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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228194/microbial-carbon-dioxide-fixation-new-tricks-for-an-old-game
#1
Paola Branduardi, Michael Sauer
The exploitation of petroleum as energy and material source opened unprecedented possibilities for the development of our human societies, but only now we realize that the use of fossil resources comes at devastatingly high environmental costs. Consequently, our efforts to tap other carbon sources are steadily increasing. Industrial microbiology has the potential to use carbon dioxide directly as carbon source, thereby converting a foe into a friend. This thematic issue of FEMS Microbiology Letters sheds some light on recent developments for the understanding of microbial pathways for carbon dioxide fixation and on strategies for their industrial exploitation...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227644/molecular-building-block-based-electronic-charges-for-high-throughput-screening-of-mofs-for-adsorption-applications
#2
Edwin Argueta, Jeena Shaji, Arun Gopalan, Peilin Liao, Randall Q Snurr, Diego A Gomez-Gualdron
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials with attractive properties for gas separation and storage. Their remarkable tunability makes it possible to create millions of MOF variations, but creates the need for fast material screening to identify promising structures. Computational high-throughput screening (HTS) is a possible solution, but its usefulness is tied to accurate predictions of MOF adsorption properties. Accurate adsorption simulations often require an accurate description of electrostatic interactions, which depend on the electronic charges of the MOF atoms...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226678/zinc-and-magnesium-catalysts-for-the-hydrosilylation-of-carbon-dioxide
#3
Michael Rauch, Gerard Parkin
The terminal zinc and magnesium hydride compounds, [κ3-TismPriBenz]ZnH and [TismPriBenz]MgH, which feature the tris[(1-isopropylbenzimidazol-2-yl)dimethylsilyl]methyl ligand, react with B(C6F5)3 to afford the ion pairs, {[TismPriBenz]M}[HB(C6F5)3] (M = Zn, Mg), which are rare examples of these metals in trigonal monopyramidal coordination environments. Significantly, in combination with B(C6F5)3, {[TismPriBenz]M}-[HB(C6F5)3] generates catalytic systems for the hydrosilylation of CO2 by R3SiH to afford sequentially the bis(silyl)acetal, H2C(OSiR3)2, and CH4 (R3SiH = PhSiH3, Et3SiH, and Ph3SiH)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226665/light-enhanced-carbon-dioxide-activation-and-conversion-by-effective-plasmonic-coupling-effect-of-pt-and-au-nanoparticles
#4
Hui Song, Xianguang Meng, Thang Duy Dao, Wei Zhou, Huimin Liu, Li Shi, Huabin Zhang, Tadaaki Nagao, Tetsuya Kako, Jinhua Ye
Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) is attractive for the production of valuable fuels and mitigating the influence of greenhouse gas emission. However, the extreme inertness of CO2 and the sluggish kinetics of photo-excited charge carrires transfer process greatly limit the conversion efficiency of CO2 photoreduction. Herein, we report that the plasmonic coupling effect of Pt and Au nanoparticles (NPs) profoundly enhance the efficiency of CO2 reduction through dry reforming of methane reaction assisted by light illumination, reducing activation energies for CO2 reduction ~30% below thermal activation energies and achieving a reaction rate 2...
December 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226244/transport-properties-of-carbonated-silicate-melt-at-high-pressure
#5
Dipta B Ghosh, Bijaya B Karki
Carbon dioxide, generally considered as the second most abundant volatile component in silicate magmas, is expected to significantly influence various melt properties. In particular, our knowledge about its dynamical effects is lacking over most of Earth's mantle pressure regime. Here, we report the first-principles molecular dynamics results on the transport properties of carbonated MgSiO3 liquid under conditions of mantle relevance. They show that dissolved CO2 systematically enhances the diffusion rates of all elements and lowers the melt viscosity on average by factors of 1...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226063/advances-in-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation-at-the-nanoscale
#6
Nasim Kashef, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin
The alarming worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance amongst microbial pathogens necessitates a search for new antimicrobial techniques, which will not be affected by, or indeed cause resistance themselves. Light-mediated photoinactivation is one such technique that takes advantage of the whole spectrum of light to destroy a broad spectrum of pathogens. Many of these photoinactivation techniques rely on the participation of a diverse range of nanoparticles and nanostructures that have dimensions very similar to the wavelength of light...
August 2017: Nanophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225807/renal-denervation-using-carbon-dioxide-renal-angiography-in-patients-with-uncontrolled-hypertension-and-moderate-to-severe-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Mohammed Awais Hameed, Jonathan S Freedman, Richard Watkin, Arul Ganeshan, Indranil Dasgupta
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. More than half of the patients have uncontrolled hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg on three or more antihypertensive agents at optimum doses). Renal sympathetic denervation (RSDN) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension. Although patients with CKD have high sympathetic drive, all major clinical trials have excluded patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) <45 mL/min/1...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225806/renal-artery-intervention-utilizing-carbon-dioxide-angiography
#8
EDITORIAL
Alan A Sag, Baris Afsar, Mehmet Kanbay
Carbon dioxide angiography is an established non-nephrotoxic option for imaging of the infradiaphragmatic arteries and veins. Safe performance of the technique once required a somewhat cumbersome system, however, recent innovations have simplified implementation and expanded the user base for this technique. As such, patient access has also increased. In this issue, Hameed et al. provide initial feasibility data regarding carbon dioxide angiography and renal denervation therapy. This experience may be translated into future renovascular interventions in patients with limited renal reserve...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223906/comparison-of-real-world-and-certification-emission-rates-for-light-duty-gasoline-vehicles
#9
Tanzila Khan, H Christopher Frey
U.S. light duty vehicles are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Emission compliance is determined by certification testing of selected emissions from representative vehicles on standard driving cycles using chassis dynamometers. Test results are also used in many emission inventories. The dynamometer based emission rates are adjusted to provide the certification levels (CL), which must be lower than the standards for compliance. Although standard driving cycles are based on specific observations of real-world driving, they are not necessarily real-world representative...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223886/electrocatalytic-co2-reduction-catalyzed-by-nitrogenase-mofe-and-fefe-proteins
#10
Bo Hu, Derek F Harris, Dennis R Dean, T Leo Liu, Zhi-Yong Yang, Lance C Seefeldt
Nitrogenases catalyze biological dinitrogen (N2) reduction to ammonia (NH3), and also reduce a number of non-physiological substrates, including carbon dioxide (CO2) to formate (HCOO-) and methane (CH4). Three versions of nitrogenase are known (Mo-, V-, and Fe-nitrogenase), each showing different reactivities towards various substrates. Normally, electrons for substrate reduction are delivered by the Fe protein component of nitrogenase, with energy coming from the hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP+2 Pi for each electron transferred...
December 5, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223704/decellularized-heart-ecm-hydrogel-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-for-improved-angiogenesis
#11
Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Initial angiogenesis within the first 3 days is critical for healing ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction. Recently, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been reported to provide tissue-derived ECM components and can be used as a scaffold for cell delivery for angiogenesis in tissue engineering. Decellularization by various detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 can remove the cell nuclei in tissue organs. However, this leads to ECM structure denaturation, decreased presence of various ECM proteins and cytokines, and loss of mechanical properties...
December 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223227/cataract-surgery-and-environmental-sustainability-waste-and-lifecycle-assessment-of-phacoemulsification-at-a-private-healthcare-facility
#12
Cassandra L Thiel, Emily Schehlein, Thulasiraj Ravilla, R D Ravindran, Alan L Robin, Osamah J Saeedi, Joel S Schuman, Rengaraj Venkatesh
PURPOSE: To measure the waste generation and lifecycle environmental emissions from cataract surgery via phacoemulsification in a recognized resource-efficient setting. SETTING: Two tertiary care centers of the Aravind Eye Care System in southern India. DESIGN: Observational case series. METHODS: Manual waste audits, purchasing data, and interviews with Aravind staff were used in a hybrid environmental lifecycle assessment framework to quantify the environmental emissions associated with cataract surgery...
November 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222660/testing-the-role-of-fiscal-policy-in-the-environmental-degradation-the-case-of-turkey
#13
Salih Katircioglu, Setareh Katircioglu
This study introduces a new research topic that investigates the relationship between fiscal development and carbon emissions in Turkey through testing Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Annual data covering the period, 1960-2013, has been used and in addition to gross domestic product and energy consumption, fiscal policy variables have been regressed on the level of carbon emissions in Turkey. Results reveal that fiscal policies and carbon emissions are in long-term equilibrium relationship in Turkey; carbon dioxide emission level converges towards long-term paths as contributed by fiscal policy...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222503/co2-mineralization-and-utilization-using-steel-slag-for-establishing-a-waste-to-resource-supply-chain
#14
Shu-Yuan Pan, Tai-Chun Chung, Chang-Ching Ho, Chin-Jen Hou, Yi-Hung Chen, Pen-Chi Chiang
Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222483/atlantic-deep-water-provenance-decoupled-from-atmospheric-co2-concentration-during-the-lukewarm-interglacials
#15
Jacob N W Howe, Alexander M Piotrowski
Ice core records show that atmospheric CO2 concentrations and Antarctic temperature were lower during the 'lukewarm interglacials' from 800 to 430 ka than the subsequent five interglacials. These different interglacial 'strengths' have been hypothesised to be controlled by Antarctic overturning circulation. How these variations in Antarctic overturning relate to Northern Atlantic overturning circulation, a major driver of Northern Hemisphere climate, is uncertain. Here we present a high-resolution record of authigenic neodymium isotopes-a water mass tracer that is independent of biological processes-and use it to reconstruct Atlantic overturning circulation during the last 800 kyr...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222104/effect-of-start-up-strategies-and-electrode-materials-on-carbon-dioxide-reduction-on-bio-cathodes
#16
Soroush Saheb-Alam, Abhijeet Singh, Malte Hermansson, Frank Persson, Anna Schnürer, Britt-Marie Wilén, Oskar Modin
The enrichment of CO2-reducing microbial bio-cathodes is challenging. Previous research has shown that a promising approach could be to first enrich bio-anodes and then lower the potential so the electrodes are converted into bio-cathodes. However, the effect of such a transition on the microbial community on the electrode has not been studied. The goal of this study was, thus, to compare the start-up of bio-cathodes from pre-enriched anodes with direct start-up from bare electrodes and to investigate changes in microbial community composition...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221643/respiratory-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-walking-down-a-traffic-polluted-road-compared-with-walking-in-a-traffic-free-area-in-participants-aged-60-years-and-older-with-chronic-lung-or-heart-disease-and-age-matched-healthy-controls-a-randomised-crossover
#17
Rudy Sinharay, Jicheng Gong, Benjamin Barratt, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Sabine Ernst, Frank Kelly, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Peter Collins, Paul Cullinan, Kian Fan Chung
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults...
December 5, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221302/the-society-for-translational-medicine-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-mechanical-ventilation-management-for-patients-undergoing-lobectomy
#18
REVIEW
Shugeng Gao, Zhongheng Zhang, Alessandro Brunelli, Chang Chen, Chun Chen, Gang Chen, Haiquan Chen, Jin-Shing Chen, Stephen Cassivi, Ying Chai, John B Downs, Wentao Fang, Xiangning Fu, Martínez I Garutti, Jianxing He, Jie He, Jian Hu, Yunchao Huang, Gening Jiang, Hongjing Jiang, Zhongmin Jiang, Danqing Li, Gaofeng Li, Hui Li, Qiang Li, Xiaofei Li, Yin Li, Zhijun Li, Chia-Chuan Liu, Deruo Liu, Lunxu Liu, Yongyi Liu, Haitao Ma, Weimin Mao, Yousheng Mao, Juwei Mou, Calvin Sze Hang Ng, René H Petersen, Guibin Qiao, Gaetano Rocco, Erico Ruffini, Lijie Tan, Qunyou Tan, Tang Tong, Haidong Wang, Qun Wang, Ruwen Wang, Shumin Wang, Deyao Xie, Qi Xue, Tao Xue, Lin Xu, Shidong Xu, Songtao Xu, Tiansheng Yan, Fenglei Yu, Zhentao Yu, Chunfang Zhang, Lanjun Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xun Zhang, Xiaojing Zhao, Xuewei Zhao, Xiuyi Zhi, Qinghua Zhou
Patients undergoing lobectomy are at significantly increased risk of lung injury. One-lung ventilation is the most commonly used technique to maintain ventilation and oxygenation during the operation. It is a challenge to choose an appropriate mechanical ventilation strategy to minimize the lung injury and other adverse clinical outcomes. In order to understand the available evidence, a systematic review was conducted including the following topics: (I) protective ventilation (PV); (II) mode of mechanical ventilation [e...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221300/comparison-of-continuous-compression-with-regular-ventilations-versus-30-2-compressions-ventilations-strategy-during-mechanical-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-porcine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#19
Zhengfei Yang, Qingyu Liu, Guanghui Zheng, Zhifeng Liu, Longyuan Jiang, Qing Lin, Rui Chen, Wanchun Tang
Background: A compression-ventilation (C:V) ratio of 30:2 is recommended for adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by the current American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. However, continuous chest compression (CCC) is an alternative strategy for CPR that minimizes interruption especially when an advanced airway exists. In this study, we investigated the effects of 30:2 mechanical CPR when compared with CCC in combination with regular ventilation in a porcine model. Methods: Sixteen male domestic pigs weighing 39±2 kg were utilized...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220352/how-do-slums-change-the-relationship-between-urbanization-and-the-carbon-intensity-of-well-being
#20
Julius Alexander McGee, Christina Ergas, Patrick Trent Greiner, Matthew Thomas Clement
This study examines how the relationship between urbanization (measured as the percentage of total population living in urban areas) and the carbon intensity of well-being (CIWB) (measured as a ratio of carbon dioxide emissions and life expectancy) in most nations from 1960-2013 varies based on the economic context and whereabouts of a substantial portion of a nation's urban population. To accomplish this, we use the United Nations' (UN) definition of slum households to identify developing countries that have substantial slum populations, and estimate a Prais-Winsten regression model with panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE), allowing for disturbances that are heteroskedastic and contemporaneously correlated across panels...
2017: PloS One
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