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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645163/variations-in-chloroplast-movement-and-chlorophyll-fluorescence-among-chloroplast-division-mutants-under-light-stress
#1
Siddhartha Dutta, Jeffrey A Cruz, Saif M Imran, Jin Chen, David M Kramer, Katherine W Osteryoung
Chloroplasts divide to maintain consistent size, shape, and number in leaf mesophyll cells. Altered expression of chloroplast division proteins in Arabidopsis results in abnormal chloroplast morphology. To better understand the influence of chloroplast morphology on chloroplast movement and photosynthesis, we compared the chloroplast photorelocation and photosynthetic responses of a series of Arabidopsis chloroplast division mutants with a wide variety of chloroplast phenotypes. Chloroplast movement was monitored by red light reflectance imaging of whole plants under increasing intensities of white light...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644708/the-arabidopsis-mind-mutation-causes-aberrant-ftsz1-ring-placement-and-moderate-heterogeneity-of-chloroplasts-in-the-leaf-epidermis
#2
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Shun Sasaki, Takeshi Nakano, Yasuo Niwa, Shigeo Yoshida, Tomoko Abe, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Symmetric division of leaf mesophyll chloroplasts requires MinD and MinE, which work together to suppress division other than at the mid-chloroplast. arc11 is a MinD loss-of-function mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. In arc11 plants, asymmetric chloroplast division, as well as its delay or arrest, results in extreme size polymorphism of chloroplasts in mature mesophyll cells. The current study examined chloroplast phenotypes in the epidermis of arc11 leaves. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed that epidermal chloroplasts in mature leaves exhibited moderate heterogeneity in size...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644561/the-redox-sensitive-module-of-cyclophilin-20-3-2-cysteine-peroxiredoxin-and-cysteine-synthase-integrates-sulfur-metabolism-and-oxylipin-signaling-in-the-high-light-acclimation-response
#3
Sara M Müller, Shanshan Wang, Wilena Telman, Michael Liebthal, Helena Schnitzer, Andrea Viehhauser, Carsten Sticht, Carolina Delatorre, Markus Wirtz, Rüdiger Hell, Karl-Josef Dietz
The integration of redox- and reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling and metabolic activities are fundamental to plant acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previous data suggest the existence of a dynamically interacting module in the chloroplast stroma consisting of cyclophilin 20-3 (Cyp20-3), O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase B (OASTL-B), 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins A/B (2-CysPrx) and serine acetyltransferase 2;1 (SERAT2;1). The functionality of this COPS module is influenced by redox stimuli and oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) which is the precursor for jasmonic acid...
June 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642986/viridiuvalis-adhaerens-gen-et-sp-nov-a-novel-colony-forming-chlorarachniophyte
#4
Takashi Shiratori, Sakuya Fujita, Tenma Shimizu, Takeshi Nakayama, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
A new chlorarachniophyte, Viridiuvalis adhaerens gen. et sp. nov. was isolated from the mucus on a coral reef from Zanpa Beach, Okinawa, Japan. The main vegetative stage of V. adhaerens consisted of unicellular coccoid cells with cell walls, although sarcinoid colonies and uniflagellate zoospores were also observed. V. adhaerens had chloroplasts with nucleomorphs and pyrenoids that were completely embedded in the chloroplast. A deep plate-like invagination of the periplastidal compartment (PPC) almost partitioned the pyrenoid and chloroplast components, which were surrounded by two membranes...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642783/ibor-regulates-photosynthesis-under-heat-stress-by-stabilizing-ibpsbp-in-sweetpotato
#5
Le Kang, Ho S Kim, Young S Kwon, Qingbo Ke, Chang Y Ji, Sung-Chul Park, Haeng-Soon Lee, Xiping Deng, Sang-Soo Kwak
The Orange (Or) protein regulates carotenoid biosynthesis and environmental stress in plants. Previously, we reported that overexpression of the sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] Or gene (IbOr) in transgenic Arabidopsis (referred to as IbOr-OX/At) increased the efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and chlorophyll content after heat shock. However, little is known about the role of IbOr in PSII-mediated protection against abiotic stress. In this study, comparative proteomics revealed that expression of PsbP (an extrinsic subunit of PSII) is up-regulated in heat-treated IbOr-OX/At plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642500/genome-wide-mapping-of-dnase-i-hypersensitive-sites-reveals-chromatin-accessibility-changes-in-arabidopsis-euchromatin-and-heterochromatin-regions-under-extended-darkness
#6
Yue Liu, Wenli Zhang, Kang Zhang, Qi You, Hengyu Yan, Yuannian Jiao, Jiming Jiang, Wenying Xu, Zhen Su
Light, as the energy source in photosynthesis, is essential for plant growth and development. Extended darkness causes dramatic gene expression changes. In this study, we applied DNase-seq (DNase I hypersensitive site sequencing) to study changes of chromatin accessibility in euchromatic and heterochromatic regions under extended darkness in Arabidopsis. We generated 27 Gb DNase-seq and 67.6 Gb RNA-seq data to investigate chromatin accessibility changes and global gene expression under extended darkness and control condition in Arabidopsis...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640885/phylogeography-of-a-tough-rock-survivor-in-european-dry-grasslands
#7
Daniela Listl, Peter Poschlod, Christoph Reisch
Phylogeographic analyses of plants in Europe have revealed common glacial refugia and migration routes for several trees and herbs with arctic-alpine distributions. The postglacial histories of dry grassland species in central Europe have rarely been analyzed, even though the extremely species-rich habitat is threatened. Sedum album (Crassulaceae) is a common inhabitant of rocky sites in central European dry grasslands. We inferred the phylogeographic history of S. album over its distribution range in Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640525/early-stages-in-the-biogenesis-of-eukaryotic-%C3%AE-barrel-proteins
#8
REVIEW
Tobias Jores, Doron Rapaport
The endosymbiotic organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts harbour, similarly to their prokaryotic progenitors, β-barrel proteins in their outer membrane. These proteins are encoded on nuclear DNA, translated on cytosolic ribosomes, and imported into their target organelles by a dedicated machinery. Recent studies have provided insights into the import into the organelles and the membrane insertion of these proteins. Although the cytosolic stages of their biogenesis are less well defined, it is speculated that upon their synthesis, chaperones prevent β-barrel proteins from aggregation and keep them in an import-competent conformation...
June 22, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637286/structure-seq2-sensitive-and-accurate-genome-wide-profiling-of-rna-structure-in-vivo
#9
Laura E Ritchey, Zhao Su, Yin Tang, David C Tack, Sarah M Assmann, Philip C Bevilacqua
RNA serves many functions in biology such as splicing, temperature sensing, and innate immunity. These functions are often determined by the structure of RNA. There is thus a pressing need to understand RNA structure and how it changes during diverse biological processes both in vivo and genome-wide. Here, we present Structure-seq2, which provides nucleotide-resolution RNA structural information in vivo and genome-wide. This optimized version of our original Structure-seq method increases sensitivity by at least 4-fold and improves data quality by minimizing formation of a deleterious by-product, reducing ligation bias, and improving read coverage...
June 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637277/measuring-co2-and-hco3-permeabilities-of-isolated-chloroplasts-using-a-mims-18o-approach
#10
Dimitri Tolleter, Vincent Chochois, Richard Poiré, G Dean Price, Murray R Badger
To support photosynthetic CO2 fixation by Rubisco, the chloroplast must be fed with inorganic carbon in the form of CO2 or bicarbonate. However, the mechanisms allowing the rapid passage of this gas and this charged molecule through the bounding membranes of the chloroplast envelope are not yet completely elucidated. We describe here a method allowing us to measure the permeability of these two molecules through the chloroplast envelope using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer and 18O-labelled inorganic carbon...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634853/chloroplast-aggregation-during-the-cold-positioning-response-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#11
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Mayuko Sato, Yuka Ogasawara, Noriko Hamashima, Othmar Buchner, Andreas Holzinger, Kiminori Toyooka, Yutaka Kodama
Under low-light conditions, chloroplasts localize along periclinal cell walls at temperatures near 20 °C, but they localize along anticlinal cell walls near 5 °C. This phenomenon is known as the cold-positioning response. We previously showed that chloroplasts move as aggregates rather than individually during the cold-positioning response in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris. This observation suggested that chloroplasts physically interact with each other during the cold-positioning response. However, the physiological processes underlying chloroplast aggregation are unclear...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634473/toxic-effects-of-prodigiosin-secreted-by-hahella-sp-ka22-on-harmful-alga-phaeocystis-globosa
#12
Huajun Zhang, Hui Wang, Wei Zheng, Zhiyuan Yao, Yun Peng, Su Zhang, Zhong Hu, Zhen Tao, Tianling Zheng
Application of algicidal compounds secreted by bacteria is a promising and environmentally friendly strategy to control harmful algal blooms (HABs). Years ago prodigiosin was described as an efficient algicidal compound, but the details about the effect of prodigiosin on algal cells are still elusive. Prodigiosin shows high algicidal activity on Phaeocystis globosa, making it a potential algicide in HAB control. When P. globosa were treated with prodigiosin at 5 μg/mL, algae cells showed cytoplasmic hypervacuolization, chloroplast and nucleus rupture, flagella missing, and cell fracture, when observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634256/molecular-systematics-and-historical-biogeography-of-maianthemum-s-s
#13
Changkyun Kim, Kenneth M Cameron, Joo-Hwan Kim
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding the underlying mechanisms for the evolution of intercontinental disjunct patterns has long fascinated botanists. We present a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of Maianthemum s.l. (including Smilacina) with a focus on Maianthemum s.s. species, which have a disjunct distribution between Eurasia and North America. Within this evolutionary framework, we clarify the systematic classification and biogeographical history of Maianthemum s.s. METHOD: Data from two nuclear and five chloroplast DNA regions were analyzed using the programs PAUP*, RAxML, MrBayes, BEAST, and RASP...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633358/phylogeography-of-herbarium-specimens-of-asexually-propagated-paper-mulberry-broussonetia-papyrifera-l-l-h%C3%A3-r-ex-vent-moraceae-reveals-genetic-diversity-across-the-pacific
#14
Claudia Payacan, Ximena Moncada, Gloria Rojas, Andrew Clarke, Kuo-Fang Chung, Robin Allaby, Daniela Seelenfreund, Andrea Seelenfreund
Background and Aims: Paper mulberry or Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. (Moraceae) is a dioecious species native to continental South-east Asia and East Asia, including Taiwan, that was introduced to the Pacific by pre-historic voyagers and transported intentionally and propagated asexually across the full range of Austronesian expansion from Taiwan to East Polynesia. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dispersal of paper mulberry into Oceania through the genetic analysis of herbaria samples which represent a more complete coverage of the historical geographical range of the species in the Pacific before later introductions and local extinctions occurred...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633328/identification-and-characterization-of-a-solute-carrier-cia8-involved-in-inorganic-carbon-acclimation-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#15
Marylou C Machingura, Joanna Bajsa-Hirschel, Susan M Laborde, Joshua B Schwartzenburg, Bratati Mukherjee, Ananya Mukherjee, Steve V Pollock, Britta Förster, G Dean Price, James V Moroney
The supply of inorganic carbon (Ci) at the site of fixation by Rubisco is a key parameter for efficient CO2 fixation in aquatic organisms including the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, when grown on limiting CO2, have a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that functions to concentrate CO2 at the site of Rubisco. Proteins thought to be involved in inorganic carbon uptake have been identified and localized to the plasma membrane or chloroplast envelope. However, current CCM models suggest that additional molecular components are involved in Ci uptake...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633304/molecular-aspects-of-the-biophysical-co2-concentrating-mechanism-and-its-regulation-in-marine-diatoms
#16
Yoshinori Tsuji, Kensuke Nakajima, Yusuke Matsuda
Diatoms operate a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that drives upwards of 20% of annual global primary production. Recent progress in CCM research in the marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum revealed that this diatom directly takes up HCO3- from seawater through low-CO2-inducible plasma membrane HCO3- transporters, which belong to the solute carrier (SLC) 4 family. Apart from this, studies of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in diatoms have revealed considerable diversity in classes and localization among species...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633086/beneficial-effects-of-melatonin-in-overcoming-drought-stress-in-wheat-seedlings
#17
Guibin Cui, Xiaoxiao Zhao, Shudong Liu, Fengli Sun, Chao Zhang, Yajun Xi
Melatonin plays an important role in abiotic stress in plant, but its role in wheat drought tolerance is less known. To verify its role, wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yan 995') at 60% and 40% of field capacity were treated with 500 μM melatonin in this study. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the drought tolerance of wheat seedlings, as demonstrated by decreased membrane damage, more intact grana lamella of chloroplast, higher photosynthetic rate, and maximum efficiency of photosystem II, as well as higher cell turgor and water holding capacity in melatonin-treated seedlings...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631733/plastid-thylakoid-architecture-optimizes-photosynthesis-in-diatoms
#18
Serena Flori, Pierre-Henri Jouneau, Benjamin Bailleul, Benoit Gallet, Leandro F Estrozi, Christine Moriscot, Olivier Bastien, Simona Eicke, Alexander Schober, Carolina Río Bártulos, Eric Maréchal, Peter G Kroth, Dimitris Petroutsos, Samuel Zeeman, Cécile Breyton, Guy Schoehn, Denis Falconet, Giovanni Finazzi
Photosynthesis is a unique process that allows independent colonization of the land by plants and of the oceans by phytoplankton. Although the photosynthesis process is well understood in plants, we are still unlocking the mechanisms evolved by phytoplankton to achieve extremely efficient photosynthesis. Here, we combine biochemical, structural and in vivo physiological studies to unravel the structure of the plastid in diatoms, prominent marine eukaryotes. Biochemical and immunolocalization analyses reveal segregation of photosynthetic complexes in the loosely stacked thylakoid membranes typical of diatoms...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630009/identification-of-two-frataxin-isoforms-in-zea-mays-structural-and-functional-studies
#19
Celeste Buchensky, Manuel Sánchez, Martin Carrillo, Oscar Palacios, Mercè Capdevila, Jose M Domínguez-Vera, Maria V Busi, Sílvia Atrian, Maria A Pagani, Diego F Gomez-Casati
Frataxin is a ubiquitous protein that plays a role in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis and iron and heme metabolism, although its molecular functions are not entirely clear. In non-photosynthetic eukaryotes, frataxin is encoded by a single gene, and the protein localizes to mitochondria. Here we report the presence of two functional frataxin isoforms in Zea mays, ZmFH-1 and ZmFH-2. We confirmed our previous findings regarding plant frataxins: both proteins have dual localization in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Physiological, biochemical and biophysical studies show some differences in the expression pattern, protection against oxidants and in the aggregation state of both isoforms, suggesting that the two frataxin homologs would play similar but not identical roles in plant cell metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629321/the-biocontrol-agent-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-pa23-primes-brassica-napus-defenses-through-distinct-gene-networks
#20
Kelly A Duke, Michael G Becker, Ian J Girard, Jenna L Millar, W G Dilantha Fernando, Mark F Belmonte, Teresa R de Kievit
BACKGROUND: The biological control agent Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is capable of protecting Brassica napus (canola) from the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum via direct antagonism. While we have elucidated bacterial genes and gene products responsible biocontrol, little is known about how the host plant responds to bacterial priming on the leaf surface, including global changes in gene activity in the presence and absence of S. sclerotiorum. RESULTS: Application of PA23 to the aerial surfaces of canola plants reduced the number of S...
June 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
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