neurons in the worm's connectome. The aim of this study was to determine synaptic polarities for each connection in a small pre-motor circuit controlling locomotion. Even in this compact network of just 7 neurons the space of all possible patterns of connection types (excitation vs...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155768/slice-patch-clamp-technique-for-analyzing-learning-induced-plasticity
#8
Hiroyuki Kida, Yuya Sakimoto, Dai Mitsushima
The slice patch clamp technique is a powerful tool for investigating learning-induced neural plasticity in specific brain regions. To analyze motor-learning induced plasticity, we trained rats using an accelerated rotor rod task. Rats performed the task 10 times at 30-s intervals for 1 or 2 days. Performance was significantly improved on the training days compared to the first trial. We then prepared acute brain slices of the primary motor cortex (M1) in untrained and trained rats. Current-clamp analysis showed dynamic changes in resting membrane potential, spike threshold, afterhyperpolarization, and membrane resistance in layer II/III pyramidal neurons...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151265/cnn3-regulates-neural-tube-morphogenesis-and-neuronal-stem-cell-properties
#9
Dirk Junghans, Sebastian Herzog
Calponin 3 (Cnn3) is a member of the calponin family of actin binding molecules that is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been shown to control dendritic spine morphology, density and plasticity by regulating actin cytoskeletal reorganization and dynamics. However, little is known about the role of Cnn3 during embryonic development. In this study we analyzed mutant animals deficient in Cnn3 to gain a better understanding of its role in brain morphogenesis. Embryos lacking Cnn3 exhibited massive malformation of the developing brain including exoencephaly, closure defects at the rostral neural tube and strong enlargement of brain tissue...
November 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149186/cell-cycle-time-series-gene-expression-data-encoded-as-cyclic-attractors-in-hopfield-systems
#10
Anthony Szedlak, Spencer Sims, Nicholas Smith, Giovanni Paternostro, Carlo Piermarocchi
Modern time series gene expression and other omics data sets have enabled unprecedented resolution of the dynamics of cellular processes such as cell cycle and response to pharmaceutical compounds. In anticipation of the proliferation of time series data sets in the near future, we use the Hopfield model, a recurrent neural network based on spin glasses, to model the dynamics of cell cycle in HeLa (human cervical cancer) and S. cerevisiae cells. We study some of the rich dynamical properties of these cyclic Hopfield systems, including the ability of populations of simulated cells to recreate experimental expression data and the effects of noise on the dynamics...
November 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147518/machine-learning-molecular-dynamics-for-the-simulation-of-infrared-spectra
#11
Michael Gastegger, Jörg Behler, Philipp Marquetand
Machine learning has emerged as an invaluable tool in many research areas. In the present work, we harness this power to predict highly accurate molecular infrared spectra with unprecedented computational efficiency. To account for vibrational anharmonic and dynamical effects - typically neglected by conventional quantum chemistry approaches - we base our machine learning strategy on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. While these simulations are usually extremely time consuming even for small molecules, we overcome these limitations by leveraging the power of a variety of machine learning techniques, not only accelerating simulations by several orders of magnitude, but also greatly extending the size of systems that can be treated...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#12
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143946/multi-scale-account-of-the-network-structure-of-macaque-visual-cortex
#13
Maximilian Schmidt, Rembrandt Bakker, Claus C Hilgetag, Markus Diesmann, Sacha J van Albada
Cortical network structure has been extensively characterized at the level of local circuits and in terms of long-range connectivity, but seldom in a manner that integrates both of these scales. Furthermore, while the connectivity of cortex is known to be related to its architecture, this knowledge has not been used to derive a comprehensive cortical connectivity map. In this study, we integrate data on cortical architecture and axonal tracing data into a consistent multi-scale framework of the structure of one hemisphere of macaque vision-related cortex...
November 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143795/deep-see-joint-object-detection-tracking-and-recognition-with-application-to-visually-impaired-navigational-assistance
#14
Ruxandra Tapu, Bogdan Mocanu, Titus Zaharia
In this paper, we introduce the so-called DEEP-SEE framework that jointly exploits computer vision algorithms and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to detect, track and recognize in real time objects encountered during navigation in the outdoor environment. A first feature concerns an object detection technique designed to localize both static and dynamic objects without any a priori knowledge about their position, type or shape. The methodological core of the proposed approach relies on a novel object tracking method based on two convolutional neural networks trained offline...
October 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140243/a-versatile-genetic-tool-for-post-translational-control-of-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Sachin Sethi, Jing W Wang
Several techniques have been developed to manipulate gene expression temporally in intact neural circuits. However, the applicability of current tools developed for in vivo studies in Drosophila is limited by their incompatibility with existing GAL4 lines and side effects on physiology and behavior. To circumvent these limitations, we adopted a strategy to reversibly regulate protein degradation with a small molecule by using a destabilizing domain (DD). We show that this system is effective across different tissues and developmental stages...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#16
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139049/feedforward-architectures-driven-by-inhibitory-interactions
#17
Yazan N Billeh, Michael T Schaub
Directed information transmission is paramount for many social, physical, and biological systems. For neural systems, scientists have studied this problem under the paradigm of feedforward networks for decades. In most models of feedforward networks, activity is exclusively driven by excitatory neurons and the wiring patterns between them, while inhibitory neurons play only a stabilizing role for the network dynamics. Motivated by recent experimental discoveries of hippocampal circuitry, cortical circuitry, and the diversity of inhibitory neurons throughout the brain, here we illustrate that one can construct such networks even if the connectivity between the excitatory units in the system remains random...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134703/origin-and-dynamics-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-developing-brain-implications-for-perinatal-white-matter-injury
#18
REVIEW
Erik van Tilborg, Caroline G M de Theije, Maurik van Hal, Nienke Wagenaar, Linda S de Vries, Manon J Benders, David H Rowitch, Cora H Nijboer
Infants born prematurely are at high risk to develop white matter injury (WMI), due to exposure to hypoxic and/or inflammatory insults. Such perinatal insults negatively impact the maturation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), thereby causing deficits in myelination. To elucidate the precise pathophysiology underlying perinatal WMI, it is essential to fully understand the cellular mechanisms contributing to healthy/normal white matter development. OLs are responsible for myelination of axons. During brain development, OLs are generally derived from neuroepithelial zones, where neural stem cells committed to the OL lineage differentiate into OL precursor cells (OPCs)...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134435/plant-phenology-supports-the-multi-emergence-hypothesis-for-ebola-spillover-events
#19
Katharina C Wollenberg Valero, Raphael D Isokpehi, Noah E Douglas, Seenith Sivasundaram, Brianna Johnson, Kiara Wootson, Ayana McGill
Ebola virus disease outbreaks in animals (including humans and great apes) start with sporadic host switches from unknown reservoir species. The factors leading to such spillover events are little explored. Filoviridae viruses have a wide range of natural hosts and are unstable once outside hosts. Spillover events, which involve the physical transfer of viral particles across species, could therefore be directly promoted by conditions of host ecology and environment. In this report, we outline a proof of concept that temporal fluctuations of a set of ecological and environmental variables describing the dynamics of the host ecosystem are able to predict such events of Ebola virus spillover to humans and animals...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134430/modern-drug-design-the-implication-of-using-artificial-neuronal-networks-and-multiple-molecular-dynamic-simulations
#20
Oleksandr Yakovenko, Steven J M Jones
We report the implementation of molecular modeling approaches developed as a part of the 2016 Grand Challenge 2, the blinded competition of computer aided drug design technologies held by the D3R Drug Design Data Resource ( https://drugdesigndata.org/ ). The challenge was focused on the ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a highly flexible nuclear receptor of the cholesterol derivative chenodeoxycholic acid. FXR is considered an important therapeutic target for metabolic, inflammatory, bowel and obesity related diseases (Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 4:523-532, 2015), but in the context of this competition it is also interesting due to the significant ligand-induced conformational changes displayed by the protein...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
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