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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911262/magnetic-resonance-elastography-vs-transient-elastography-in-detection-of-fibrosis-and-noninvasive-measurement-of-steatosis-in-patients-with-biopsy-proven-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Charlie C Park, Phirum Nguyen, Carolyn Hernandez, Ricki Bettencourt, Kimberly Ramirez, Lynda Fortney, Jonathan Hooker, Ethan Sy, Mosab H Alquiraish, Mark A Valasek, Emily Rizo, Lisa Richards, David Brenner, Claude B Sirlin, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) techniques and ultrasound-based transient elastography (TE) can be used in noninvasive diagnosis of fibrosis and steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a prospective study to compare the performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) vs TE for in diagnosis of fibrosis, and MRI-based proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) analysis vs TE-based controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) for diagnosis of steatosis in patients undergoing biopsy to assess NAFLD...
October 27, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908750/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-reduce-obesity-and-metabolic-syndromes-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#2
Chien-Wei Lee, Wei-Ting Hsiao, Oscar K Lee
Obesity is an alarming global health problem that results in multiaspect metabolic syndromes in both genders and most age groups. The lack of effective therapies for obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome is an urgent societal issue. To elucidate whether mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies can ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity and compare the effectiveness of several methodological approaches, we transplanted human MSCs, MSC-derived brown adipocytes (M-BA), and MSC lysateinto obese mice...
November 12, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907186/inter-tissue-gene-co-expression-networks-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-individuals
#3
Lisette J A Kogelman, Jingyuan Fu, Lude Franke, Jan Willem Greve, Marten Hofker, Sander S Rensen, Haja N Kadarmideen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with severe co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, studies have shown that 10-25 percent of the severely obese individuals are metabolically healthy. To date, the identification of genetic factors underlying the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state is limited. Systems genetics approaches have led to the identification of genes and pathways in complex diseases. Here, we have used such approaches across tissues to detect genes and pathways involved in obesity-induced disease development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906700/update-on-lipid-species-and-paediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Jake P Mann, Ariel E Feldstein, Valerio Nobili
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the recent advances in our understanding of fatty acids and lipids in paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their future implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Data have been accumulated to suggest that ceramides are the main drivers of hepatic insulin resistance in NAFLD, and inhibition of ceramide synthesis improves histology in mice.Saturated fatty acids formed by de novo lipogenesis generate increased lipotoxicity compared with dietary-derived saturated fatty acids...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903831/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-hepatic-steatosis-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-male-mice-with-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Hitoshi Watanabe, Yuka Inaba, Kumi Kimura, Shun-Ichiro Asahara, Yoshiaki Kido, Michihiro Matsumoto, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Shuichi Kaneko, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is increasing, novel dietary approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the potential of mung bean protein isolate (MuPI) to prevent NAFLD progression. METHODS: In Expts. 1 and 2, the hepatic triglyceride (TG) concentration was compared between 8-wk-old male mice fed a high-fat diet (61% of energy from fat) containing casein, MuPI, and soy protein isolate and an MuPI-constituent amino acid mixture as a source of amino acids (18% of energy) for 4 wk...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895397/th17-involvement-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-to-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#6
REVIEW
Carla Melisa Chackelevicius, Sabrina Eliana Gambaro, Claudio Tiribelli, Natalia Rosso
The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD encompasses a wide histological spectrum ranging from benign simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sustained inflammation in the liver is critical in this process. Hepatic macrophages, including liver resident macropaghes (Kupffer cells), monocytes infiltrating the injured liver, as well as specific lymphocytes subsets play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory response, with a major deleterious impact on the progression of fatty liver to fibrosis...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895393/emerging-role-of-obeticholic-acid-in-the-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
EDITORIAL
Evangelia Makri, Evangelos Cholongitas, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease and its prevalence is increasing driven by the pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis and is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and hepatocellular cancer. Diet and exercise are limited by suboptimal long-term adherence in patients with NAFLD. On the other hand, current pharmacological treatment of NAFLD has limited efficacy and unfavorable safety profile. In this context, obeticholic acid (OCA), a selective agonist of the farnesoid X receptors, might represent a useful option in these patients...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889947/pathological-findings-of-nash-and-nafld
#8
Kathryn Effendi, Kenichi Harada, Etsuko Hashimoto, Masayoshi Kage, Kazuhiko Koike, Fukuo Kondo, Masayuki Nakano, Hidenori Ojima, Takeshi Okanoue, Michiie Sakamoto, Yoshio Sumida, Hanako Tsujikawa, Gotaro Yamada, Yoh Zen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common chronic liver disease worldwide. NAFLD comprises a variety of clinical and histopathological changes that can be broadly divided into nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, simple steatosis) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The differential diagnosis between NAFL and NASH is important because NASH is a more advanced form. This diagnosis therefore determines the prognosis and therapeutic management. At present the interpretation of NASH is made based on the histopathological features of steatohepatitis, i...
November 27, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889556/compact-bone-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-a-mouse-model-by-modulation-of-cd4-cells-differentiation
#9
Huafeng Wang, Dong Wang, Luhong Yang, Yanxia Wang, Junli Jia, Dongchen Na, Huize Chen, Yongping Luo, Chengfang Liu
Increasing evidence has accrued which indicates that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a potential clinical value in the treatment of certain diseases. Globally, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a widespread disorder. In the present study, MSCs were isolated successfully from compact bone and a mouse model of NASH was established as achieved with use of a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Compact bone-derived MSCs transplantation reduced MCD diet-induced weight loss, hepatic lipid peroxidation, steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation and fibrogenesis...
November 24, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880977/bariatric-surgery-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-a-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#10
Matthew J Klebanoff, Kathleen E Corey, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Lee M Kaplan, Raymond T Chung, Chin Hur
: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) affects 2-3% of the U.S. population and is expected to become the leading indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. Bariatric surgery may be an effective but expensive treatment for NASH. Using a state-transition model, our analysis aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgery to manage NASH. We simulated the benefits and harms of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in patients defined by weight class (overweight, mild obesity, moderate obesity, and severe obesity) and fibrosis stage (F0-F3)...
November 23, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872651/a-review-of-western-and-traditional-chinese-medical-approaches-to-managing-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Wei-Fan Hsu, Lee-Yan Sheen, Hung-Jen Lin, Hen-Hong Chang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease of attention because of increase in prevalence from 20% to 41%. The clinical and pathological conditions in patients with NAFLD range from steatosis alone to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis to hepatic cancer. In the United States, NAFLD was the second-leading indication for liver transplant between 2004 and 2013. Although imaging studies such as magnetic resonance elastography and the use of diagnostic panels and scoring systems can provide a fairly accurate diagnosis of NAFLD, there are few treatment options for patients with mild to moderate disease other than lifestyle modification...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870642/hepatocellular-carcinoma-surveillance-among-patients-with-cirrhosis-in-a-population-based-integrated-health-care-delivery-system
#12
Amit G Singal, Jasmin Tiro, Xilong Li, Beverley Adams-Huet, Jessica Chubak
PURPOSE: Fewer than 1 in 5 patients with cirrhosis receive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance; however, most studies were performed in select patient populations, which may not be informative of practice patterns in population-based community practices. Further, few reported guideline-concordant consistent surveillance rates. GOALS: Characterize guideline-concordant HCC surveillance rates and patient-level factors associated with surveillance among a population-based cohort of patients with cirrhosis...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863346/a-diet-induced-sprague-dawley-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-related-cirrhosis
#13
Mayuko Ichimura, Miki Masuzumi, Miku Kawase, Mika Sakaki, Shizuka Tamaru, Yasuo Nagata, Kazunari Tanaka, Kazuhito Suruga, Koichi Tsuneyama, Satoru Matsuda, Katsuhisa Omagari
Certain modified diets containing saturated fatty acids, cholesterol or fructose lead to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related fibrosis in rodents; however, progression to cirrhosis is rare. Experimental liver cirrhosis models have relied on genetic manipulation or administration of hepatotoxins. This study aimed to establish a reliable dietary model of NASH-related cirrhosis in a relatively short period. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9 weeks of age) were randomly assigned to normal, high-fat (HF), or two types (1...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862590/hepatic-gadoxetic-acid-uptake-as-a-measure-of-diffuse-liver-disease-where-are-we
#14
REVIEW
Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah, Nina Bastati, Andreas Wibmer, Romana Fragner, Jacqueline C Hodge, Michael Trauner, Christian J Herold, Mustafa R Bashir, Bernard E Van Beers
: MRI has emerged as the most comprehensive noninvasive diagnostic tool for focal liver lesions and diffuse hepatobiliary disorders. The introduction of hepatobiliary contrast agents, most notably gadoxetic acid (GA), has expanded the role of MRI, particularly in the functional imaging of chronic liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). GA-enhanced MRI (GA-MRI) may help to distinguish between the two subgroups of NAFLD, simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855316/a-high-fat-diet-temporarily-renders-sod1-deficient-mice-resistant-to-an-oxidative-insult
#15
Junitsu Ito, Naoki Ishii, Ryusuke Akihara, Jaeyong Lee, Toshihiro Kurahashi, Takujiro Homma, Ryo Kawasaki, Junichi Fujii
Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may subsequently develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis after suffering from a second insult, such as oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of the liver injury caused when lipids accumulate under conditions of intrinsic oxidative stress using mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and the leptin receptor (Lepr). We established Sod1(-/-)::Lepr(db/db) mice and carried out analyses of four groups of genetically modified mice, namely, wild type, Sod1(-/-), Lepr(db/db) and Sod1(-/-)::Lepr(db/db) mice...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847552/schisandrin-b-a-double-edged-sword-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
Pou Kuan Leong, Kam Ming Ko
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver lesions ranging from hepatic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The high global prevalence of NAFLD has underlined the important public health implications of this disease. The pathogenesis of NAFLD involves the abnormal accumulation of free fatty acids, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and a proinflammatory state in the liver. Schisandrin B (Sch B), an active dibenzooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (a traditional Chinese herb), was found to possess antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-ER stress, and anti-inflammatory activities in cultured hepatocytes in vitro and in rodent livers in vivo...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836672/transcription-factor-binding-site-enrichment-analysis-predicts-drivers-of-altered-gene-expression-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
April D Lake, Alexandria L Chaput, Petr Novak, Nathan J Cherrington, Catharine L Smith
The molecular mechanisms behind the transition from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are not clearly understood. This hinders development of effective therapies for treatment and prevention of NASH. In this study expression profiling data from normal, steatosis, and NASH human livers were used to predict transcription factors that are misregulated as mechanistic features of NAFLD progression. Previously-published human NAFLD gene expression profiling data from normal, steatosis, and NASH livers were subjected to transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823767/reversal-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-adolescents-after-metabolic-surgery
#18
EDITORIAL
Thomas H Inge, Stavra A Xanthakos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822476/pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-interactions-between-liver-parenchymal-and-nonparenchymal-cells
#19
REVIEW
Nancy Magee, An Zou, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning), inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821715/a-novel-diet-induced-murine-model-of-steatohepatitis-with-fibrosis-for-screening-and-evaluation-of-drug-candidates-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
Chieko Ejima, Haruna Kuroda, Sonoko Ishizaki
Many animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis have been reported. While these models exhibit mild onset of hepatitis and fibrosis, induction is often slow. For faster screening of drug candidates, there is a compelling need for convenient animal models of steatohepatitis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in which fatty liver and hepatitis are stably induced within a short period. Here, we analyzed the hepatic lipid composition in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and used this information to successfully establish a murine model where steatohepatitis is induced within only 1 week using a novel diet (steatohepatitis-inducing high-fat diet, STHD-01) high in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
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