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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732121/sequencing-the-gut-metagenome-as-a-non-invasive-diagnosis-for-advanced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
Lixin Zhu, Robert D Baker, Ruixin Zhu, Susan S Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730823/pathophysiological-analysis-of-the-progression-of-hepatic-lesions-in-stam-mice
#2
T Saito, M Muramatsu, Y Ishii, Y Saigo, T Konuma, Y Toriniwa, K Miyajima, T Ohta
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a current health issue since the disease often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma; however, the pathogenesis of the disease has still not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pathophysiological changes observed in hepatic lesions in STAM mice, a novel NASH model. STAM mice, high fat-diet (HFD) fed mice, and streptozotocin (STZ) treated mice were prepared, and changes over time, such as biological parameters, mRNA expression, and histopathological findings, were evaluated once animal reached 5, 7, and 10 weeks of age...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727287/weighing-the-risks-morbid-obesity-and-diabetes-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-death-on-the-liver-transplant-waiting-list
#3
Ani A Kardashian, Jennifer L Dodge, John Roberts, Danielle Brandman
Obesity is a growing problem in liver transplant (LT) candidates, paralleling the U.S. obesity epidemic and increase in LT for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). While post-LT survival appears to be similar in obese and non-obese patients, data is scarce regarding risk of waitlist dropout in patients with morbid obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m(2) ). We examined the impact of obesity on waitlist mortality and evaluated predictors of dropout in LT candidates with morbid obesity or NASH METHODS: Competing risk analyses were performed in candidates listed between 3/2002-12/2013 to evaluate predictors of waitlist removal or death...
July 20, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723414/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-a-treatment-strategy-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
REVIEW
Donald B Jump, Kelli A Lytle, Christopher M Depner, Sasmita Tripathy
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients have a high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a continuum of chronic liver diseases ranging from benign hepatosteatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Because of its strong association with the obesity epidemic, NAFLD is rapidly becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Surprisingly, there are no FDA approved NAFLD therapies; and current therapies focus on the co-morbidities associated with NAFLD, namely, obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720429/stable-isotope-based-flux-studies-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Arthur McCullough, Stephen Previs, Takhar Kasumov
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with the worldwide epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD ranges from benign fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis which can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy-coupled stable isotope-based flux studies provide new insights into the understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis and the disease progression...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712339/the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#6
Daniel Shouhed, Justin Steggerda, Miguel Burch, Mazen Noureddin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects between 25% and 33% of the population, is more common in obese individuals, and is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. However, despite rising prevalence, effective treatments remain limited. Areas covered: We performed a literature search across multiple databases (Pubmed, Medline, etc.) to identify significant original research and review articles to provide an up-to-date and concise overview of disease pathogenesis and diagnostic evaluation and to expand on available treatment options with a specific focus on the potential role of bariatric surgery...
July 17, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711933/dysregulated-expression-of-proteins-associated-with-er-stress-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-tissues-from-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Seungwoo Lee, Soohee Kim, Seungwoo Hwang, Nathan J Cherrington, Doug-Young Ryu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is categorized into nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and has emerged as a risk factor for more critical clinical conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, expression of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis and autophagy were analyzed in normal, NAFL and NASH human livers by western blotting. Levels of some ER stress-transducing transcription factors, including cleaved activating transcription factor 6, were higher in NASH than in the normal tissues...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710282/function-of-inhibitor-of-brutons-tyrosine-kinase-isoform-%C3%AE-ibtk%C3%AE-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-links-autophagy-and-the-unfolded-protein-response
#8
Jeffrey A Willy, Sara K Young, Amber L Mosley, Samer Gawrieh, James L Stevens, Howard C Masuoka, Ronald C Wek
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (steatosis) is the most prevalent liver disease in the Western world. One of the advanced pathologies is non Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with induction of the Unfolded protein response (UPR) and disruption of autophagic flux. However, the mechanisms by which these processes contribute to the pathogenesis of human diseases are unclear. Herein we identify the α isoform of the inhibitor of Brutons tyrosine kinase (IBTKα) as a member of the UPR whose expression is preferentially translated during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708468/a-botanical-composition-from-morus-alba-ilex-paraguariensis-and-rosmarinus-officinalis-for-body-weight-management
#9
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Obesity is the largest and fastest growing public health catastrophe in the world affecting both adults and children with a prevalence impacting more than one-third of United States (US) adult population. Although the long-term solution lies in lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercise, intervention is required for those who are already obese. Unfortunately, treatment options remain quite limited due to associated side effects of conventional therapeutics. As a natural alternative, in this study we describe the beneficial effect of a standardized composition (UP603) comprised of extracts from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis in improving metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD) and high fat & high fructose diet (HFFD) induced obese C57BL/6J mice...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705785/determination-of-certain-bacterial-groups-in-gut-microbiota-and-endotoxin-levels-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Ceren Özkul, Meltem Yalınay, Tarkan Karakan, Güldal Yılmaz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In recent years, the role of the gut microbiota has emerged in several diseases. Herein we aimed to determine the fecal microbiota, endotoxin levels, and inflammation markers in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 46 NASH patients and 38 healthy controls were included. NASH patients were diagnosed according to the steatosis, activity, and fibrosis score/fatty liver inhibition of progression algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702877/absorption-distribution-metabolism-and-excretion-of-14-c-volixibat-in-healthy-men-phase-1-open-label-study
#11
Nicholas Siebers, Melissa Palmer, Debra G Silberg, Lee Jennings, Caleb Bliss, Patrick T Martin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Volixibat is a potent inhibitor of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in development for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This phase 1, open-label study investigated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C]-volixibat in heathy men. METHODS: Eligible men (n = 8) aged 18-50 years (body mass index 18.0-30.0 kg/m(2); weight >50 kg) received a single oral dose of [(14)C]-volixibat 50 mg containing ~5...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701893/risk-assessment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-general-population-by-liver-stiffness-in-combination-with-controlled-attenuation-parameter-using-transient-elastography-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Takaaki Sugihara, Masahiko Koda, Tomomitsu Matono, Kinya Okamoto, Yoshikazu Murawaki, Hajime Isomoto, Shiho Tokunaga
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients without hepatitis B (HBV) and -C virus (HCV) infection are increasing in Japan. Method for detecting high-risk liver diseases of HCC in general population has still not been established. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) using transient elastography (TE; FibroScan System) are useful for detecting liver fibrosis and steatosis. The aim of this study is to clarify TE for risk assessment of HCC in general population...
June 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701219/excellent-local-control-and-tolerance-profile-after-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-of-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Eleni Gkika, Michael Schultheiss, Dominik Bettinger, Lars Maruschke, Hannes Philipp Neeff, Michaela Schulenburg, Sonja Adebahr, Simon Kirste, Ursula Nestle, Robert Thimme, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Thomas Baptist Brunner
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with large HCCs (median diameter 7 cm, IQR 5-10 cm) with a Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score A (60%) or B (40%) and Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification stage B or C were treated with 3 to 12 fractions to allow personalized treatment according to the size of the lesions and the proximity of the lesions to the organs at risk aiming to give high biologically equivalent doses assuming an α/β ratio of 10 Gy for HCC...
July 12, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698650/complementary-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-cytokeratin-18-in-monitoring-the-different-stages-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Guangyu Wu, Huating Li, Qichen Fang, Jing Zhang, Mingliang Zhang, Lei Zhang, Liang Wu, Xuhong Hou, Junxi Lu, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) were previously reported to be elevated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aim to analyze the differential roles of FGF21, cell apoptosis marker CK18 fragment M30 and total cell death marker CK18 M65ED in monitoring the different stages of NAFLD spectrum in a population-based prospective cohort comprising 808 Chinese subjects. Predictive performances for monitoring the different stages of NAFLD were assessed by logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696585/the-presence-and-severity-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-is-associated-with-specific-changes-in-circulating-bile-acids
#15
Puneet Puri, Kalyani Daita, Andrew Joyce, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Prasanna K Santhekadur, Sophie Cazanave, Velimir A Luketic, Mohammad S Siddiqui, Sherry Boyett, Hae-Ki Min, Divya P Kumar, Rohit Kohli, Huiping Zhou, Phillip B Hylemon, Melissa J Contos, Michael Idowu, Arun J Sanyal
The histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes fatty liver (NAFL) and steatohepatitis (NASH), which can progress to cirrhosis in up to 20% NASH patients. Bile acids (BA) are linked to pathogenesis and therapy of NASH. We (a) characterized plasma BA profile in biopsy proven NAFL and NASH, and compared to controls, and (b) related plasma BA profile to liver histologic features, disease activity and fibrosis. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry quantified BAs. Descriptive statistics, paired and multiple group comparisons, and regression analyses were performed...
July 11, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696510/expanding-the-baveno-vi-criteria-for-the-screening-of-varices-in-patients-with-compensated-advanced-chronic-liver-disease
#16
Salvador Augustin, Mònica Pons, James B Maurice, Christophe Bureau, Horia Stefanescu, Michel Ney, Hélène Blasco, Bogdan Procopet, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Rachel H Westbrook, Jaime Bosch, Annalisa Berzigotti, Juan G Abraldes, Joan Genescà
Patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD) can safely avoid screening endoscopy with a platelet count >150x10(9) cells/L and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) <20 kPa (Baveno VI criteria). However, the total number of avoided endoscopies using this rule is relatively low. We aimed at expanding the Baveno VI criteria and validating them in additional cohorts. Patients from the Anticipate cohort (499 patients with cACLD of different etiologies) were used to study the performance of different thresholds of platelets and LSM for the identification of patients at very low risk (<5%) of having varices needing treatment (VNT)...
July 11, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691103/role-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-risk-factor-for-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity
#17
Julie Massart, Karima Begriche, Caroline Moreau, Bernard Fromenty
BACKGROUND: Obesity is often associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which refers to a large spectrum of hepatic lesions including fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Different investigations showed or suggested that obesity and NAFLD are able to increase the risk of hepatotoxicity of different drugs. Some of these drugs could induce more frequently an acute hepatitis in obese individuals whereas others could worsen pre-existing NAFLD. AIM: The main objective of the present review was to collect the available information regarding the role of NAFLD as risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690456/diagnosis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-without-liver-biopsy
#18
Beatrice L Madrazo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685131/relationship-between-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-vitamin-d-nutritional-status-in-extreme-obesity
#19
Adryana Cordeiro, Silvia Pereira, Carlos José Saboya, Andrea Ramalho
AIM: To evaluate the relationship of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with nutritional status of vitamin D in extreme obesity. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study in individuals with class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)), aged ≥ 20 years to < 60 years. Data were obtained for weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. Vitamin D analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the cutoff points used for its classification were < 20 ng/mL for deficiency and 20-29...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683306/ror%C3%AE-induces-klf4-mediated-m2-polarization-in-the-liver-macrophages-that-protect-against-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
Yong-Hyun Han, Hyeon-Ji Kim, Hyelin Na, Min-Woo Nam, Ju-Yeon Kim, Jun-Seok Kim, Seung-Hoi Koo, Mi-Ock Lee
The regulation of M1/M2 polarization in liver macrophages is closely associated with the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, the mechanism involved in this process remains unclear. Here, we describe the orphan nuclear receptor retinoic-acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα) as a key regulator of M1/M2 polarization in hepatic residential Kupffer cells (KCs) and infiltrated monocyte-derived macrophages. RORα enhanced M2 polarization in KCs by inducing the kruppel-like factor 4. M2 polarization was defective in KCs and bone-marrow-derived macrophages of the myeloid-specific RORα null mice, and these mice were susceptible to HFD-induced NASH...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
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