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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471429/comparison-of-3-methods-for-estimating-enteric-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-emission-in-nonlactating-cows
#1
M Doreau, M Arbre, Y Rochette, C Lascoux, M Eugène, C Martin
Among techniques for estimating enteric methane (CH4) emission by ruminants, open-circuit respiration chambers (OC), the use of a gas tracer (SF6) and the GreenFeed device (GF) are the most commonly used. In this study, we compared these techniques in 8 dry cows receiving a diet made of 70% hay and 30% concentrates given in limited and constant amounts, in a 15-week experiment. Two periods in free stalls for SF6 and GF and in chambers for OC were used; in addition, SF6 was determined in chambers for 1 period...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470417/ultrarapid-multimode-microwave-synthesis-of-nano-submicron-%C3%AE-sic
#2
Min Zhao, Michael Johnson, Wenzhi He, Guangming Li, Chen Zhao, Luling Yu, Juwen Huang, Haochen Zhu
This paper presents the design, development and realization of a fast and novel process for the synthesis of 3C silicon carbide (β-SiC) nanorods and submicron powder. Using SiO₂ (or Si) and activated carbon (AC), this process allows β-SiC to be synthesized with almost 100% purity in timeframes of seconds or minutes using multimode microwave rotary tube reactors under open-air conditions. The synthesis temperature used was 1460 ± 50 °C for Si + AC and 1660 ± 50 °C for SiO₂ + AC. The shortest β-SiC synthesis time achieved was about 20 s for Si + AC and 100 s for SiO₂ + AC...
February 22, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468961/a-green-synthesis-of-xanthenone-derivatives-in-aqueous-media-using-tio2-cnts-nanocomposite-as-an-eco-friendly-and-re-usable-catalyst
#3
Amir Samani, Shahrzad Abdolmohammadi, Asieh Otaredi-Kashani
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The xanthene (dibenzopyran) framework constitutes the core structure of many biologically active compounds, and they have been of interest because of their pharmacological activities like antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory, and and CCR1 antagonist. As heterogeneous catalysts offer several advantages over homogeneous catalysts, the performance of reactions on the surface of nanosized heterogeneous salts has received a great deal of interest in recent years...
February 19, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468327/-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-a-global-development
#4
REVIEW
G Leschber
More than 200 years ago the first attempts at thoracoscopy were made but only after its introduction 25 years ago has video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) experienced rapid progress. Due to worldwide cooperation and international networking tremendous progress of the technique was made by thoracic surgeons on all continents developing the technique into a less invasive operating procedure on the thorax. For patients this meant improvement in the quality of life and ultimately better survival rates following lung cancer surgery...
February 21, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467391/bio-inspired-counter-current-multiplier-for-enrichment-of-solutes
#5
Kyle Brubaker, Armand Garewal, Rachel C Steinhardt, Aaron P Esser-Kahn
Improving the efficiency of gas separation technology is a challenge facing modern industry, since existing methods for gas separation, including hollow-fiber membrane contactors, vacuum swing adsorption, and cryogenic distillation, represents a significant portion of the world's energy consumption. Here, we report an enhancement in the release rate of carbon dioxide and oxygen of a thermal swing gas desorption unit using a counter-current amplification method inspired by fish. Differing from a conventional counter-current extraction system, counter-current amplification makes use of parallel capture fluid channels separated by a semipermeable membrane in addition to the semipermeable membrane separating the capture fluid channel and the gas release channel...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466993/greenhouse-gas-emissions-of-self-selected-diets-in-the-uk-and-their-association-with-diet-quality-is-energy-under-reporting-a-problem
#6
Kentaro Murakami, M Barbara E Livingstone
BACKGROUND: While the admittedly limited number of epidemiological findings on the association between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and diet quality are not always consistent, potential influence of bias in the estimation of diet-related GHGE caused by misreporting of energy intake (EI) has not been investigated. This cross-sectional study evaluated diet-related GHGE in the UK and their association with diet quality, taking account of EI under-reporting. METHODS: Dietary data used were from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008/2009-2013/2014, in which 4-day food diaries were collected from 3502 adults aged ≥19 years...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466933/efficiency-of-nannochloropsis-oculata-and-bacillus-polymyxa-symbiotic-composite-at-ammonium-and-phosphate-removal-from-synthetic-wastewater
#7
Sufeng Wang, Jianxin Liu, Cui Li, Brian Michael Chung
Many issues, such as, DO accumulation, N2 fixation obstacle, and carbon dioxide diffusion, hamper the application of microalgae-alginate immobilization in wastewater treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata immobilized with the bacterium Bacillus polymyxa in alginate on ammonium and phosphate removal from synthetic wastewater. Results show that the co-immobilized Bacillus-Nannochloropsis can exploit ammonium and phosphate from wastewater more effectively than the immobilized Nannochloropsis, and immobilized Bacillus alone...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466596/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#8
Eddy Fan, Daniel Brodie, Arthur S Slutsky
Importance: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening form of respiratory failure that affects approximately 200 000 patients each year in the United States, resulting in nearly 75 000 deaths annually. Globally, ARDS accounts for 10% of intensive care unit admissions, representing more than 3 million patients with ARDS annually. Objective: To review advances in diagnosis and treatment of ARDS over the last 5 years. Evidence Review: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2012 to 2017 focusing on randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical practice guidelines...
February 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464420/dexmedetomidine-versus-propofol-opioid-for-sedation-in-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-patients-a-retrospective-analysis-of-periprocedural-gas-exchange-and-hemodynamic-support
#9
N Patrick Mayr, Gunther Wiesner, Pieter van der Starre, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Gertrud Goppel, Albert Markus Kasel, Christian Hengstenberg, Oliver Husser, Heribert Schunkert, Peter Tassani-Prell
PURPOSE: Different sedation regimens have been described for use during transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (tf-TAVI) for treatment in patients with severe aortic stenosis. The purpose of this study was to compare dexmedetomidine (DEX) with a combination of propofol-opioid (PO) with respect to periprocedural gas exchange and hemodynamic support. METHODS: Data from a cohort of patients sedated with either DEX or PO for tf-TAVI were retrospectively analyzed from a prospectively maintained TAVI registry...
February 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463914/oxidation-stable-amine-containing-adsorbents-for-carbon-dioxide-capture
#10
Kyungmin Min, Woosung Choi, Chaehoon Kim, Minkee Choi
Amine-containing solids have been investigated as promising adsorbents for CO2 capture, but the low oxidative stability of amines has been the biggest hurdle for their practical applications. Here, we developed an extra-stable adsorbent by combining two strategies. First, poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) was functionalized with 1,2-epoxybutane, which generates tethered 2-hydroxybutyl groups. Second, chelators were pre-supported onto a silica support to poison p.p.m.-level metal impurities (Fe and Cu) that catalyse amine oxidation...
February 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462011/positive-end-expiratory-pressure-alone-minimizes-atelectasis-formation-in-nonabdominal-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Erland Östberg, Arnar Thorisson, Mats Enlund, Henrik Zetterström, Göran Hedenstierna, Lennart Edmark
BACKGROUND: Various methods for protective ventilation are increasingly being recommended for patients undergoing general anesthesia. However, the importance of each individual component is still unclear. In particular, the perioperative use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) remains controversial. The authors tested the hypothesis that PEEP alone would be sufficient to limit atelectasis formation during nonabdominal surgery. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled evaluator-blinded study...
February 19, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461889/the-evolution-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-adult-respiratory-failure
#12
Daniel Brodie
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support patients with cardiac and respiratory failure has increased substantially in the last decade. Although the evidence base for its use in adults with respiratory failure is growing, many questions remain to be answered. Ongoing research is aimed at clarifying the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, as well as extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, in various forms of hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure, and at defining the optimal techniques for its use...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461272/does-aerobic-respiration-produce-carbon-dioxide-or-hydrogen-ion-and-bicarbonate
#13
Erik R Swenson
Maintenance of intracellular pH is critical for clinical homeostasis. The metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids yielding the generation of adenosine triphosphate in the mitochondria is accompanied by the production of acid in the Krebs cycle. Both the nature of this acidosis and the mechanism of its disposal have been argued by two investigators with a long-abiding interest in acid-base physiology. They offer different interpretations and views of the molecular mechanism of this intracellular pH regulation during normal metabolism...
February 15, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460937/a-cu-zn-nanoparticle-promoter-for-selective-carbon-dioxide-reduction-and-its-application-in-visible-light-active-z-scheme-systems-using-water-as-an-electron-donor
#14
Ge Yin, Hiroshi Sako, Ramesh V Gubbala, Shigenori Ueda, Akira Yamaguchi, Hideki Abe, Masahiro Miyauchi
Selective carbon dioxide photoreduction to produce formic acid was achieved under visible light irradiation using water molecules as electron donors, similar to natural plants, based on the construction of a Z-scheme light harvesting system modified with a Cu-Zn alloy nanoparticle co-catalyst. The faradaic efficiency of our Z-scheme system for HCOOH generation was over 50% under visible light irradiation.
February 20, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460666/effects-of-common-ear-drops-on-tympanic-membrane-healing-in-rats
#15
Carolyn O Dirain, Brendan Kosko, Patrick J Antonelli
Objective Ciprofloxacin + dexamethasone ear drops have been associated with higher rates of tympanic membrane perforations than ofloxacin. This was thought to be an effect of the steroid; however, ciprofloxacin (sans steroid) has been found to be more toxic to tympanic membrane fibroblasts than ofloxacin in vitro. This study aimed to compare the effect of these agents on tympanic membrane healing in vivo. Study Design Controlled animal study. Setting Academic research laboratory. Methods Perforations were created in 54 rats with a carbon dioxide laser...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460508/predatory-strategies-and-behaviours-in-cephalopods-are-altered-by-elevated-co-2
#16
Blake L Spady, Philip L Munday, Sue-Ann Watson
There is increasing evidence that projected near-future carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels can alter predator avoidance behaviour in marine invertebrates, yet little is known about the possible effects on predatory behaviours. Here we tested the effects of elevated CO2 on the predatory behaviours of two ecologically distinct cephalopod species, the pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus, and the bigfin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana. Both species exhibited an increased latency to attack and altered body-pattern choice during the attack sequence at elevated CO2 ...
February 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459511/optimization-of-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-extraction-of-eucommia-ulmoides-seed-oil-and-quality-evaluation-of-the-oil
#17
Zhen-Shan Zhang, Yu-Lan Liu, Li-Ming Che
Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2 ) technology was used to extract oil from Eucommia ulmoides seed. The optimum conditions and significant parameters in SC-CO2 were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). The qualities of the extracted oil were evaluated by physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, vitamin E composition. It was found that the optimum extraction parameters were at pressure of 37 MPa, temperature of 40℃, extraction time of 125 min and CO2 flow rate of 2.6 SL/min...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459319/effects-of-hydrostatic-pressure-and-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-on-the-viability-of-botryococcus-braunii-algae-cells
#18
Ece Yildiz-Ozturk, Esra Ilhan-Ayisigi, Arnoud Togtema, Joao Gouveia, Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas
In bio-based industries, Botryococcus braunii is identified as a potential resource for production of hydrocarbons having a wide range of applications in chemical and biopolymer industries. For a sustainable production platform, the algae cultivation should be integrated with downstream processes. Ideally the algae are not harvested, but the product is isolated while cultivation and growth is continued especially if the doubling time is slow. Consequently, hydrocarbons can be extracted while keeping the algae viable...
February 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459105/sequestration-and-utilization-of-carbon-dioxide-by-chemical-and-biological-methods-for-biofuels-and-biomaterials-by-chemoautotrophs-opportunities-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Indu Shekhar Thakur, Manish Kumar, Sunita J Varjani, Yonghong Wu, Edgard Gnansounou, Sindhu Ravindran
To meet the CO2 emission reduction targets, carbon dioxide capture and utilization (CCU) comes as an evolve technology. CCU concept is turning into a feedstock and technologies have been developed for transformation of CO2 into useful organic products. At industrial scale, utilization of CO2 as raw material is not much significant as compare to its abundance. Mechanisms in nature have evolved for carbon concentration, fixation and utilization. Assimilation and subsequent conversion of CO2 into complex molecules are performed by the photosynthetic and chemolithotrophic organisms...
February 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458230/perioperative-complications-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-repair
#20
Catarina Barroso, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Although improvements have been made, the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains a major challenge for perinatologists and neonatal surgeons. Many aspects of the disease remain unknown and, being a rare entity, evidence-based data are hard to find. Surgical morbidity is considerable and affects long-term quality of life. Perioperative complications have been reviewed focusing on thoracoscopic repair. Intraoperative acidosis was more severe during thoracoscopy when compared with open surgery (OS), though it is possible that later neurodevelopment was not affected...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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