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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145606/-prokaryotic-pathway-is-not-prokaryotic-non-cyanobacterial-origin-of-the-chloroplast-lipid-biosynthetic-pathway-revealed-by-comprehensive-phylogenomic-analysis
#1
Naoki Sato, Koichiro Awai
Lipid biosynthesis within the chloroplast, or more generally plastids, was conventionally called "prokaryotic pathway", which produces glycerolipids bearing C18 acids at the sn-1 position and C16 acids at the sn-2 position, as in cyanobacteria such as Anabaena and Synechocystis. This positional specificity is determined during the synthesis of phosphatidate, which is a precursor to diacylglycerol, the acceptor of galactose for the synthesis of galactolipids. The first acylation at sn-1 is catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT or GPT), whereas the second acylation at sn-2 is performed by lysophosphatidate acyltransferase (LPAAT, AGPAT or PlsC)...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144427/the-chloroplast-genome-of-symplocarpus-renifolius-a-comparison-of-chloroplast-genome-structure-in-araceae
#2
Kyoung Su Choi, Kyu Tae Park, SeonJoo Park
Symplocarpus renifolius is a member of Araceae family that is extraordinarily diverse in appearance. Previous studies on chloroplast genomes in Araceae were focused on duckweeds (Lemnoideae) and root crops (Colocasia, commonly known as taro). Here, we determined the chloroplast genome of Symplocarpus renifolius and compared the factors, such as genes and inverted repeat (IR) junctions and performed phylogenetic analysis using other Araceae species. The chloroplast genome of S. renifolius is 158,521 bp and includes 113 genes...
November 16, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143601/morphological-description-and-dna-barcoding-study-of-sand-rice-agriophyllum-squarrosum-chenopodiaceae-collected-in-kazakhstan
#3
Yuliya Genievskaya, Saule Abugalieva, Aibatsha Zhubanysheva, Yerlan Turuspekov
BACKGROUND: Sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq.) is an annual shrub-like plant adapted to the mobile sand dunes in desert and semi-desert regions of Asia. It has a balanced nutrient composition with relatively high concentration of lipids and proteins, which results in its nutrition being similar to legumes. Sand rice's proteins contain the full range of essential amino acids. However, calories content is more similar to wheat. These features together with desert stress resistance make sand rice a potential food crop resilient to ongoing climate change...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143298/a-single-nucleotide-mutation-of-ispf-gene-involved-in-the-mep-pathway-for-isoprenoid-biosynthesis-causes-yellow-green-leaf-phenotype-in-rice
#4
Rui Huang, Yang Wang, Pingrong Wang, Chunmei Li, Fuliang Xiao, Nenggang Chen, Na Li, Caixia Li, Changhui Sun, Lihua Li, Rongjun Chen, Zhengjun Xu, Jianqing Zhu, Xiaojian Deng
We identified IspF gene through yellow-green leaf mutant 505ys in rice. OsIspF was expressed in all tissues detected, and its encoded protein was targeted to the chloroplast. On expression levels of genes in this mutant, OsIspF itself and the genes encoding other enzymes of the MEP pathway and chlorophyll synthase were all up-regulated, however, among eight genes associated with photosynthesis, only psaA, psaN and psbA genes for three reaction center subunits of photosystem obviously changed. Isoprenoids are the most abundant natural compounds in all organisms, which originate from the basic five-carbon units isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP)...
November 15, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142022/balance-between-cytosolic-and-chloroplast-translation-affects-leaf-variegation
#5
Ruijuan Wang, Jun Zhao, Min Jia, Ni Xu, Shuang Liang, Jingxia Shao, Yafei Qi, Xiayan Liu, Lijun An, Fei Yu
The development of functional chloroplasts relies on the fine coordination of expressions of both nuclear and chloroplast genomes. We have been using the Arabidopsis yellow variegated (var2) leaf variegation mutant as a tool to dissect the regulation of chloroplast development. In this work, we screened for var2 genetic enhancer modifiers termed enhancer of variegation (evr) mutants and report the characterization of the first EVR locus, EVR1. We showed that EVR1 encodes the cytosolic 80S ribosome 40S small subunit protein RPS21B and the loss of EVR1 causes the enhancement of var2 leaf variegation...
November 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140512/a-novel-tetratricopeptide-repeat-protein-white-to-green1-is-required-for-early-chloroplast-development-and-affects-rna-editing-in-chloroplasts
#6
Fei Ma, Yingchun Hu, Yan Ju, Qianru Jiang, Zhijun Cheng, Quan Zhang, Sodmergen
The chloroplast is essential for plant photosynthesis and production, but the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development is still elusive. Here, a novel gene, WHITE TO GREEN1 (WTG1), was identified to have a function in chloroplast development and plastid gene expression by screening Arabidopsis leaf coloration mutants. WTG1 encodes a chloroplast-localized tetratricopeptide repeat protein that is expressed widely in Arabidopsis cells. Disruption of WTG1 suppresses plant growth, retards leaf greening and chloroplast development, and represses photosynthetic gene expression, but complemented expression of WTG1 restored a normal phenotype...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140437/metabolite-profiling-at-the-cellular-and-subcellular-level-reveals-metabolites-associated-with-salinity-tolerance-in-sugar-beet
#7
M Sazzad Hossain, Marcus Persicke, Abdelaleim Ismail ElSayed, Jörn Kalinowski, Karl-Josef Dietz
Sugar beet is among the most salt-tolerant crops. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adaptation of sugar beet to salt stress at the cellular and subcellular levels. Seedlings were grown hydroponically and subjected to stepwise increases in salt stress up to 300 mM NaCl. Highly enriched fractions of chloroplasts were obtained by non-aqueous fractionation using organic solvents. Total leaf metabolites and metabolites in chloroplasts were profiled at 3 h and 14 d after reaching the maximum salinity stress of 300 mM NaCl...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139059/evolution-of-rubisco-activase-gene-in-plants
#8
Ragupathi Nagarajan, Kulvinder S Gill
Rubisco activase of plants evolved in a stepwise manner without losing its function to adapt to the major evolutionary events including endosymbiosis and land colonization. Rubisco activase is an essential enzyme for photosynthesis, which removes inhibitory sugar phosphates from the active sites of Rubisco, a process necessary for Rubisco activation and carbon fixation. The gene probably evolved in cyanobacteria as different species differ for its presence. However, the gene is present in all other plant species...
November 14, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138350/the-dead-box-rna-helicase-rh50-is-a-23s-4-5s-rrna-maturation-factor-that-functionally-overlaps-with-the-plastid-signaling-factor-gun1
#9
Francesca Paieri, Luca Tadini, Nikolay Manavski, Tatjana Kleine, Roberto Ferrari, Pietro Angelo Morandini, Paolo Pesaresi, Jörg Meurer, Dario Leister
DEAD-box RNA helicases (DBRHs) modulate RNA secondary structure, allowing RNA molecules to adopt the conformations required for interaction with their target proteins. RH50 is a chloroplast-located DBRH that co-localizes and is co-expressed with GUN1, a central factor in chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. When combined with mutations that impair plastid gene expression (prors1-1, prpl11-1, prps1-1, prps21-1, prps17-1 and prpl24-1), rh50 and gun1 mutations evoke similar patterns of epistatic effects. These observations, together with the synergistic growth phenotype of the double mutant rh50-1 gun1-102, suggest that RH50 and GUN1 are functionally related and that this function is associated with plastid gene expression, in particular ribosome functioning...
November 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138260/chloroplast-division-protein-arc3-acts-on-ftsz2-by-preventing-filament-bundling-and-enhancing-gtpase-activity
#10
Rahamthulla S Shaik, Min Woo Sung, Stanislav Vitha, Andreas Holzenburg
Chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacterial endosymbiotic ancestors and their division is a complex process initiated by assembly of cytoskeletal FtsZ proteins into a ring structure at the division site (Z-ring). The cyanobacterial Z-ring positioning system (MinCDE proteins) is also conserved in chloroplasts except that MinC was lost and replaced by the eukaryotic ARC3. Both MinC and ARC3 act as negative regulators of FtsZ assembly, but ARC3 bears little sequence similarity with MinC. Here, light scattering assays, co-sedimentation, GTPase assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in conjunction with single particle analysis have been used to elucidate the structure of ARC3 and its effect on its main target in chloroplast division: FtsZ2...
November 14, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134788/thermal-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-lyrata-genotypic-costs-and-transcriptional-changes
#11
Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation, and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134154/a-comparison-of-chloroplast-genome-sequences-in-aconitum-ranunculaceae-a-traditional-herbal-medicinal-genus
#12
Hanghui Kong, Wanzhen Liu, Gang Yao, Wei Gong
The herbal medicinal genus Aconitum L., belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, represents the earliest diverging lineage within the eudicots. It currently comprises of two subgenera, A. subgenus Lycoctonum and A. subg. Aconitum. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequences were characterized in three species: A. angustius, A. finetianum, and A. sinomontanum in subg. Lycoctonum and compared to other Aconitum species to clarify their phylogenetic relationship and provide molecular information for utilization of Aconitum species particularly in Eastern Asia...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133466/shine-dalgarno-sequences-play-an-essential-role-in-the-translation-of-plastid-mrnas-in-tobacco
#13
Lars B Scharff, Miriam Ehrnthaler, Marcin Janowski, Liam H Childs, Claudia Hasse, Jürgen Gremmels, Stephanie Ruf, Reimo Zoschke, Ralph Bock
In prokaryotic systems, the translation initiation of many, though not all, mRNAs depends on interaction between a sequence element upstream of the start codon (the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, SD) and a complementary sequence in the 3' end of the 16S ribosomal RNA (anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence, aSD). Although many chloroplast mRNAs harbor putative SDs in their 5' untranslated regions and the aSD displays strong conservation, the functional relevance of SD-aSD interactions in plastid translation is unclear. Here, by generating transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) mutants with point mutations in the aSD coupled with genome-wide analysis of translation by ribosome profiling, we provide a global picture of SD-dependent translation in plastids...
November 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133376/distinct-functions-of-starch-synthase-4-domains-in-starch-granule-formation
#14
Kuan-Jen Lu, Barbara Pfister, Camilla Jenny, Simona Eicke, Samuel C Zeeman
The formation of normal starch granules in Arabidopsis leaf chloroplasts requires STARCH SYNTHASE 4 (SS4). In plants lacking SS4, chloroplasts typically produce only one round granule rather than multiple lenticular granules. The mechanisms by which SS4 determines granule number and morphology are not understood. The N-terminal region of SS4 is unique among SS isoforms and contains several long coiled-coil motifs, typically implicated in protein-protein interactions. The C-terminal region contains the catalytic glucosyltransferase domains, which are widely conserved in plant SS and bacterial glycogen synthase (GS) isoforms...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132310/rapid-evolutionary-divergence-of-diploid-and-allotetraploid-gossypium-mitochondrial-genomes
#15
Zhiwen Chen, Hushuai Nie, Yumei Wang, Haili Pei, Shuangshuang Li, Lida Zhang, Jinping Hua
BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups and an allotetraploid genomic group, AD. The mitochondrial genomes supply new information to understand both the evolution process and the mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility. Based on previously released mitochondrial genomes of G. hirsutum (AD1), G. barbadense (AD2), G. raimondii (D5) and G. arboreum (A2), together with data of six other mitochondrial genomes, to elucidate the evolution and diversity of mitochondrial genomes within Gossypium...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131848/high-throughput-m6a-seq-reveals-rna-m6a-methylation-patterns-in-the-chloroplast-and-mitochondria-transcriptomes-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Zegang Wang, Kai Tang, Dayong Zhang, Yizhen Wan, Yan Wen, Quanyou Lu, Lei Wang
This study is the first to comprehensively characterize m6A patterns in the Arabidopsis chloroplast and mitochondria transcriptomes based on our open accessible data deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus with GEO Series accession number of GSE72706. Over 86% of the transcripts were methylated by m6A in the two organelles. Over 550 and 350 m6A sites were mapped, with ~5.6 to ~5.8 and ~4.6 to ~4.9 m6A sites per transcript, to the chloroplast and mitochondria genome, respectively. The overall m6A methylation extent in the two organelles was greatly higher than that in the nucleus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129605/evolution-and-adaptation-of-single-pass-transmembrane-proteins
#17
Irina D Pogozheva, Andrei L Lomize
A comparative analysis of 6,039 single-pass (bitopic) membrane proteins from six evolutionarily distant organisms was performed based on data from the Membranome database. The observed repertoire of bitopic proteins is significantly enlarged in eukaryotic cells and especially in multicellular organisms due to the diversification of enzymes, emergence of proteins involved in vesicular trafficking, and expansion of receptors, structural, and adhesion proteins. The majority of bitopic proteins in multicellular organisms are located in the plasma membrane (PM) and involved in cell communication...
November 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129375/light-controls-protein-localization-through-phytochrome-mediated-alternative-promoter-selection
#18
Tomokazu Ushijima, Kousuke Hanada, Eiji Gotoh, Wataru Yamori, Yutaka Kodama, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Miyako Kusano, Atsushi Fukushima, Mutsutomo Tokizawa, Yoshiharu Y Yamamoto, Yasuomi Tada, Yutaka Suzuki, Tomonao Matsushita
Alternative promoter usage is a proteome-expanding mechanism that allows multiple pre-mRNAs to be transcribed from a single gene. The impact of this mechanism on the proteome and whether it is positively exploited in normal organismal responses remain unclear. We found that the plant photoreceptor phytochrome induces genome-wide changes in alternative promoter selection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Through this mechanism, protein isoforms with different N termini are produced that display light-dependent differences in localization...
November 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128357/osprx2-contributes-to-stomatal-closure-and-improves-potassium-deficiency-tolerance-in-rice
#19
Xiaohui Mao, Yanmei Zheng, Kaizhuan Xiao, Yidong Wei, Yongsheng Zhu, Qiuhua Cai, Liping Chen, Huaan Xie, Jianfu Zhang
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) which are thiol-based peroxidases have been implicated in the toxic reduction and intracellular concentration regulation of hydrogen peroxide. In Arabidopsis thaliana At2-CysPrxB (At5g06290) has been demonstrated to be essential in maintaining the water-water cycle for proper H2O2 scavenging. Although the mechanisms of 2-Cys Prxs have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, the function of 2-Cys Prxs in rice is unclear. In this study, a rice homologue gene of At2-CysPrxB, OsPRX2 was investigated aiming to characterize the effect of 2-Cys Prxs on the K(+)-deficiency tolerance in rice...
November 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125620/metabolite-profiling-of-peppers-of-various-colors-reveals-relationships-between-tocopherol-carotenoid-and-phytosterol-content
#20
Tae Jin Kim, Jaehyuk Choi, Kil Won Kim, Soon Kil Ahn, Sun-Hwa Ha, Yongsoo Choi, Nam Il Park, Jae Kwang Kim
Peppers are widely consumed in Korea; the varietal development of peppers with increased content of beneficial plant metabolites is, therefore, of considerable interest. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic profile of pepper plants and the factors affecting this profile. To this end, we determined the content of various metabolites, such as hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids in peppers of various colors (green, red, pale green, and violet peppers) and in a high-pungency (green) pepper...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
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