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Transitional b cell syk

Susann Hüttl, Kathrin Kläsener, Michaela Schweizer, Janna Schneppenheim, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Dieter Kabelitz, Michael Reth, Paul Saftig, Bernd Schröder
The invariant chain (CD74), a chaperone in MHC class II-mediated Ag presentation, is sequentially processed by different endosomal proteases. We reported recently that clearance of the final membrane-bound N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 is mediated by the intramembrane protease signal peptide peptidase-like (SPPL)2a, a process critical for B cell development. In mice, SPPL2a deficiency provokes the accumulation of this NTF in endocytic vesicles, which leads to a B cell maturation arrest at the transitional 1 stage...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Nan-Hua Chang, Timothy T Li, Julie J Kim, Carolina Landolt-Marticorena, Paul R Fortin, Dafna D Gladman, Murray B Urowitz, Joan E Wither
Previous studies suggest that the B cells of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) are hyper-responsive to BCR crosslinking; however, it has been unclear whether this is the result of altered B cell signaling or differences in various B cell subpopulations in SLE patients as compared to healthy controls. Here we have developed a novel Phosflow technique that permits examination of cell signaling in distinct B cell subpopulations stratified based upon developmental stage and cell surface IgM levels, which we use to show that the naïve B cells of SLE patients are hyper-responsive to IgM receptor crosslinking, resulting in increased SYK phosphorylation...
April 2015: Journal of Autoimmunity
Mariya O Krisenko, Robert L Geahlen
SYK (spleen tyrosine kinase) is well-characterized in the immune system as an essential enzyme required for signaling through multiple classes of immune recognition receptors. As a modulator of tumorigenesis, SYK has a bit of a schizophrenic reputation, acting in some cells as a tumor promoter and in others as a tumor suppressor. In many hematopoietic malignancies, SYK provides an important survival function and its inhibition or silencing frequently leads to apoptosis. In cancers of non-immune cells, SYK provides a pro-survival signal, but can also suppress tumorigenesis by restricting epithelial-mesenchymal transition, enhancing cell-cell interactions and inhibiting migration...
January 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Melanie Uhde, Svenja Kuehl, Ulricke Richardt, Bernhard Fleischer, Anke Osterloh
Transgenic over-expression of CD83 on B cells leads to a reduced response to BCR engagement but to an enhanced secretion of IL-10 upon LPS stimulation. In this study, we analyzed the differential influence of CD83 on the stimulation of different B cell subsets via the BCR or TLR4. Neither wild type nor CD83 transgenic (CD83tg) B cells produced any IL-10 in response to BCR stimulation. BCR engagement led to reduced activation of LYN, SYK and ERK1/2 resulting in reduced numbers of proliferating cells in all CD83tg B cell subsets...
September 2013: International Immunology
Paul M Barr, Chungwen Wei, James Roger, Julia Schaefer-Cutillo, Jennifer L Kelly, Alexander F Rosenberg, John Jung, Iñaki Sanz, Jonathan W Friedberg
Cell signaling initiated by the B cell receptor is critical to normal development of B lymphocytes, most notably at the transitional B cell stage. Inhibition of this signaling pathway with the syk inhibitor, fostamatinib, has produced significant efficacy in lymphoid malignancies and autoimmune conditions. Here, we demonstrate that short-term use of fostamatinib impairs B lymphocyte development at the transitional stage without affecting mature B cell populations. Additionally, IL-10 producing B cells remained relatively constant throughout the treatment period...
March 2012: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Shuhua Cheng, Greg Coffey, X Hannah Zhang, Rita Shaknovich, Zibo Song, Pin Lu, Anjali Pandey, Ari M Melnick, Uma Sinha, Y Lynn Wang
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and the role of SYK in its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Using tissue microarray, we demonstrated for the first time that SYK protein is activated in 27 of 61 (44%) primary human DLBCL tissues. Among DLBCL cell lines, 7 were sensitive and 3 were resistant to a highly specific SYK inhibitor, PRT060318. In sensitive DLBCL cells, SYK inhibition blocked the G(1)-S transition and caused cell-cycle arrest. This effect was reproduced by genetic reduction of SYK using siRNA...
December 8, 2011: Blood
Robert B Henderson, Katarzyna Grys, Anne Vehlow, Carine de Bettignies, Agnieszka Zachacz, Tom Henley, Martin Turner, Facundo Batista, Victor L J Tybulewicz
Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases transduce signals from multiple receptors leading to cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, and survival. In the absence of Rac1 and Rac2, B cell development is arrested at an IgD- transitional B cell stage that we term transitional type 0 (T0). We show that T0 cells cannot enter the white pulp of the spleen until they mature into the T1 and T2 stages, and that this entry into the white pulp requires integrin and chemokine receptor signaling and is required for cell survival. In the absence of Rac1 and Rac2, transitional B cells are unable to migrate in response to chemokines and cannot enter the splenic white pulp...
April 12, 2010: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Haifeng Song, Juan Zhang, Y Jeffrey Chiang, Reuben P Siraganian, Richard J Hodes
Deficiency in the adaptor protein B cell linker protein (BLNK) results in a substantial but incomplete block in B cell development, suggesting that alternative pathways exist for B lineage differentiation. Another adaptor protein, c-Cbl, plays a negative regulatory role in several BCR-signaling pathways. We therefore investigated the role of c-Cbl during B cell development and addressed the possibility that redundancies in pathways for B cell differentiation could be further revealed by eliminating negative effects mediated by c-Cbl...
January 15, 2007: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
J R Faeder, M L Blinov, B Goldstein, W S Hlavacek
The activities and interactions of proteins that govern the cellular response to a signal generate a multitude of protein phosphorylation states and heterogeneous protein complexes. Here, using a computational model that accounts for 307 molecular species implied by specified interactions of four proteins involved in signalling by the immunoreceptor FcepsilonRI, we determine the relative importance of molecular species that can be generated during signalling, chemical transitions among these species, and reaction paths that lead to activation of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) Syk...
March 2005: Systems Biology
Miguel A de la Fuente, Lalit Kumar, Bao Lu, Raif S Geha
The adapter protein 3BP2 is expressed in lymphocytes; binds to Syk/ZAP-70, Vav, and phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma); and is thought to be important for interleukin-2 gene transcription in T cells. To define the role of 3BP2 in lymphocyte development and function, we generated 3BP2-deficient mice. T-cell development, proliferation, cytokine secretion, and signaling in response to T-cell receptor (TCR) ligation were all normal in 3BP2(-/-) mice. 3BP2(-/-) mice had increased accumulation of pre-B cells in the bone marrow and a block in the progression of transitional B cells in the spleen from the T1 to the T2 stage, but normal numbers of mature B cells...
July 2006: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Rachael Siegel, Unkyu Kim, Alina Patke, Xin Yu, Xiaodi Ren, Alexander Tarakhovsky, Robert G Roeder
OCA-B was originally identified as a nuclear transcriptional coactivator that is essential for antigen-driven immune responses. The later identification of a membrane bound, myristoylated form of OCA-B suggested additional, unique functions in B cell signaling pathways. This study has shown that OCA-B also functions in the pre-B1-to-pre-B2 cell transition and, most surprisingly, that it directly interacts with SYK, a tyrosine kinase critical for pre-BCR and BCR signaling. This unprecedented type of interaction-a transcriptional coactivator with a signaling kinase-occurs in the cytoplasm and directly regulates SYK stability...
May 19, 2006: Cell
S M Grande, E Katz, J E Crowley, M S Bernardini, S R Ross, J G Monroe
Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) are involved in the transduction of signals necessary for activation, differentiation, and survival in hematopoietic cells. Several viruses have been shown to encode ITAM-containing transmembrane proteins. Although expression of these viral proteins has in some cases been shown to transform nonhematopoietic cells, a causal role for a functional ITAM in this process has not been elucidated. To examine the potential transforming properties of ITAM-containing proteins, a recombinant protein consisting of ITAM-containing cytoplasmic regions of the B-cell antigen receptor was expressed in immortalized murine mammary epithelial and fibroblast cells...
May 4, 2006: Oncogene
Mary Ann Thompson, Jennifer Stumph, Sarah E Henrickson, Andreas Rosenwald, Qifu Wang, Sandy Olson, Stephen J Brandt, Jeremy Roberts, Xueqiong Zhang, Yu Shyr, Marsha C Kinney
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive large T- or null-cell lymphoma. Most ALCLs arising in children and young adults express a constitutively active receptor tyrosine kinase, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Anaplastic large cell lymphomas lacking ALK are clinically heterogeneous and their pathogenesis is unknown. This study is the first complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis using RNA extracted from tumor tissue (7 ALK+ ALCLs and 7 ALK- ALCLs) to identify genes differentially expressed or shared between the ALK+ and ALK- tumors...
May 2005: Human Pathology
Sandra Lavens, Emmanuel A Faust, Fang Lu, Michele Jacob, Messele Leta, Paul M Lieberman, Ellen Puré
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a potentially oncogenic herpesvirus that infects >90% of the world's population. EBV exists predominantly as a latent infection in B lymphocytes, with periodic lytic-cycle reactivation essential for cellular and host transmission. Viral reactivation can be stimulated by ligand-induced activation of B-cell-receptor (BCR)-coupled signaling pathways. The critical first step in the transition from latency to the lytic cycle is the expression of the viral immediate-early gene BZLF1 through the transcription activation of its promoter, Zp...
August 2004: Journal of Virology
Edina Schweighoffer, Lesley Vanes, Anne Mathiot, Tetsuya Nakamura, Victor L J Tybulewicz
ZAP-70, a member of the Syk family of tyrosine kinases, has been reported to be expressed exclusively in T and NK cells. We show here that it is expressed throughout B cell development and that it plays a role in the transition of pro-B to pre-B cells in the bone marrow, a checkpoint controlled by signals from the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR), which monitors for successful rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Whereas mice deficient in Syk show a partial block at this step, mice mutant in both Syk and ZAP-70 show a complete block at the pro-B cell stage and a failure of heavy chain allelic exclusion, hallmarks of defective pre-BCR signaling...
April 2003: Immunity
Karyn Siemasko, Brian J Skaggs, Shara Kabak, Edward Williamson, Bruce K Brown, Wenxia Song, Marcus R Clark
Ags that cross-link the B cell Ag receptor are preferentially and rapidly delivered to the MHC class II-enriched compartment for processing into peptides and subsequent loading onto MHC class II. Proper sorting of Ag/receptor complexes requires the recruitment of Syk to the phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif tyrosines of the B cell Ag receptor constituent Igalpha. We postulated that the Igalpha nonimmunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif tyrosines, Y(176) and Y(204), contributed to receptor trafficking...
March 1, 2002: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
P A Goodman, C M Wood, A Vassilev, C Mao, F M Uckun
The cytoplasmic spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a key regulator of signal transduction events, apoptosis and orderly cell cycle progression in B-lineage lymphoid cells. Although SYK has not been linked to a human disease, defective expression of the closely related T-cell tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 has been associated with severe combined immunodeficiency. Childhood CD19(+)CD10(-) pro-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is thought to originate from B-cell precursors with a maturational arrest at the pro-B cell stage and it is associated with poor prognosis...
July 5, 2001: Oncogene
M Turner, P J Mee, P S Costello, O Williams, A A Price, L P Duddy, M T Furlong, R L Geahlen, V L Tybulewicz
The tyrosine kinase Syk (relative molecular mass 72,000), which is widely expressed in haematopoietic cells, becomes associated with and activated by engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor. Furthermore, it has been implicated in signalling through the receptors for interleukin-2 (IL-2), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Fc, the T cell receptor, as well as through receptors for several platelet agonists. A homologous kinase, ZAP-70, is crucial in signalling through the T-cell receptor and in T-cell development...
November 16, 1995: Nature
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