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Neuro IR

Charles A Oyinbo, Patrick S Igbigbi, Godwin O Avwioro
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced cerebellar neurodegeneration is a neuroadaptation that is associated with chronic alcohol abuse. Conventional drugs have been largely unsatisfactory in preventing neurodegeneration. Yet, multimodal neuro-protective therapeutic agents have been hypothesised to have high therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS conditions; there is yet a dilemma of how this would be achieved. Contrarily, medicinal botanicals are naturally multimodal in their mechanism of action...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Helge Klare, Jörg M Neudörfl, Simon D Brandt, Elisabeth Mischler, Sigrid Meier-Giebing, Kathrin Deluweit, Folker Westphal, Tim Laussmann
Six collected phenidates, i.e. 4-methylmethylphenidate, 3,4-dichloromethylphenidate, ethylphenidate, 3,4-dichloroethylphenidate, ethylnaphthidate and N-benzyl-ethylphenidate were fully characterized by means of X-ray, NMR, GC-MS, ESI-MS(2) , ATR-FT-IR and GC solid-state IR analysis. Crystallography revealed the exclusive presence of the threo-configuration. Steric crowding induced by N-benzyl substitution at the piperidine moiety prompted an adoption of an unexpected axial positioning of substituents on the piperidine moiety in the crystal state as opposed to the exclusive equatorial positioning encountered in N-unsubstituted phenidate analogs...
January 9, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Ali Meshkini, Mohammad Meshkini, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani
BACKGROUND: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity especially in young ages. Despite over 30 years of using Neuroprotective agents for TBI management, there is no absolute recommended agent for the condition yet. METHODS: This study is a part of a scoping review thesis on "Neuroprotective agents using for Traumatic Brain Injury: a systematic review & meta-analyses", which had a wide proposal keywords and ran in "Cochrane CENTRAL", "MedLine/PubMed", "SCOPUS", "Thomson Reuters Web of Science", "SID...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Injury & Violence Research
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
Hafsa Ahmad, Abhishek Arya, Satish Agrawal, Sheeba Saji Samuel, Sandeep Kumar Singh, Guru Raghavendra Valicherla, Neelam Sangwan, Kalyan Mitra, Jiaur R Gayen, Sarwesh Paliwal, Rakesh Shukla, Anil Kumar Dwivedi
Withania somnifera Dunal (Solanaceae) known as Ashwagandha, a popular plant of Indian origin is known to possess tremedous medicinal potential, often used as anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and adaptogenic candidate. Some of its chemotypes developed by CSIR, India includes NMITLI-101, NMITLI-118, NMITLI-128. In this study the investigators have attempted development of a phytosomal complex of NMITLI118RT + (standardized ethanolic extract of a new chemotype of W...
November 2016: Drug Delivery
Ishfaq Ali, Shobha Bhargava
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as a novel peptide to antagonize various physiological consequences of stress within a mammalian brain. Hypoxia induced neuropeptide Y release in mammalian systems is well established. However, the possible role of NPY in regulating the effects of oxygen variation in lower vertebrates has not been investigated. We have studied the distribution and neuro-anatomical expression of NPY in the brain of Euphlyctus cyanophlyctus tadpoles, exposed to normal and reduced oxygen levels using immunohistochemistry...
September 20, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Omar M M Sabry, Douglas E Goeger, Frederick A Valeriote, William H Gerwick
As a result of our efforts to identify bioactive agents from marine algae, we have isolated and identified one new halogenated monoterpene 1 [(-)-(5E,7Z)-348-trichloro-7-dichloromethyl-3-methyl-157-octatriene] in addition to three known compounds (2, 3 and 4) from the red alga Plocamium cartilagineum collected by hand from the eastern coast of South Africa. Compound 1 was found to be active as a cytotoxic agent in human lung cancer (NCI-H460) and mouse neuro-2a cell lines (IC50 4 μg/mL). Two of these compounds (3 and 4) were found to have cytotoxic activity in other cell line assays, especially against human leukaemia and human colon cancers (IC50 1...
February 2017: Natural Product Research
Huihui Ye, Stephen F Cauley, Borjan Gagoski, Berkin Bilgic, Dan Ma, Yun Jiang, Yiping P Du, Mark A Griswold, Lawrence L Wald, Kawin Setsompop
PURPOSE: To develop a reconstruction method to improve SMS-MRF, in which slice acceleration is used in conjunction with highly undersampled in-plane acceleration to speed up MRF acquisition. METHODS: In this work two methods are employed to efficiently perform the simultaneous multislice magnetic resonance fingerprinting (SMS-MRF) data acquisition and the direct-spiral slice-GRAPPA (ds-SG) reconstruction. First, the lengthy training data acquisition is shortened by employing the through-time/through-k-space approach, in which similar k-space locations within and across spiral interleaves are grouped and are associated with a single set of kernel...
May 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Y Yu, D M Daly, I J Adam, P Kitsanta, C J Hill, J Wild, A Shorthouse, D Grundy, W Jiang
BACKGROUND: Advanced age is associated with a reduction in clinical visceral pain perception. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous studies have suggested that an abnormal interplay between mast cells, enterochromaffin (EC) cells, and afferent nerves contribute to nociception in gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate how aging affects afferent sensitivity and neuro-immune association in the human bowel. METHODS: Mechanical and chemical sensitivity of human bowel afferents were examined by ex vivo afferent nerve recordings...
October 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Margaret A Mohr, Francisca L Garcia, Lydia L DonCarlos, Cheryl L Sisk
The anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) orchestrates the neuroendocrine-positive feedback response that triggers ovulation in female rodents. The AVPV is larger and more cell-dense in females than in males, and during puberty, only females develop the capacity to show a positive feedback response. We previously reported a potential new mechanism to explain this female-specific gain of function during puberty, namely a female-biased sex difference in the pubertal addition of new cells to the rat AVPV...
June 2016: Endocrinology
Vyom Sharma, Leonard B Collins, Ting-Huei Chen, Natalie Herr, Shunichi Takeda, Wei Sun, James A Swenberg, Jun Nakamura
DNA damage and mutations induced by oxidative stress are associated with various different human pathologies including cancer. The facts that most human tumors are characterized by large genome rearrangements and glutathione depletion in mice results in deletions in DNA suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause gene and chromosome mutations through DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the generation of DSBs at low levels of ROS is still controversial. In the present study, we show that H2O2 at biologically-relevant levels causes a marked increase in oxidative clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) with a significant elevation of replication-independent DSBs...
May 3, 2016: Oncotarget
Benjamin R Smith, Katherine M Ashton, Andrew Brodbelt, Timothy Dawson, Michael D Jenkinson, Neil T Hunt, David S Palmer, Matthew J Baker
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has long been established as an analytical technique for the measurement of vibrational modes of molecular systems. More recently, FTIR has been used for the analysis of biofluids with the aim of becoming a tool to aid diagnosis. For the clinician, this represents a convenient, fast, non-subjective option for the study of biofluids and the diagnosis of disease states. The patient also benefits from this method, as the procedure for the collection of serum is much less invasive and stressful than traditional biopsy...
June 7, 2016: Analyst
Jun Ma, Xiao-Long Zhang, Cheng-Yu Wang, Zhi Lin, Jie-Ru Tao, Hua-Cheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuro-protective effects of dexmedetomidine (dex) on I/R-induced spinal injury and potential mechanisms. METHODS: sprague-Dawley rats in the treatment group received intraperitoneal injections of 25 mg/kg dexmedetomidine, MC stabilizer cromolyn (100 mg/kg), MCs stimuliser compound 48/80 (80 mg/kg), PBS at 24 h befor IR. Underwent 5 minutes of aortic occlusion via median sternotomy, functional scores were recorded at 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after reperfusion...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Anuradha Kalani, Pradip Kumar Kamat, Neetu Tyagi
We determined the mechanism of severity during type 1 diabetic (T1D) stroke (ischemia-reperfusion [IR] injury) that affects potential markers associated with epigenetics, neuronal, glial, and vascular components of the brain with regard to nondiabetic stroke. The study used male genetic T1D Ins2(+/-) Akita and wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. The experimental mice groups were 1) sham, 2) IR, 3) sham(Akita), and 4) IR(Akita). Mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 40 min, followed by reperfusion for 24 h...
December 2015: Diabetes
Vishal Singh, Manish Jain, Ankita Misra, Vivek Khanna, Prem Prakash, Richa Malasoni, Anil Kumar Dwivedi, Madhu Dikshit, Manoj Kumar Barthwal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Curcuma oil (C. oil) isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications...
June 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Bumsup Kwon, Timothy Gamache, Han-Kyu Lee, Henry W Querfurth
A large body of evidence support major roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin action in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. However, interaction between cellular expression of β-amyloid (Aβ) and insulin resistance on mitochondrial metabolism has not been explored in neuronal cells. We investigated the additive and synergistic effects of intracellular Aβ42 and ceramide-induced insulin resistance on mitochondrial metabolism in SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2a cells. In our model, mitochondria take-up Aβ42 expressed through viral-mediated transfection and exposure of the same cells to ceramide produces resistance to insulin signaling...
September 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yoshiro Oikawa
The "two photon absorption" phenomenon had been predicted by the American Physicist, Maria Ghöppert-Mayer in 1931. Denk and Webb group had proved it in 1990 and the first product had been launched in the market in 1996. But ever since the product became available, the number of users are not increased. Moreover, the system had been too difficult to use and the system sometimes stay not working in labs. But recently, the new easier-to-use products are released and the ultra short pulse IR laser became stable...
June 2015: Clinical Calcium
Hafsa Ahmad, Kiran Khandelwal, Sheeba Saji Samuel, Shivangi Tripathi, Kalyan Mitra, Rajender Singh Sangwan, Rakesh Shukla, Anil Kumar Dwivedi
Withania somnifera Dunal is an Indian medicinal plant with significant pharmacological properties, such as adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-platelet, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Several chemotypes of W. somnifera include NMITLI-101, NMITLI-118 and NMITLI-128. The present work elaborates the optimization and development of a liposomal delivery system for efficient delivery of NMITLI118RT+ [a standardized ethanolic extract of a new chemotype of W. somnifera Dunal (NMITLI-118) roots] against cerebral stroke in rats...
September 2016: Drug Delivery
Zahida Taibi-Djennah, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its neurotoxins may affect the neuro-endocrine immunological axis due to their binding to ionic channels of axonal membranes. This binding leads to the release of neurotransmitters and immunological mediators accompanied by pathophysiological effects. Although the hyperglycemia induced by scorpion venom is clearly established, the involved mediators in these deregulations are unknown. The strong relationship between inflammation and the wide variety of physiological processes can suggest that the activation of the inflammatory response and the massive release of IL-6 and TNF-α release induced by the venom may induce hyperglycemia and various biological disorders...
July 2015: International Immunopharmacology
Hyeon Soo Eom, Hae Ran Park, Sung Kee Jo, Young Sang Kim, Changjong Moon, Uhee Jung
PURPOSE: The influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on neuronal differentiation is not well defined. In this study, we investigated the effects of IR on the differentiation of Neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma cells and the involvement of tumor protein 53 (p53) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) during this process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells were exposed to (137)Cs γ-rays at 4, 8 or 16 Gy. After incubation for 72 h with or without inhibitors of p53, phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and other kinases, the neuronal differentiation of irradiated Neuro-2a cells was examined through analyzing neurite outgrowth and neuronal maker expression and the activation of related signaling proteins by western blotting and immunocytochemistry...
July 2015: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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