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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549172/orrm5-an-rna-recognition-motif-containing-protein-has-a-unique-effect-on-mitochondrial-rna-editing
#1
Xiaowen Shi, Benoit Castandet, Arnaud Germain, Maureen R Hanson, Stéphane Bentolila
Plants have an RNA editing mechanism that prevents deleterious organelle mutations from resulting in impaired proteins. A typical flowering plant modifies about 40 cytidines in chloroplast transcripts and many hundreds of cytidines in mitochondrial transcripts. The plant editosome, the molecular machinery responsible for this process, contains members of several protein families, including the organelle RNA recognition motif (ORRM)-containing family. ORRM1 and ORRM6 are chloroplast editing factors, while ORRM2, ORRM3, and ORRM4 are mitochondrial editing factors...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548870/vacuolar-digestion-of-entire-damaged-chloroplasts-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-accomplished-by-chlorophagy
#2
Masanori Izumi, Sakuya Nakamura
In yeast and mammals, selective vacuolar delivery and degradation of whole mitochondria, or mitophagy, represents an important quality control system and is achieved by a cargo recognition mechanism enabling selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. As photosynthetic organelles that need light for energy production, plant chloroplasts accumulate sunlight-induced damage. Plants have evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid, relieve, or repair chloroplast photodamage. Our recent study showed that vacuolar degradation of entire chloroplasts, termed chlorophagy, is induced to degrade chloroplasts that are collapsed due to photodamage...
May 26, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546910/plants-and-light-manipulation-the-integrated-mineral-system-in-okra-leaves
#3
Maria Pierantoni, Ron Tenne, Vlad Brumfeld, Vladimir Kiss, Dan Oron, Lia Addadi, Steve Weiner
Calcium oxalate and silica minerals are common components of a variety of plant leaves. These minerals are found at different locations within the leaf, and there is little conclusive evidence about the functions they perform. Here tools are used from the fields of biology, optics, and imaging to investigate the distributions of calcium oxalate, silica minerals, and chloroplasts in okra leaves, in relation to their functions. A correlative approach is developed to simultaneously visualize calcium oxalates, silica minerals, chloroplasts, and leaf soft tissue in 3D without affecting the minerals or the organic components...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546824/high-spatio-temporal-resolution-detection-of-chlorophyll-fluorescence-dynamics-from-a-single-chloroplast-with-confocal-imaging-fluorometer
#4
Yi-Chin Tseng, Shi-Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: Chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) is a key indicator to study plant physiology or photosynthesis efficiency. Conventionally, CF is characterized by fluorometers, which only allows ensemble measurement through wide-field detection. For imaging fluorometers, the typical spatial and temporal resolutions are on the order of millimeter and second, far from enough to study cellular/sub-cellular CF dynamics. In addition, due to the lack of optical sectioning capability, conventional imaging fluorometers cannot identify CF from a single cell or even a single chloroplast...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544763/hp30-2-a-mitochondrial-prat-protein-for-import-of-signal-sequence-less-precursor-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Claudia Rossig, John Gray, Oscar Valdes, Sachin Rustgi, Diter von Wettstein, Christiane Reinbothe, Steffen Reinbothe
Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain a family of putative preprotein and amino acid transporters designated PRAT. Here, we analyzed the role of two previously characterized PRAT protein family member, encoded by At3g49560 (HP30) and At5g24650 (HP30-2), in planta using a combination of genetic, cell biological and biochemical approaches. Expression studies and GFP tagging identified HP30-2 both in chloroplasts and mitochondria, whereas HP30 was located exclusively in chloroplasts. Biochemical evidence was obtained for an association of mitochondrial HP30-2 with two distinct protein complexes, one containing the inner membrane translocase TIM22 and the other containing an alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenase subunit (NDC1) implicated in a respiratory complex 1-like electron transport chain...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544383/self-assembled-biomimetic-chloroplast-coupled-photoenzymatic-reaction-for-sustainable-synthesis-of-fuel
#6
Xuehai Yan, Kai Liu, Chengqian Yuan, Qianli Zou, Zengchun Xie
Prototypes of biosystems provide good blueprints for the design and creation of biomimetic systems. However, mimicking both the sophisticated natural structures and their complex biological functions still remains a great challenge. Herein, biomimetic chloroplasts have been fabricated by one-step bio-inspired amino acid mineralization and simultaneous integration of catalytically active units. Hierarchically structured crystals are obtained by metal ion-directed self-assembly of cystine (the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine), with porous structure and stacking nanorods, which show similar architectural principles to chloroplasts...
May 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544262/synthesis-theoretical-studies-and-effect-on-the-photosynthetic-electron-transport-of-trifluoromethyl-arylamides
#7
Róbson Ricardo Teixeira, Marcus Vinícius de Andrade Barros, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Raoni Pais Siqueira, Fabíola Suelen Dos Santos, Michele Bertazzini, Rudolf Kiralj, Márcia Miguel Castro Ferreira, Giuseppe Forlani
BACKGROUND: The photosynthetic apparatus is targeted by various herbicides, including several amides such as diuron and linuron. Considering the need for the discovery of new active ingredients to cope with weed resistance, the synthesis of a series of trifluoromethyl aryl amides is herein described whose inhibitory properties were assessed in vitro on the photosynthetic electron transport chain, and in vivo on the growth of a model cyanobacterial strain. Theoretical studies were also carried out...
May 25, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542606/what-is-in-your-cup-of-tea-dna-verity-test-to-characterize-black-and-green-commercial-teas
#8
Olga De Castro, Maria Comparone, Antonietta Di Maio, Emanuele Del Guacchio, Bruno Menale, Jacopo Troisi, Francesco Aliberti, Marco Trifuoggi, Marco Guida
In this study, we used several molecular techniques to develop a fast and reliable protocol (DNA Verity Test, DVT) for the characterization and confirmation of the species or taxa present in herbal infusions. As a model plant for this protocol, Camellia sinensis, a traditional tea plant, was selected due to the following reasons: its historical popularity as a (healthy) beverage, its high selling value, the importation of barely recognizable raw product (i.e., crushed), and the scarcity of studies concerning adulterants or contamination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542519/characterization-of-the-whole-chloroplast-genome-of-chikusichloa-mutica-and-its-comparison-with-other-rice-tribe-oryzeae-species
#9
Zhiqiang Wu, Cuihua Gu, Luke R Tembrock, Dong Zhang, Song Ge
Chloroplast genomes are a significant genomic resource in plant species and have been used in many research areas. The complete genomic information from wild crop species could supply a valuable genetic reservoir for breeding. Chikusichloa mutica is one of the most important wild distant relatives of cultivated rice. In this study, we sequenced and characterized its complete chloroplast (cp) genome and compared it with other species in the same tribe. The whole cp genome sequence is 136,603 bp in size and exhibits a typical quadripartite structure with large and small single-copy regions (LSC, 82,327 bp; SSC, 12,598 bp) separated by a pair of 20,839-bp inverted repeats (IRA, B)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542341/transcriptome-and-proteomic-analyses-reveal-multiple-differences-associated-with-chloroplast-development-in-the-spaceflight-induced-wheat-albino-mutant-mta
#10
Kui Shi, Jiayu Gu, Huijun Guo, Linshu Zhao, Yongdun Xie, Hongchun Xiong, Junhui Li, Shirong Zhao, Xiyun Song, Luxiang Liu
Chloroplast development is an integral part of plant survival and growth, and occurs in parallel with chlorophyll biosynthesis. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying chloroplast development in hexaploid wheat. Here, we obtained a spaceflight-induced wheat albino mutant mta. Chloroplast ultra-structural observation showed that chloroplasts of mta exhibit abnormal morphology and distribution compared to wild type. Photosynthetic pigments content was also significantly decreased in mta. Transcriptome and chloroplast proteome profiling of mta and wild type were done to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and proteins (DEPs), respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541538/coordinated-modifications-in-mesophyll-conductance-photosynthetic-potentials-and-leaf-nitrogen-contribute-to-explain-the-large-variation-in-foliage-net-assimilation-rates-across-quercus-ilex-provenances
#11
José Javier Peguero-Pina, Sergio Sisó, Jaume Flexas, Jeroni Galmés, Ülo Niinemets, Domingo Sancho-Knapik, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín
Leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA) has been suggested to negatively affect the mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), the most limiting factor for photosynthesis per unit leaf area (AN) in many evergreens. Several anatomical traits (i.e., greater leaf thickness and thicker cell walls) constraining gm could explain the negative scaling of gm and AN with LMA across species. However, the Mediterranean sclerophyll Quercus ilex L. shows a major within-species variation in functional traits (greater LMA associated with higher nitrogen content and AN) that might contrast the worldwide trends...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541504/e3-ubiquitin-ligases-ubiquitous-actors-in-plant-development-and-abiotic-stress-responses
#12
Kai Shu, Wenyu Yang
Understanding the precise regulatory mechanisms of plant development and stress responses at the post-translational level is currently a topic of intensive research. Protein ubiquitination, including the sequential performances of ubiquitin-activating (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes, is a refined post-translational modification ubiquitous in all eukaryotes. Plants are an integral part of our ecosystem and, as sessile organisms, the ability to perceive internal and external signals and to adapt well to various environmental challenges is crucial for their survival...
May 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539931/characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-ancient-italian-landraces-of-pear
#13
Nicoletta Ferradini, Hovirag Lancioni, Renzo Torricelli, Luigi Russi, Isabella Dalla Ragione, Irene Cardinali, Gianpiero Marconi, Mauro Gramaccia, Luciano Concezzi, Alessandro Achilli, Fabio Veronesi, Emidio Albertini
Pear is one of the oldest fruit tree crops and the third most important temperate fruit species. Its domestication took place independently in the Far East (China) and in the Caucasus region. While the origin of Eastern Asian cultivars is clear, that of European cultivars is still in doubt. Italy has a wealth of local varieties and genetic resources safeguarded by several public and private collections to face the erosion caused by the introduction of improved varieties in specialized orchards. The objectives of the present study were: (i) to characterize the existing germplasm through nuclear (SSR) and (ii) to clarify the genetic divergence between local and cultivated populations through chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers in order to provide insights into phylogenetic relationships of Pyrus spp...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539650/the-effect-of-two-amino-acid-residue-substitutions-via-rna-editing-on-dark-operative-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase-in-the-black-pine-chloroplasts
#14
Haruki Yamamoto, Junko Kusumi, Hisanori Yamakawa, Yuichi Fujita
Dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) is a key enzyme to produce chlorophyll in the dark. Among photosynthetic eukaryotes, all three subunits chlL, chlN, and chlB are encoded by plastid genomes. In some gymnosperms, two codons of chlB mRNA are changed by RNA editing to codons encoding evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues. However, the effect of these substitutions on DPOR activity remains unknown. We first prepared cyanobacterial ChlB variants with amino acid substitution(s) to mimic ChlB translated from pre-edited mRNA...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539635/regulation-of-chloroplast-and-nucleomorph-replication-by-the-cell-cycle-in-the-cryptophyte-guillardia-theta
#15
Ryo Onuma, Neha Mishra, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
The chloroplasts of cryptophytes arose through a secondary endosymbiotic event in which a red algal endosymbiont was integrated into a previously nonphotosynthetic eukaryote. The cryptophytes retain a remnant of the endosymbiont nucleus (nucleomorph) that is replicated once in the cell cycle along with the chloroplast. To understand how the chloroplast, nucleomorph and host cell divide in a coordinated manner, we examined the expression of genes/proteins that are related to nucleomorph replication and chloroplast division as well as the timing of nuclear and nucleomorph DNA synthesis in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536785/significance-of-accumulation-of-the-alarmone-p-ppgpp-in-chloroplasts-for-controlling-photosynthesis-and-metabolite-balance-during-nitrogen-starvation-in-arabidopsis
#16
Rina Honoki, Sumire Ono, Akira Oikawa, Kazuki Saito, Shinji Masuda
The regulatory nucleotides, guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) and guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), were originally identified in Escherichia coli, and control a large set of gene expression and enzyme activities. The (p)ppGpp-dependent control of cell activities is referred to as the stringent response. A growing number of (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase homologs have been identified in plants, which are localized in plastids in Arabidopsis thaliana. We recently reported that the Arabidopsis mutant overproducing ppGpp in plastids showed dwarf chloroplasts, and transcript levels in the mutant plastids were significantly suppressed...
May 23, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536587/molecular-evidence-for-natural-hybridization-between-cotoneaster-dielsianus-and-c-glaucophyllus
#17
Mingwan Li, Sufang Chen, Renchao Zhou, Qiang Fan, Feifei Li, Wenbo Liao
Hybridization accompanied by polyploidization and apomixis has been demonstrated as a driving force in the evolution and speciation of many plants. A good example to study the evolutionary process of hybridization associated with polyploidy and apomixis is the genus Cotoneaster (Rosaceae), which includes approximately 150 species, most of which are polyploid apomicts. In this study, we investigated all Cotoneaster taxa distributed in a small region of Malipo, Yunnan, China. Based on the morphological characteristics, four Cotoneaster taxa were identified and sampled: C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534654/functions-and-substrates-of-plastoglobule-localized-metallopeptidase-pgm48
#18
Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Klaas J van Wijk
Plastoglobules (PGs) in chloroplasts are monolayer lipid-protein particles attached to thylakoids. The size and number of PGs per chloroplast respond dynamically to abiotic environmental stresses and developmental transitions. During senescence, the thylakoid membranes and its constituents are dismantled in controlled fashion. Leaf senescence coincides with a dramatic increase in the size of PGs, which is consistent with a functional role of PG in remobilization of thylakoid membrane components. In a recent publication (1) , we showed that PG-localized metallopeptidase PGM48 promotes natural senescence...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533973/plastomes-of-the-green-algae-hydrodictyon-reticulatum-and-pediastrum-duplex-sphaeropleales-chlorophyceae
#19
Hilary A McManus, Daniel J Sanchez, Kenneth G Karol
BACKGROUND: Comparative studies of chloroplast genomes (plastomes) across the Chlorophyceae are revealing dynamic patterns of size variation, gene content, and genome rearrangements. Phylogenomic analyses are improving resolution of relationships, and uncovering novel lineages as new plastomes continue to be characterized. To gain further insight into the evolution of the chlorophyte plastome and increase the number of representative plastomes for the Sphaeropleales, this study presents two fully sequenced plastomes from the green algal family Hydrodictyaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae), one from Hydrodictyon reticulatum and the other from Pediastrum duplex...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533898/reconstructing-a-herbivore-s-diet-using-a-novel-rbcl-dna-mini-barcode-for-plants
#20
David L Erickson, Elizabeth Reed, Padmini Ramachandran, Norman A Bourg, William J McShea, Andrea Ottesen
Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce...
May 2017: AoB Plants
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