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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352213/cucumber-mosaic-virus-coat-protein-induces-the-development-of-chlorotic-symptoms-through-interacting-with-the-chloroplast-ferredoxin-i-protein
#1
Yanhong Qiu, Yongjiang Zhang, Chaonan Wang, Rong Lei, Yupin Wu, Xinshi Li, Shuifang Zhu
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infection could induce mosaic symptoms on a wide-range of host plants. However, there is still limited information regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the development of the symptoms. In this study, the coat protein (CP) was confirmed as the symptom determinant by exchanging the CP between a chlorosis inducing CMV-M strain and a green-mosaic inducing CMV-Q strain. A yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation revealed that the chloroplast ferredoxin I (Fd I) protein interacted with the CP of CMV-M both in vitro and in vivo, but not with the CP of CMV-Q...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352182/chloroplast-genomic-resources-for-phylogeny-and-dna-barcoding-a-case-study-on-fritillaria
#2
Yu Bi, Ming-Fang Zhang, Jing Xue, Ran Dong, Yun-Peng Du, Xiu-Hai Zhang
The genus Fritillaria comprises approximately 130 perennial herbaceous species. In the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, the bulbs of 11 Fritillaria species are used in Chinese herbal medicines. However, the traditional methods of morphological classification cannot accurately identify closely related species of Fritillaria. Previous studies have attempted to identify these species with universal molecular markers, but insufficient phylogenetic signal was available. In this study, the complete chloroplast genomes of eight Fritillaria species were compared...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349662/roles-and-maturation-of-iron-sulfur-proteins-in-plastids
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan Przybyla-Toscano, Mélanie Roland, Frédéric Gaymard, Jérémy Couturier, Nicolas Rouhier
One reason why iron is an essential element for most organisms is its presence in prosthetic groups such as hemes or iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, which are notably required for electron transfer reactions. As an organelle with an intense metabolism in plants, chloroplast relies on many Fe-S proteins. This includes those present in the electron transfer chain which will be, in fact, essential for most other metabolic processes occurring in chloroplasts, e.g., carbon fixation, nitrogen and sulfur assimilation, pigment, amino acid, and vitamin biosynthetic pathways to cite only a few examples...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348211/membrane-protein-insertion-through-a-mitochondrial-%C3%AE-barrel-gate
#4
Alexandra I C Höhr, Caroline Lindau, Christophe Wirth, Jian Qiu, David A Stroud, Stephan Kutik, Bernard Guiard, Carola Hunte, Thomas Becker, Nikolaus Pfanner, Nils Wiedemann
The biogenesis of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and Gram-negative bacteria requires the insertion of β-barrel proteins into the outer membranes. Homologous Omp85 proteins are essential for membrane insertion of β-barrel precursors. It is unknown if precursors are threaded through the Omp85-channel interior and exit laterally or if they are translocated into the membrane at the Omp85-lipid interface. We have mapped the interaction of a precursor in transit with the mitochondrial Omp85-channel Sam50 in the native membrane environment...
January 19, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344723/structural-associations-between-organelle-membranes-in-nectary-parenchyma-cells
#5
Silvia Rodrigues Machado, Elisa A Gregório, Tatiane M Rodrigues
The close association between membranes and organelles, and the intense chloroplast remodeling in parenchyma cells of extrafloral nectaries occurred only at the secretion time and suggest a relationship with the nectar secretion. Associations between membranes and organelles have been well documented in different tissues and cells of plants, but poorly explored in secretory cells. Here, we described the close physical juxtaposition between membranes and organelles, mainly with chloroplasts, in parenchyma cells of Citharexylum myrianthum (Verbenaeceae) extrafloral nectaries under transmission electron microscopy, using conventional and microwave fixation...
January 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344174/expression-profile-of-cytokines-in-gastric-cancer-patients-using-proteomic-antibody-microarray
#6
Xiaoqiang Quan, Yi Ding, Ruo Feng, Xiaoyan Zhu, Qinxian Zhang
Gastric cancer (GC) is often a deadly disease due to the late diagnosis and chemoresistance that characterizes many cases of this disease. The aim of this study was to explore a panel of candidate cytokines as diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for GC. Sixteen tissue samples of GC and adjacent noncancerous mucosa were selected from GC patients (n=8) for antibody microarray analysis. Proteomic chip-based analysis was performed to simultaneously identify 507 cytokines using a cytokine antibody array in the gastric tissues to screen for differential proteins related in cases of GC...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342938/role-of-aquaporins-in-determining-carbon-and-nitrogen-status-in-higher-plants
#7
REVIEW
Limin Gao, Zhifeng Lu, Lei Ding, Junjie Guo, Min Wang, Ning Ling, Shiwei Guo, Qirong Shen
Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane proteins facilitating the transport of water and some small neutral molecules across cell membranes. In past years, much effort has been made to reveal the location of AQPs as well as their function in water transport, photosynthetic processes, and stress responses in higher plants. In the present review, we paid attention to the character of AQPs in determining carbon and nitrogen status. The role of AQPs during photosynthesis is characterized as its function in transporting water and CO₂ across the membrane of chloroplast and thylakoid; recalculated results from published studies showed that over-expression of AQPs contributed to 25% and 50% increases in stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance (gm), respectively...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342197/molecular-discrimination-of-tall-fescue-morphotypes-in-association-with-festuca-relatives
#8
Shyamal K Talukder, Perumal Azhaguvel, Konstantin Chekhovskiy, Malay C Saha
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important cool-season perennial grass species used as forage and turf, and in conservation plantings. There are three morphotypes in hexaploid tall fescue: Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous. This study was conducted to develop morphotype-specific molecular markers to distinguish Continental and Mediterranean tall fescues, and establish their relationships with other species of the Festuca genus for genomic inference. Chloroplast sequence variation and simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism were explored in 12 genotypes of three tall fescue morphotypes and four Festuca species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338837/stromule-extension-along-microtubules-coordinated-with-actin-mediated-anchoring-guides-perinuclear-chloroplast-movement-during-innate-immunity
#9
Amutha Sampath Kumar, Eunsook Park, Alexander Nedo, Ali Alqarni, Li Ren, Kyle Hoban, Shannon Modla, John H McDonald, Chandra Kambhamettu, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Jeffrey Lewis Caplan
Dynamic tubular extensions from chloroplasts called stromules have recently been shown to connect with nuclei and function during innate immunity. We demonstrate that stromules extend along microtubules (MTs) and MT organization directly affects stromule dynamics since stabilization of MTs chemically or genetically increases stromule numbers and length. Although actin filaments (AFs) are not required for stromule extension, they provide anchor points for stromules. Interestingly, there is a strong correlation between the direction of stromules from chloroplasts and the direction of chloroplast movement...
January 17, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338473/phylogenomics-of-tomato-chloroplasts-using-assembly-and-alignment-free-method
#10
Raúl Martin Amado Cattáneo, Luis Diambra, Andrés Norman McCarthy
Phylogenetics and population genetics are central disciplines in evolutionary biology. Both are based on the comparison of single DNA sequences, or a concatenation of a number of these. However, with the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, the approaches that consider large genomic data sets are of growing importance for the elucidation of evolutionary relationships among species. Among these approaches, the assembly and alignment-free methods which allow an efficient distance computation and phylogeny reconstruction are of great importance...
January 16, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335634/the-pii-signaling-protein-from-red-algae-represents-an-evolutionary-link-between-cyanobacterial-and-chloroplastida-pii-proteins
#11
Tatyana Lapina, Khaled A Selim, Karl Forchhammer, Elena Ermilova
PII superfamily consists of widespread signal transduction proteins found in all domains of life. Whereas they are well-studied in Archaea, Bacteria and Chloroplastida, no PII homolog has been analyzed in Rhodophyta (red algae), where PII is encoded by a chloroplast localized glnB gene. Here, we characterized relevant sensory properties of PII from the red alga Porphyra purpurea (PpPII) in comparison to PII proteins from different phyla of oxygenic phototrophs (cyanobacteria, Chlamydomonas and Physcomitrella) to assess evolutionary conservation versus adaptive properties...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334400/oolong-tea-and-lr-white-resin-a-new-method-of-plant-sample-preparation-for-transmission-electron-microscopy
#12
Xiaohua He, Fuzhen Guo, Bin Liu
Simplifying sample processing, shortening the sample preparation time, and adjusting procedures to suitable for new health and safety regulations, these issues are the current challenges which electron microscopic examinations need to face. In order to resolve these problems, new plant tissue sample processing protocols for transmission electron microscopy should be developed. In the present study, we chose the LR-White resin-assisted processing protocol for the ultrastructural observation of different types of plant tissues...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332287/studying-retrograde-signaling-in-plants
#13
Martyna Broda, Olivier Van Aken
Cellular homeostasis requires precise communication between various types of organelles. In particular, the communication between nucleus and semiautonomous organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts, has received widespread attention. Communication from nucleus to other organelles is known as anterograde signaling, whereas communication from mitochondria or chloroplasts to the nucleus is known as retrograde signaling. Here we discuss methods used to study retrograde signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. These methods may also be modified to study retrograde signaling in other plant species...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331923/cold-regulated-protein-slcor413im1-confers-chilling-stress-tolerance-in-tomato-plants
#14
Xiaocui Ma, Chong Chen, Minmin Yang, Xinchun Dong, Wei Lv, Qingwei Meng
Chilling stress severely affects the growth, development and productivity of crops. Chloroplast, a photosynthesis site, is extremely sensitive to chilling stress. In this study, the functions of a gene encoding a cold-regulated protein (SlCOR413IM1) under chilling stress were investigated using sense and antisense transgenic tomatoes. Under chilling stress, SlCOR413IM1 expression was rapidly induced and the sense lines exhibited better growth state of seedlings and grown tomato plants. Overexpression of SlCOR413IM1 alleviated chilling-induced damage to the chloroplast membrane and structure, whereas suppression of SlCOR413IM1 aggravated the damage to chloroplast...
January 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331649/friend-or-foe-reactive-oxygen-species-production-scavenging-and-signaling-in-plant-response-to-environmental-stresses
#15
Weronika Czarnocka, Stanisław Karpiński
In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330900/overexpression-of-microrna408-enhances-photosynthesis-growth-and-seed-yield-in-diverse-plants
#16
Jiawei Pan, Dahui Huang, Zhonglong Guo, Zheng Kuang, He Zhang, Xinyu Xie, Zengfeng Ma, Shaopei Gao, Manuel T Lerdau, Chengcai Chu, Lei Li
The ability of a plant to produce grain, fruit, or forage depends ultimately on photosynthesis. There have been few attempts, however, to study microRNAs, which are a class of endogenous small RNAs post-transcriptionally programming gene expression, in relation to photosynthetic traits. We focused on miR408, one of the most conserved plant miRNAs, and overexpressed it in parallel in Arabidopsis, tobacco, and rice. The transgenic plants all exhibited increased copper content in the chloroplast, elevated abundance of plastocyanin, and an induction of photosynthetic genes...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330702/ptac10-an-s1-domain-containing-component-of-the-transcriptionally-active-chromosome-complex-is-essential-for-plastid-gene-expression-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-is-phosphorylated-by-chloroplast-targeted-casein-kinase-ii
#17
Qing-Bo Yu, Tuan-Tuan Zhao, Lin-Shan Ye, Ling Cheng, Ying-Qian Wu, Chao Huang, Zhong-Nan Yang
In higher plant chloroplasts, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) consists of four catalytic subunits and numerous nuclear-encoded accessory proteins, including pTAC10, an S1-domain-containing protein. In this study, pTAC10 knockout lines were characterized. Two ptac10 mutants had an albino phenotype and severely impaired chloroplast development. The pTAC10 genomic sequence fused to a four-tandem MYC tag driven by its own promoter functionally complemented the ptac10-1 mutant phenotype. pTAC10 was present in both the chloroplast stroma and thylakoids...
January 12, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329302/phylogeography-and-conservation-genetics-of-the-rare-and-relict-bretschneidera-sinensis-akaniaceae
#18
Mei-Na Wang, Lei Duan, Qi Qiao, Zheng-Feng Wang, Elizabeth A Zimmer, Zhong-Chao Li, Hong-Feng Chen
Bretschneidera sinensis, a class-I protected wild plant in China, is a relic of the ancient Tertiary tropical flora endemic to Asia. However, little is known about its genetics and phylogeography. To elucidate the current phylogeographic patterns and infer the historical population dynamics of B. sinensis, and to make recommendations for its conservation, three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA (trnQ-rps16, rps8-rps11, and trnT-trnL) were amplified and sequenced across 256 individuals from 23 populations of B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324975/strong-population-bottleneck-and-repeated-demographic-expansions-of-populus-adenopoda-salicaceae-in-subtropical-china
#19
Liqiang Fan, Honglei Zheng, Richard I Milne, Lei Zhang, Kangshan Mao
Background and Aims: Glacial refugia and inter-/postglacial recolonization routes during the Quaternary of tree species in Europe and North America are well understood, but far less is known about those of tree species in subtropical eastern Asia. Thus, we have examined the phylogeographic history of Populus adenopoda (Salicaceae), one of the few poplars that naturally occur in this subtropical area. Methods: Genetic variations across the range of the species in subtropical China were surveyed using ten nuclear microsatellite loci and four chloroplast fragments (matK, trnG-psbK, psbK-psbI and ndhC-trnV)...
January 6, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320985/chlorophyll-fluorescence-analysis-revealed-essential-roles-of-ftsh11-protease-in-regulation-of-the-adaptive-responses-of-photosynthetic-systems-to-high-temperature
#20
Junping Chen, John J Burke, Zhanguo Xin
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic systems are known to be sensitive to high temperature stress. To maintain a relatively "normal" level of photosynthetic activities, plants employ a variety of adaptive mechanisms in response to environmental temperature fluctuations. Previously, we reported that the chloroplast-targeted AtFtsH11 protease played an essential role for Arabidopsis plants to survive at high temperatures and to maintain normal photosynthetic efficiency at moderately elevated temperature...
January 10, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
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