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Carbon dioxide

Shaw D Bamber, Stig Westerlund
Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO2...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Tarak Karmakar, Sundaram Balasubramanian
Arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of α-aryl-α-methyl malonates to produce optically pure α-arylpropionates of industrial and medicinal importance. Herein, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to delineate the mechanism of the release of product molecules, phenylacetate (PAC) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) from the wild-type (WT) and its G74C/C188S mutant enzymes. Both the product molecules follow a crystallographically characterized solvent-accessible channel to come out of the protein interior...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Omer Yehezkeli, Nicholas M Bedford, Eunsol Park, Ke Ma, Jennifer N Cha
There has been active interest to identify new methods to reduce CO2 into usable fuel sources. In this work, we demonstrate two types of photo-electrochemical cells (PECs) that photoreduce CO2 directly to formate in aqueous solutions both in the presence and absence of external bias or additional electron sources. The photocathodes were either a CuFeO2 /CuO electrode or a bilayer of CdTe on NiO, whereas the photoanode was a bilayer of NiOx on CdS. The PECs were characterized by using both electrochemistry and spectroscopy, and the products formed from CO2 reduction were characterized and quantified by using (1) H NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS...
October 24, 2016: ChemSusChem
Xiao Wu, Michael North
A bimetallic aluminium(salphen) complex is reported as a sustainable, efficient and inexpensive catalyst for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide. In the presence of this complex and tetrabutylammonium bromide, terminal and internal epoxides reacted at 50 °C and 10 bar carbon dioxide pressure to afford their corresponding cyclic carbonates in yields of 50-94 % and 30-71 % for terminal and internal cyclic carbonates, respectively. Mechanistic studies using deuterated epoxides and an analogous monometallic aluminium(salphen) chloride complex support a mechanism for catalysis by the bimetallic complex, which involves intramolecular cooperative catalysis between the two aluminium centres...
October 24, 2016: ChemSusChem
Fang-Fang Li, Jason Lau, Stuart Licht
The electrolytic coproduction of CO and H2 is achieved from air, water, and a single beam of sunlight rather than from fossil fuels. H2 and CO cosynthesis is driven by a single concentrator photovoltaic to simultaneously drive molten hydroxide and molten carbonate electrolyses. The carbon neutral process captures carbon without the need for the preconcentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
November 2015: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Oksana N Khokhlova, Elena A Tukhovskaya, Irina N Kravchenko, Elena S Sadovnikova, Irina A Pakhomova, Elena A Kalabina, Alexander V Lobanov, Elvira R Shaykhutdinova, Alina M Ismailova, Arkady N Murashev
INTRODUCTION: It is important that the method of anesthesia of mice does not considerably alter the animal's physiological and metabolic status before terminal blood sampling taken in order to analyze clinical pathology parameters. METHODS: Hematology, hemostasis, and clinical chemistry parameters were compared in male and female BALB/c mice exposed to either tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine (TZX) anesthesia or euthanasia in carbon dioxide (CO2) chamber to reveal an alternative method of anesthesia vs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Fabrice Gritti, Michael Fogwill, Martin Gilar, Joseph A Jarrell
The rapid and complete baseline separation of both volatile (C5 to C16 alkanes in gasoline or terpenes in plant extracts) and non-volatile (>C20 alkanes) organic compounds was achieved by combining (1) low-density fluid chromatography (LDFC) using carbon dioxide at elevated temperature (>90°C) and low pressure (1500psi) designed to increase the retention of the most volatile compounds and (2) high-vacuum technology (<10(-4)Torr) in order to preserve the maximum efficiency of short analytical columns (3...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Subash Gireesan, Aniruddha B Pandit
One of the controlling parameters of the physical and chemical effects produced by acoustic cavitation is the use of dissolved gas as it affects the temperature and pressure obtained at cavity collapse and, the reactions happening in a bubble. It also enhances the nucleation rates by decreasing the threshold required for cavitation by providing dissolved gas nuclei. The present study looks into the effect of carbon dioxide gas on cavitation using a diffusion limited model. The model couples the dynamics of a single bubble with 11 chemical reactions involving 8 reactive species...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sonia Bahrani, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood Mansoorkhani, Arash Asfaram, Ali Akbar Bazrafshan, Mihir Kumar Purkait
The present research focus on designing an appropriate dispersive solid-phase microextraction (UA-DSPME) for preconcentration and determination of Eriochrome Cyanine R (ECR) in aqueous solutions with aid of sonication using lead (II) dioxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (PbO-NPs-AC). This material was fully identified with XRD and SEM. Influence of pH, amounts of sorbent, type and volume of eluent, and sonication time on response properties were investigated and optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with surface response methodology using STATISTICA...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Yongqi Sun, Qianyi Liu, Hao Wang, Zuotai Zhang, Xidong Wang
Disposal of biomass in the agriculture and steel slags in the steel industry provides a significant solution toward sustainability in China. Herein these two sectors were creatively combined as a novel method, i.e., biomass/CO2 gasification using waste heat from hot slags where the influence of chemical compositions of steel slags, characterized as iron oxide content and basicity, on gasification thermodynamics, was systemically reported for the first time. Both the target gases of CO, H2 and CH4 and the polluted gases of NH3, NO and NO2 were considered...
October 14, 2016: Bioresource Technology
N Lomtatidze, G Dumbadze, M Chkhaidze, R Khakhnelidze
This paper presents statistical data of 2012-2015 on the diseases caused by the atmospheric air and water pollutions in Ajara region. The research on the content of dust, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide as well as carbon monoxide in the atmospheric air was held together with the National Environment Agency Ajara Monitoring Service. The results of the research have shown that the average content of the dust reached its maximum in 2012 (0.60 mg/m3) and it dropped to the minimum in 2015 (0.441 mg/m3). As for average content of carbon monoxide the maximum was observed in 2013 (3...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Helen P Jarvie, Stephen M King, Colin Neal
River water-quality studies rarely measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) routinely, and there is a gap in our knowledge of the contributions of DIC to aquatic carbon fluxes and cycling processes. Here, we present the THINCARB model (THermodynamic modelling of INorganic CARBon), which uses widely-measured determinands (pH, alkalinity and temperature) to calculate DIC concentrations, speciation (bicarbonate, HCO3(-); carbonate, CO3(2-); and dissolved carbon dioxide, H2CO3(⁎)) and excess partial pressures of carbon dioxide (EpCO2) in freshwaters...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Virginia Moreno, Eulogio J Llorent-Martínez, Mohammed Zougagh, Angel Ríos
A supercritical carbon dioxide medium was used for the decoration of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with metallic nanoparticles. This procedure allowed the rapid and simple decoration of carbon nanotubes with the selected metallic nanoparticles. The prepared nanomaterials were used to modify screen-printed electrodes, improving their electrochemical properties and allowing to obtain a wide range of working electrodes based on carbon nanotubes. These electrodes were applied to the amperometric determination of vitamin B6 in food and pharmaceutical samples as an example of the analytical potentiality of the electrodes thus prepared...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Seokjin Suh, Xiangpeng Meng, Sanghoon Ko
The objective of this study was to develop different-sized chitosan nanoparticles as CO2-based food quality indicators. Chitosan nanoparticles were fabricated with different sizes (small, 300nm; medium, 500nm; and large, 1000nm) by ionic gelation. To investigate the performance of chitosan nanoparticles as CO2 indicators, they were suspended in aqueous solution at pH 8.0. Changes in the pH and absorbance of the suspension were measured over time, the absorbance at the transition appearance time being calculated using the inverse-Hill function...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Jowita Marszewska, Mietek Jaroniec
Highly-porous carbon spheres were prepared by modified Stöber method combined with silica templating and CO2 activation. Silica was delivered in the form of either colloids or tetraethyl orthosilicate and used to create porosity. Subsequently, CO2 activation was used to develop microporosity. CO2 activation was done either: (1) on carbon spheres, following silica etching or (2) on silica-carbon composites, before silica removal. Both methods delivered carbon materials with well-developed structures and, importantly, preserved spherical morphology...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Dominic Woolf, Johannes Lehmann, David R Lee
Restricting global warming below 2 °C to avoid catastrophic climate change will require atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Current integrated assessment models (IAMs) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios assume that CDR within the energy sector would be delivered using bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Although bioenergy-biochar systems (BEBCS) can also deliver CDR, they are not included in any IPCC scenario. Here we show that despite BECCS offering twice the carbon sequestration and bioenergy per unit biomass, BEBCS may allow earlier deployment of CDR at lower carbon prices when long-term improvements in soil fertility offset biochar production costs...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Xingxing Wu, Binbin Yu, Wei Xu, Zheng Fan, Zucheng Wu, Huimin Zhang
As the main greenhouse gas, CO2 is considered as a threat in the context of global warming. Many available technologies to reduce CO2 emission was about CO2 separation from coal combustion and geological sequestration. However, how to deal with the cost-effective storage of CO2 has become a new challenge. Moreover, chromium pollution, the treatment of which requires huge energy consumption, has attracted people's widespread attention. This study is aimed to develop the sequestration of CO2 via chromium slag...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Technology
Daria M Monti, Giuseppina De Simone, Emma Langella, Claudiu T Supuran, Anna Di Fiore, Simona M Monti
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) III and VII are two cytosolic isoforms of the α-CA family which catalyze the physiological reaction of carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and proton. Despite these two enzymes share a 49% sequence identity and present a very similar three-dimensional structure, they show profound differences when comparing the specific activity for CO2 hydration reaction, with CA VII being much more active than CA III. Recently, CA III and CA VII have been proposed to play a new role as scavenger enzymes in cells where oxidative damage occurs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Ondřej Jankovský, Michal Nováček, Jan Luxa, David Sedmidubský, Vlastimil Fila, Martin Pumera, Zdeněk Sofer
A new member of the family of graphene derivatives, namely, graphene acid with a composition close to C1 (COOH)1 , was prepared by oxidation of graphene oxide. The synthetic procedure is based on repeated oxidation of graphite with potassium permanganate in an acidic environment. The oxidation process was studied in detail after each step. The multiple oxidations led to oxidative removal of other oxygen functional groups formed in the first oxidation step. Detailed chemical analysis showed only a minor amount of other oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl and the dominant presence of carboxyl groups in a concentration of about 30 wt %...
October 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Haiying Quan, Wenrui Hao, Lu Li, Ming Sun, Kuan Zhang
The whole-room indirect calorimeter is considered as important equipment for human energy expenditure measurement, but noise reduction in the system remains a challenge. A selective filtering method (SFM) was designed to improve the accuracy of the computation of O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]) and CO2 production rate ([Formula: see text]), based on two facts: (1) the rapid changes of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and respiratory quotient (RQ) in human should be accompanied by physical activity; (2) the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production should not be negative because living humans do not generate oxygen, nor consume carbon dioxide...
October 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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