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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149730/divergence-of-insulin-superfamily-ligands-receptors-and-igf-binding-proteins-in-marine-versus-freshwater-stickleback-evidence-of-selection-in-known-and-novel-genes
#1
Tim Pellissier, Hend Al Nafea, Sara V Good
Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a teleost model for understanding genetic, physiological and morphological changes accompanying freshwater (FW) adaptation. There is growing evidence that the insulin superfamily plays important roles in traits involved in marine and FW adaptation. We performed a candidate gene analysis to look for evidence of selection on 33 insulin superfamily ligand-receptor genes and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (Igfbp's) in stickleback. Using genotype data from 11 marine and 10 FW populations, we calculated the number of SNPs per site in regulatory and intronic regions, the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in coding regions, Wright's fixation index (Fst), and performed t-tests to identify SNPs with divergent genotype frequencies between marine/FW versus Atlantic/Pacific populations...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084059/insl3-expression-in-leydig-cell-hyperplasia-and-leydig-cell-tumors
#2
Nelli S Lakis, Kara A Lombardo, Shamlal Mangray, George J Netto, Daniela Salles, Andres Matoso
Insulin-like 3 (INSL3) is a hormone produced by Leydig cells (LCs) and leads to physiological testicular descent during embryonic development. We investigated the expression of INSL3 by immunohistochemistry in normal LCs, in Leydig cell tumor (LCT) (n=17 including 15 testes and 2 ovaries) and in Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCH) (n=10). Normally distributed LCs showed strong immunostaining in the cytoplasm in all cases. All 10 cases (100%) of LCH were strongly and diffusely positive in the intertubular areas. Six cases of LCH had nodules raging in size from 0...
October 27, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028960/ovarian-follicular-theca-cell-recruitment-differentiation-and-impact-on-fertility-2017-update
#3
JoAnne S Richards, Yi A Ren, Nicholes Candelaria, Jaye E Adams, Aleksandar Rajkovic
The major goal of this review is to summarize recent exciting findings that have been published within the past 10 years that, to our knowledge, have not been presented in detail in previous reviews and that may impact altered follicular development in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and premature ovarian failure (POF) in women. Specifically, we will cover 1) mouse models that have led to discovery of the derivation of two precursor populations of theca cells in the embryonic gonad, 2) the key roles of the oocyte-derived factor GDF9 on the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway and theca cell functions and 3) the impact of the HH pathway on both the specification of theca endocrine cells and theca fibroblast and smooth muscle cells in developing follicles...
October 5, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988628/challenges-in-the-design-of-insulin-and-relaxin-insulin-like-peptide-mimetics
#4
REVIEW
Mohammed Akhter Hossain, Ross A D Bathgate
Peptidomimetics are designed to overcome the poor pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics associated with the native peptide or protein on which they are based. The design of peptidomimetics starts from developing structure-activity relationships of the native ligand-target pair that identify the key residues that are responsible for the biological effect of the native peptide or protein. Then minimization of the structure and introduction of constraints are applied to create the core active site that can interact with the target with high affinity and selectivity...
September 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974703/sex-steroid-production-associated-with-puberty-is-absent-in-germ-cell-free-salmon
#5
Lene Kleppe, Eva Andersson, Kai Ove Skaftnesmo, Rolf B Edvardsen, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Birgitta Norberg, Jan Bogerd, Rüdiger W Schulz, Anna Wargelius
In all vertebrates studied so far, germ cells are not required for pubertal maturation of the gonadal steroidogenic system, subsequent development of secondary sex characteristics and reproductive behavior. To explore if the absence of germ cells affects puberty or growth in Atlantic salmon, germ cell-free (GCF), dnd knockout and wild type (WT) postsmolts were stimulated to enter puberty. No GCF fish entered puberty, whereas 66.7% (males) and 30% (females) WT fish completed or entered puberty, respectively...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893856/distinct-and-cooperative-roles-of-amh-and-dmrt1-in-self-renewal-and-differentiation-of-male-germ-cells-in-zebrafish
#6
Qiaohong Lin, Jie Mei, Zhi Li, Xuemei Zhang, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Spermatogenesis is a fundamental process in male reproductive biology and depends on precise balance between self-renewal and differentiation of male germ cells. However, the regulative factors for controlling the balance are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the roles of amh and dmrt1 in male germ cell development by generating their mutants with Crispr/Cas9 technology in zebrafish. Amh mutant zebrafish displayed a female-biased sex ratio, and both male and female amh mutants developed hypertrophic gonads due to uncontrolled proliferation and impaired differentiation of germ cells...
November 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820402/does-signaling-of-estrogen-related-receptors-affect-structure-and-function-of-bank-vole-leydig-cells
#7
P Pawlicki, A Milon, M Zarzycka, J Galas, W Tworzydlo, A Kaminska, L Pardyak, K Lesniak, A Pacwa, B Bilinska, E Gorowska-Wojtowicz, M Kotula-Balak
To get a deeper insight into the function of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) and dissect underlying mechanism in Leydig cells, ERRs (type α, β and γ) were blocked or activated in testes of adult bank voles (Myodes glareolus) which show seasonal changes in the intratesticular sex hormones level. Both actively reproducing animals (long day conditions; LD) and those with regression of the reproductive system (short day conditions; SD) received intraperitoneal injections of selective ERRα antagonist 3-[4-(2,4-Bis-trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-2-cyano-N-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acrylamide (XCT 790) or selective ERRβ/ERRγ agonist N-(4-(Diethylaminobenzylidenyl)-N'-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-hydrazine (DY131) (50 μ/kg bw; six doses every other day)...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710293/probing-gata-factor-function-in-mouse-leydig-cells-via-testicular-injection-of-adenoviral-vectors
#8
Gervette M Penny, Rebecca B Cochran, Marjut Pihlajoki, Antti Kyrönlahti, Anja Schrade, Merja Häkkinen, Jorma Toppari, Markku Heikinheimo, David B Wilson
Testicular Leydig cells produce androgens essential for proper male reproductive development and fertility. Here, we describe a new Leydig cell ablation model based on Cre/Lox recombination of mouse Gata4 and Gata6, two genes implicated in the transcriptional regulation of steroidogenesis. The testicular interstitium of adult Gata4(flox/flox) ; Gata6(flox/flox) mice was injected with adenoviral vectors encoding Cre + GFP (Ad-Cre-IRES-GFP) or GFP alone (Ad-GFP). The vectors efficiently and selectively transduced Leydig cells, as evidenced by GFP reporter expression...
October 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645248/characterizing-the-reproductive-transcriptomic-correlates-of-acute-dehydration-in-males-in-the-desert-adapted-rodent-peromyscus-eremicus
#9
Lauren Kordonowy, Matthew MacManes
BACKGROUND: The understanding of genomic and physiological mechanisms related to how organisms living in extreme environments survive and reproduce is an outstanding question facing evolutionary and organismal biologists. One interesting example of adaptation is related to the survival of mammals in deserts, where extreme water limitation is common. Research on desert rodent adaptations has focused predominantly on adaptations related to surviving dehydration, while potential reproductive physiology adaptations for acute and chronic dehydration have been relatively neglected...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634453/relaxin-family-peptide-receptors-1-and-2-are-fully-functional-in-the-bovine
#10
Yanzhenzi Dai, Richard Ivell, Xuan Liu, Dana Janowski, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
In most mammals the peptide hormone relaxin is a key physiological component regulating early pregnancy and birth. However, synteny analysis shows that the gene encoding ovarian relaxin-2 is deleted in cows and sheep. While, these ruminants appear to exhibit a relaxin-like physiology, as in other mammals, until now a molecular understanding of this has been lacking. Cloning and expression analysis of the cognate bovine receptor for relaxin, RXFP1, as well as of the structurally related receptor, RXFP2, in female tissues, shows that these are expressed in a similar way to other mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607406/distinct-activation-modes-of-the-relaxin-family-peptide-receptor-2-in-response-to-insulin-like-peptide-3-and-relaxin
#11
Shoni Bruell, Ashish Sethi, Nicholas Smith, Daniel J Scott, Mohammed Akhter Hossain, Qing-Ping Wu, Zhan-Yun Guo, Emma J Petrie, Paul R Gooley, Ross A D Bathgate
Relaxin family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2) is a GPCR known for its role in reproductive function. It is structurally related to the human relaxin receptor RXFP1 and can be activated by human gene-2 (H2) relaxin as well as its cognate ligand insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3). Both receptors possess an N-terminal low-density lipoprotein type a (LDLa) module that is necessary for activation and is joined to a leucine-rich repeat domain by a linker. This linker has been shown to be important for H2 relaxin binding and activation of RXFP1 and herein we investigate the role of the equivalent region of RXFP2...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487028/insl3-and-amh-in-patients-with-previously-congenital-or-acquired-undescended-testes
#12
Jocelyn van Brakel, Sabine M P F de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Frans W J Hazebroek, Gert R Dohle, Frank H de Jong
BACKGROUND: In previous reports no differences in Leydig and Sertoli cell function were found between congenital undescended testis (CUDT) and acquired UDT (AUDT) on the basis of serum levels of LH, testosterone, FSH or inhibin B. This study tried to detect differences in Leydig and Sertoli cell function between CUDT and AUDT using insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). METHOD: 118 men with a history of UDT (CUDT N=55 (6/55 bilateral), AUDT N=63 (15/63 bilateral)) were investigated...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482050/parallel-assessment-of-the-effects-of-bisphenol-a-and-several-of-its-analogs-on-the-adult-human-testis
#13
C Desdoits-Lethimonier, L Lesné, P Gaudriault, D Zalko, J P Antignac, Y Deceuninck, C Platel, N Dejucq-Rainsford, S Mazaud-Guittot, B Jégou
STUDY QUESTION: Are bisphenol A (BPA) and BPA analogs (BPA-A) safe for male human reproductive function? SUMMARY ANSWER: The endocrine function of human testes explants [assessed by measuring testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3)] was impacted by exposure of the human adult testis explants to BPA/BPA-A. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The few epidemiologic studies performed suggest that bisphenols have potential endocrine disruptive properties, but they did not identify clear and direct patterns of endocrine disruption...
July 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432091/suppressive-effects-of-tnf%C3%AE-il6-and-macrophages-on-thecal-androgen-production
#14
Moafaq S Samir, Claire Glister, Dareen Mattar, Mhairi Laird, Philip G Knight
Pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages and other cell-types are implicated as intra-ovarian factors affecting different aspects of ovarian function including follicle and corpus luteum 'turnover', steroidogenesis and angiogenesis. Here, we compared granulosal (GC) and thecal (TC) expression of TNF, IL6 and their receptors (TNFR1, TNFRSF1B, IL6R) during bovine antral follicle development; all five mRNA transcripts were detected in both GC and TC and statistically significant cell-type and follicle stage-related differences were evident...
April 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295519/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-associated-with-nonsyndromic-cryptorchidism-in-mexican-patients
#15
M Chávez-Saldaña, R M Vigueras-Villaseñor, E Yokoyama-Rebollar, D A Landero-Huerta, J C Rojas-Castañeda, L Taja-Chayeb, J O Cuevas-Alpuche, E Zambrano
Cryptorchidism is a frequent genitourinary malformation considered as an important risk factor for infertility and testicular malignancy. The aetiology of cryptorchidism is multifactorial in which certain SNPs, capable of inhibiting the development of the gubernaculum, are implicated. We analysed 16 SNPs by allelic discrimination and automated sequencing in 85 patients and 99 healthy people, with the objective to identify the association between these variants and isolated cryptorchidism. In two different patients with unilateral cryptorchidism, we found the variants rs121912556 and p...
March 10, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281692/ibuprofen-results-in-alterations-of-human-fetal-testis-development
#16
Millissia Ben Maamar, Laurianne Lesné, Kristin Hennig, Christèle Desdoits-Lethimonier, Karen R Kilcoyne, Isabelle Coiffec, Antoine D Rolland, Cécile Chevrier, David M Kristensen, Vincent Lavoué, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Bruno Le Bizec, Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford, Rod T Mitchell, Séverine Mazaud-Guittot, Bernard Jégou
Among pregnant women ibuprofen is one of the most frequently used pharmaceutical compounds with up to 28% reporting use. Regardless of this, it remains unknown whether ibuprofen could act as an endocrine disruptor as reported for fellow analgesics paracetamol and aspirin. To investigate this, we exposed human fetal testes (7-17 gestational weeks (GW)) to ibuprofen using ex vivo culture and xenograft systems. Ibuprofen suppressed testosterone and Leydig cell hormone INSL3 during culture of 8-9 GW fetal testes with concomitant reduction in expression of the steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and HSD17B3, and of INSL3...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237342/changes-of-plasma-concentrations-of-insulin-like-peptide-3-and-testosterone-and-their-association-with-scrotal-circumference-during-pubertal-development-in-male-goats
#17
M A Hannan, N Kawate, Y Fukami, W W P N Weerakoon, E E Büllesbach, T Inaba, H Tamada
Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) has been used as a testis-specific biomarker for puberty in several species, but the secretory profile of INSL3 during pubertal development in small ruminants is unknown. Here we sought to determine the age-related changes in the plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone and their association with scrotal circumference during pubertal development in five male Shiba goats. Blood samples and scrotal circumference measurement were taken every 2 weeks from week 10 to week 52 of each goat's lifespan...
April 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152410/semen-quality-and-insulin-like-factor-3-associations-with-urinary-and-seminal-levels-of-phthalate-metabolites-in-adult-males
#18
Wei-Hsiang Chang, Meng-Hsing Wu, Hsien-An Pan, Pao-Lin Guo, Ching-Chang Lee
Certain phthalates have adverse effects on male reproductive functions in animals, and potentially affect human testicular function and spermatogenesis, but little is known about the active mechanisms. We measured the urinary and seminal phthalate metabolites and explored their associations on insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) and semen quality. Urine, blood, and semen samples were collected from the male partners of subfertile (n = 253) and fertile (n = 37) couples in a reproductive center in southern Taiwan...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933606/relaxin-like-peptides-in-male-reproduction-a-human-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Alexander I Agoulnik, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
The relaxin family of peptide hormones and their cognate GPCRs are becoming physiologically well-characterized in the cardiovascular system and particularly in female reproductive processes. Much less is known about the physiology and pharmacology of these peptides in male reproduction, particularly as regards humans. H2-relaxin is involved in prostate function and growth, while insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a major product of the testicular Leydig cells and, in the adult, appears to modulate steroidogenesis and germ cell survival...
May 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922185/relaxin-family-peptides-structure-activity-relationship-studies
#20
REVIEW
Nitin A Patil, K Johan Rosengren, Frances Separovic, John D Wade, Ross A D Bathgate, Mohammed Akhter Hossain
The human relaxin peptide family consists of seven cystine-rich peptides, four of which are known to signal through relaxin family peptide receptors, RXFP1-4. As these peptides play a vital role physiologically and in various diseases, they are of considerable importance for drug discovery and development. Detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies towards understanding the role of important residues in each of these peptides have been reported over the years and utilized for the design of antagonists and minimized agonist variants...
May 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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