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Carbon dioxide

Lei Hongdou, Li Shiping, Li Hao
Sustainable agriculture ensures food security and prevents starvation. However, the need to meet the increasing food demands of the growing population has led to poor and unsustainable agricultural practices, which promote environmental degradation. Given the contributions of agricultural ecosystems to environmental pollution, we investigated the impact of the agricultural ecosystem on environmental pollution in China using time series data from 1960 to 2014. We employed several methods for econometric analysis including the unit root test, Johansen test of cointegration, Granger causality test, and vector error correction model...
June 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Éric Dumont
In order to limit ammonia (NH3 ) emissions from pig farms, various air cleaning solutions are widely applied. However, the literature data report that these systems (chemical scrubbers, bioscrubbers and biofilters) can be both inefficient and promote nitrous oxide (N2 O) production. As air cleaning technologies should not contribute to secondary trace gases that may have a stronger environmental impact than the raw gas compounds themselves, the objective of this study was to quantify the effect of NH3 treatment in pig farms on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...
June 14, 2018: New Biotechnology
Marie Martin Fabritius, Alain Broillet, Stefan König, Wolfgang Weinmann
Adsorption of volatiles in gaseous phase to activated charcoal strip (ACS) is one possibility for the extraction and concentration of ignitable liquid residues (ILRs) from fire debris in arson investigations. Besides liquid extraction using carbon dioxide or hexane, automated thermo-desorption can be used to transfer adsorbed residues to direct analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We present a fire debris analysis work-flow with headspace adsorption of volatiles onto ACS and subsequent automated thermo-desorption (ATD) GC-MS analysis...
June 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Amira A Abdel Azim, Rania T Salem, Rania Abdelghani
BACKGROUND: Multiple treatment modalities were introduced for treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) but mostly with unsatisfactory results. OBJECTIVE: In this prospective randomized right-left intra-individual controlled study, we studied the safety and efficacy of combined treatment with fractional CO2 laser and long pulsed Nd : YAG (1064 nm) laser in treatment of HS. METHODS: Twenty adult patients with HS were randomized into this study...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Feng Xia Wang, Cui Ye, Shi Mo, Liu Li Liao, Xiao Fang Zhang, Yu Ling, Lu Lu, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
The use of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a biomarker in some diseases including hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, osteoblastic bone cancer, and osteomalacia is important in clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, ALP activity detection is an essential hot topic in environmental monitoring, biomedical research, and other research fields. In this study, a novel "signal-on" photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the ALP-catalyzed phosphorylation reaction was designed to sensitively detect ALP activity...
June 15, 2018: Analyst
Matthew E Kinney
To determine the effect of capture and restraint on hematologic, plasma biochemical, and venous blood gas values in Dalmatian pelicans ( Pelecanus crispus), blood samples were collected and temperature and heart rate were recorded in 13 pelicans (5 males and 8 females) immediately after capture from a large field exhibit. Repeat sampling was performed after transport, a mean of 74 minutes after initial evaluation. When compared with values at initial sampling to the time of capture, significant increases were documented in the heterophil : lymphocyte ratio (H : L), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), bicarbonate (HCO3 ), total carbon dioxide (Tco2 ), base excess (BE), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2 ) values after 74 minutes...
June 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Edison F Paiva, James H Paxton, Brian J O'Neil
The data presented in this article are related to the research article, "The Use of End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide (ETCO2 ) Measurement to Guide Management of Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review" [1]. This article is a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing data on the subject of whether any level of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ) measured during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) correlates with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or survival in adult patients experiencing cardiac arrest in any setting...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Heath D White, Alfredo Vazquez-Sandoval, Pedro F Quiroga, Juhee Song, Shirley F Jones, Alejandro C Arroliga
Acid-base status is frequently assessed in severe sepsis and septic shock. Venous blood gas sampling is proposed as a less-invasive modality but lacks evidence within this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation and agreement between arterial blood gas (ABG), peripheral venous blood gas (pVBG), and central venous blood gas (cVBG) in severe sepsis and septic shock. We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study in subjects admitted to the medical intensive care unit. Simultaneous blood gas samples, including ABG, pVBG, and cVBG, were analyzed for correlation and agreement...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Sungju Lee, Mehdi Rezaei, Taikyeong Jeong
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation and interaction between the air pollution's components with cardiopulmonary endurance of elderly people in eight regions by using a multi-modal and correlation analysis. Methods: The data of air pollution was collected in eight selected regions in 2013 to 2015. At the same time, total number of 880 male and female, older than 65 year-olds, were investigated based on the cardiopulmonary endurance measurement in the same regions...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Jeremy D Shakun, Lee B Corbett, Paul R Bierman, Kristen Underwood, Donna M Rizzo, Susan R Zimmerman, Marc W Caffee, Tim Naish, Nicholas R Golledge, Carling C Hay
The East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is the largest potential contributor to sea-level rise. However, efforts to predict the future evolution of the EAIS are hindered by uncertainty in how it responded to past warm periods, for example, during the Pliocene epoch (5.3 to 2.6 million years ago), when atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were last higher than 400 parts per million. Geological evidence indicates that some marine-based portions of the EAIS and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreated during parts of the Pliocene1,2 , but it remains unclear whether ice grounded above sea level also experienced retreat...
June 2018: Nature
Jannis Neugebohren, Dmitriy Borodin, Hinrich W Hahn, Jan Altschäffel, Alexander Kandratsenka, Daniel J Auerbach, Charles T Campbell, Dirk Schwarzer, Dan J Harding, Alec M Wodtke, Theofanis N Kitsopoulos
Catalysts are widely used to increase reaction rates. They function by stabilizing the transition state of the reaction at their active site, where the atomic arrangement ensures favourable interactions 1 . However, mechanistic understanding is often limited when catalysts possess multiple active sites-such as sites associated with either the step edges or the close-packed terraces of inorganic nanoparticles2-4 -with distinct activities that cannot be measured simultaneously. An example is the oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum surfaces, one of the oldest and best studied heterogeneous reactions...
June 2018: Nature
Yanzhen Huang, Dongping Chen, Xinling Hu, Yingjiang Qian, Dongxu Li
In this report, ternary titanium dioxide (TiO₂)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites were fabricated by a facile and environmentally friendly one-pot solvethermal method for the removal of Rhodamine B (RhB). Its structures were represented by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic performance was tested by the degradation efficiency of RhB under UV-vis light irradiation...
June 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Ekrem Ozlu, Sandeep Kumar
This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer on soil surface greenhouse gases (GHG) [carbon dioxide (CO2 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 )] fluxes from soils managed under corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. The experiment was established on a silty loam soil, and the treatments included three manure application rates [phosphorus based recommended rate (low manure, LM), nitrogen based recommended rate (medium manure, MM) and two times recommended nitrogen rate (high manure, HM)], two inorganic fertilizer levels [recommended fertilizer (medium fertilizer, MF) and high rate of fertilizer (HF)], and control (CK) replicated four times...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yunhai Sun, Xiaoli Sun, Xuri Huang
The activation of carbon dioxide mediated by the first row 3d transition metals (TM) M+/0/‒ atomic ions were studied theoretically. Theoretical calculations show left-hand transition-metal ions Sc+, Sc, Ti+, Ti and V can mediate oxygen atom transfer (OAT) from carbon dioxide. In anionic system, for early transition metal ions (Sc to Cr), [OM‒CO]‒ are more stable than [M‒OCO]‒, while the others favor binding formation [M‒OCO]‒. TSR was observed in O atom transfer. The OAT reaction is exothermic only for the first three transition metal cations and atoms (Sc+/0, Ti+/0 and V+/0), Fe0 and all the anions except Cu‒ and Zn‒...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Guido Pampaloni, Giulio Bresciani, Marco Bortoluzzi, Fabio Marchetti
Easily available and inexpensive Fe(III) carbamates was employed in the solventless synthesis of a series of cyclic carbonates from epoxides, by reaction with CO2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, in the presence of a co-catalyst. Different experimental conditions (type and concentration of catalyst and co-catalyst, as well as reaction time) were investigated: Fe(O2CNEt2)3 and NBu4Br acted as the best catalyst/co-catalyst combination, allowing the formation of propylene carbonate and 1,2-butylene carbonate with quantitative yield and selectivity during 24 h of reaction time...
June 13, 2018: ChemSusChem
Arun Prakash Periasamy, Rini Ravindranath, Sakkarapalayam Murugesan Senthil Kumar, Wen-Ping Wu, Ting-Rui Jian, Huan-Tsung Chang
The preparation of cost-effective, stable catalysts for the selective reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to C1 products such as methanol is extremely important because methanol can be used directly as a fuel or it can be converted into other value-added products. However, the catalysts currently used for the reduction of CO2 to methanol exhibit poor selectivity, poor stability and very low faradaic efficiency. Herein, we used low-cost, stable cuprous oxide/polypyrrole (Cu2O/Ppy) particles having structures of octahedra and icosahedra (microflowers) that were prepared on linen texture (LT) papers for the selective reduction of CO2 to form a value-added single C1 product, methanol...
June 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Dan Liu, Gang Li, Jiaxu Liu, Yue Wei, Hongchen Guo
Mesoporous TS-1 (MTS-1) containing organic templates tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) is synthesized and treated with different concentrations of hydrochloric acid aqueous solution. The as-synthesized MTS-1 are characterized using XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis, 13C CP/MAS NMR, TGA, CO2-TPD, N2 adsorption-desorption, XRF and EA. The results of 13C CP/MAS NMR show that the structures of organic templates are retained after acid washing treatment. Not required to be removed by calcination, the organic templates embedding in MTS-1 can take the role of basic sites and activate carbon dioxide (CO2), which is confirmed by FT-IR...
June 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Luis E Gálvez-González, J Octavio Juárez-Sánchez, Rafael Pacheco-Contreras, Ignacio L Garzón, Lauro Oliver Paz-Borbón, Alvaro Posada-Amarillas
Transition and noble metal clusters have proven to be critical novel materials, potentially offering major advantages over conventional catalysts in a range of value-added catalytic processess such as carbon dioxide transformation to methanol. In this work, a systematic computational study of CO2 adsorption on gas-phase Cu4-xPtx (x = 0-4) clusters is performed. An exhaustive potential energy surface exploration is initially performed using our recent density functional theory basin-hopping global optimization implementation...
June 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yoshihiro Tange, Shigenori Yoshitake
The data presented here shows a simple method for producing a solution that contains a high partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 ) and a low partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 ). This novel solution was created by simply injecting oxygen gas into conventional supplemental bicarbonate fluid for renal replacement therapy. We compared the gas profiles of the novel solution and the conventional fluid in vitro. There was a significant increase in pO2 and pH, and a significant decrease in pCO2 in the experimental solution, in each of which an additional volume of oxygen was injected...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Jeff Tollefson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Nature
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