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Xia Sun, Xiao Song, Li Zhang, Jian Sun, Xinbing Wei, Liya Meng, Jie An
Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are a class of cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors with a major role in innate immunity. Fourteen of the twenty-two human NLRs contain a pyrin domain and form the NLRP subfamily (NLRPs). Among NLRPs, NLRP2 is less well-understood in aspects of distribution and functions, especially in central nervous system (CNS). This study was the first to explore the expression of NLRP2 in central nervous system both under normal conditions and in ischemic stroke models...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Min Shen, Lin Tang, Xiaochun Shi, Xiaofeng Zeng, Qingping Yao
As one of the systemic autoinflammatory diseases (SAIDs), the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein (NLRP)12 autoinflammatory disease (NLRP12-AD) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with NLRP12 mutation. SAIDs have been hardly reported in the Chinese population, and NLRP12-AD has been reported only in Caucasians. We report the first case series of NLRP12-AD in the Chinese population coupled with literature review. Three Han Chinese adult patients with clinical phenotype suggestive of NLRP12-AD carrying NLRP12 variants were treated by the authors in 2015...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Dan Zhao, Yaqin Wu, Jiabao Zhuang, Chun Xu, Fuqiang Zhang
Inflammasomes have been reported to be present in periodontal inflammatory tissue, but the exact role of inflammasomes in periodontal inflammatory reactions especially those related to mechanical stimulations has not been clarified. In this study, it was shown that cyclic stretch activated the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 1 and 3 (NLRP1 and NLRP3) inflammasomes and induced the release of IL-1β and pyroptosis via a caspase-1-related mechanism in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs)...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Elisa Benetti, Raffaella Mastrocola, Giovanna Vitarelli, Juan Carlos Cutrin, Debora Nigro, Fausto Chiazza, Eric Mayoux, Massimo Collino, Roberto Fantozzi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with empagliflozin, a potent and selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, in a murine model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, focusing on drug effects on body weight reduction and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome activation, which have never been investigated to date. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed control or a high fat-high sugar (HFHS) diet for 4 months. Over the last 2 months, subsets of animals were treated with empagliflozin (1-10 mg/kg) added to the diet...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Jong-Hyun Kim, Hae-Jin Sohn, Jong-Kyun Yoo, Heekyoung Kang, Gi-Sang Seong, Yong-Joon Chwae, Kyongmin Kim, Sun Park, Ho-Joon Shin
Naegleria fowleri, known as the brain-eating amoeba, causes acute primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. During swimming and other recreational water activities, N. fowleri trophozoites penetrate the nasal mucosa and invade the olfactory bulbs, resulting in intense inflammatory reactions in the forebrain tissue. To investigate what kinds of inflammasome molecules are expressed in target cells due to N. fowleri infection, human macrophage cells (THP-1 cells) were cocultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a noncontact system, and consequently, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production was estimated...
September 2016: Infection and Immunity
Alexander Asmussen, Katrin Fink, Hans-Jörg Busch, Thomas Helbing, Natascha Bourgeois, Christoph Bode, Sebastian Grundmann
BACKGROUND: Whole body ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) induces a generalized inflammatory response which contributes to the development of post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS). Recently, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasomes, have been shown to mediate the inflammatory response in IRI. In this study we investigated monocyte PRR signaling and function in PCAS. METHODS: Blood samples were drawn in the first 12 hours, and at 24 and 48 hours following return of spontaneous circulation in 51 survivors after cardiac arrest...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Wu Jiang, Maoqiang Li, Fan He, Zhenyu Bian, Qifang He, Xuepeng Wang, Wangxiang Yao, Liulong Zhu
AIMS: The present study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of asiatic acid (AA) on spinal cord injury (SCI) as well as the underlying mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=150) were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, SCI, SCI+methylprednisolone (30mg/kg), SCI+AA (30mg/kg), and SCI+AA (75mg/kg). Motor function, histological changes, neutrophil infiltration, proinflammatory cytokine production, and oxidative stress as well as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf)2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein (NLRP)3 levels were evaluated...
July 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Pedro A Ruiz, Belen Morón, Helen M Becker, Silvia Lang, Kirstin Atrott, Marianne R Spalinger, Michael Scharl, Kacper A Wojtal, Anne Fischbeck-Terhalle, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Martin Hausmann, Thomas Kraemer, Gerhard Rogler
OBJECTIVE: Western lifestyle and diet are major environmental factors playing a role in the development of IBD. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used as food additives or in pharmaceutical formulations and are consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. We investigated the effects of TiO2 in the development of colitis and the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain receptor, pyrin domain containing (NLRP)3 inflammasome. DESIGN: Wild-type and NLRP3-deficient mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis were orally administered with TiO2 nanoparticles...
February 4, 2016: Gut
Cornelia Mardare, Karsten Krüger, Gerhard Liebisch, Michael Seimetz, Aline Couturier, Robert Ringseis, Jochen Wilhelm, Norbert Weissmann, Klaus Eder, Frank-Christoph Mooren
The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST) or a high fat diet (HFD) and subjected to regular endurance training (ET) or resistance training (RT). After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs), circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p < 0...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Jia Xiao, George L Tipoe
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading liver disorder in the world. Inflammation is one of the most important pathological events during the development of NAFLD and also represents the hallmark between simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Inflammasomes are novel protein complex platforms assembled in response to pattern-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Currently, there are several identified inflammasomes, including nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, NLRC4 and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasomes...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Xiaoyun Jiang, Liang Zhong, Dayu Sun, Lan Rong
This study aimed to observe the therapeutic effects of magnesium lithospermate B on acute and chronic colitis induced by dextran sodiumsulfate (DSS) and the role of inflammasome complex (NOD-like receptor protein, NLRP; apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing, ASC; caspase-1). Establishment of acute and chronic colitis models were by using 5% DSS oral administration in BALB/C male mice. Magnesium lithospermate B (240 mg/kg body weight) was given by subcutaneous injection. Samples were collected for biomarker assay, histological examination, immunohistochemical evaluation and western blot...
January 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jamie Freeman, David Smith, Branko Latinkic, Ken Ewan, Lee Samuel, Massimo Zollo, Natascia Marino, Lorraine Tyas, Nick Jones, Trevor C Dale
BACKGROUND: Wnt/β-catenin signaling is often portrayed as a simple pathway that is initiated by Wnt ligand at the cell surface leading, via linear series of interactions between 'core pathway' members, to the induction of nuclear transcription from genes flanked by β-catenin/TCF transcription factor binding sites. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is also regulated by a much larger set of 'non-core regulators'. However the relationship between 'non-core regulators' is currently not well understood...
2015: Molecular Cancer
Young Keun Kim, Jeon Soo Shin, Moon H Nahm
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors similar to toll-like receptors (TLRs). While TLRs are transmembrane receptors, NLRs are cytoplasmic receptors that play a crucial role in the innate immune response by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Based on their N-terminal domain, NLRs are divided into four subfamilies: NLRA, NLRB, NLRC, and NLRP. NLRs can also be divided into four broad functional categories: inflammasome assembly, signaling transduction, transcription activation, and autophagy...
January 2016: Yonsei Medical Journal
Hui Peng, Fang Liu, Wenhao Li, Wenchang Zhang
NLRP (NLR family, Pyrin domain containing) genes have both immunization- and reproduction-related clades in mammals. Nlrp5 is a reproduction-related gene, originally identified in the mouse, which plays a key role in mouse early embryogenesis. Previous studies estimated that the porcine NLRP5 gene is assigned to the long arm of chromosome 6 and expressed in oocytes. However, the expression pattern of the NLRP5 gene in the porcine reproductive tract, and the localization and function of NLRP5 protein in porcine preimplantation embryos are still unknown...
December 2015: Animal Reproduction Science
Ga-Yeon Son, Aran Son, Yu-Mi Yang, Wonse Park, Inik Chang, Jae-Ho Lee, Dong Min Shin
OBJECTIVE: In reaching the airways inhaled allergens pass through and contact with the oral mucosa. Although they are often responsible for initiating asthmatic attacks, it is unknown whether airborne allergens can also trigger chronic inflammation of gingival epithelial cells leading to chronic periodontitis. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses of human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) to airborne allergens, particularly German cockroach extract (GCE) with a focus on calcium signaling...
January 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Penghua Wang, Shu Zhu, Long Yang, Shuang Cui, Wen Pan, Ruaidhri Jackson, Yunjiang Zheng, Anthony Rongvaux, Qiangming Sun, Guang Yang, Shandian Gao, Rongtuan Lin, Fuping You, Richard Flavell, Erol Fikrig
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (Nlrp) 6 maintains gut microbiota homeostasis and regulates antibacterial immunity. We now report a role for Nlrp6 in the control of enteric virus infection. Nlrp6(-/-) and control mice systemically challenged with encephalomyocarditis virus had similar mortality; however, the gastrointestinal tract of Nlrp6(-/-) mice exhibited increased viral loads. Nlrp6(-/-) mice orally infected with encephalomyocarditis virus had increased mortality and viremia compared with controls...
November 13, 2015: Science
Hyeyoon Eo, Yunsook Lim
Obesity is a pandemic that causes many health challenges, including difficulties in achieving proper wound healing without complications. The current study investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in the early stages of cutaneous wound healing and the effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) on cutaneous NLRP inflammasome involvement in delayed wound healing mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. After obesity was induced by HFD for 10 weeks, the mice were supplemented with MLFE (at a dose of 500 mg/kg containing 333...
February 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Wen Hu, Yaodong Zhang, Wenning Wu, Yanyan Yin, Dake Huang, Yuchan Wang, Weiping Li, Weizu Li
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. Chronic glucocorticoids (GCs) exposure has deleterious effects on the structure and function of neurons and is associated with development and progression of AD. However, little is known about the proinflammatory effects of chronic GCs exposure on neurodegeneration in brain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic dexamethasone (DEX) treatment (5mg/kg, s...
February 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hilo Yen, Nakaba Sugimoto, Toru Tobe
Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are related strains capable of inducing severe gastrointestinal disease. For optimal infection, these pathogens actively modulate cellular functions through the deployment of effector proteins in a type three secretion system (T3SS)-dependent manner. In response to enteric pathogen invasion, the Nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing (NLRP) inflammasome has been increasingly recognized as an important cytoplasmic sensor against microbial infection by activating caspase-1 and releasing IL-1β...
September 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Louise E Docherty, Faisal I Rezwan, Rebecca L Poole, Claire L S Turner, Emma Kivuva, Eamonn R Maher, Sarah F Smithson, Julian P Hamilton-Shield, Michal Patalan, Maria Gizewska, Jaroslaw Peregud-Pogorzelski, Jasmin Beygo, Karin Buiting, Bernhard Horsthemke, Lukas Soellner, Matthias Begemann, Thomas Eggermann, Emma Baple, Sahar Mansour, I Karen Temple, Deborah J G Mackay
Human-imprinting disorders are congenital disorders of growth, development and metabolism, associated with disturbance of parent of origin-specific DNA methylation at imprinted loci across the genome. Some imprinting disorders have higher than expected prevalence of monozygotic twinning, of assisted reproductive technology among parents, and of disturbance of multiple imprinted loci, for which few causative trans-acting mutations have been found. Here we report mutations in NLRP5 in five mothers of individuals affected by multilocus imprinting disturbance...
2015: Nature Communications
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