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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092919/compensatory-water-effects-link-yearly-global-land-co2-sink-changes-to-temperature
#1
Martin Jung, Markus Reichstein, Christopher R Schwalm, Chris Huntingford, Stephen Sitch, Anders Ahlström, Almut Arneth, Gustau Camps-Valls, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Friedlingstein, Fabian Gans, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K Jain, Etsushi Kato, Dario Papale, Ben Poulter, Botond Raduly, Christian Rödenbeck, Gianluca Tramontana, Nicolas Viovy, Ying-Ping Wang, Ulrich Weber, Sönke Zaehle, Ning Zeng
Large interannual variations in the measured growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) originate primarily from fluctuations in carbon uptake by land ecosystems. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent temperature and water availability control the carbon balance of land ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales. Here we use empirical models based on eddy covariance data and process-based models to investigate the effect of changes in temperature and water availability on gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at local and global scales...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092864/augmentation-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-in-response-to-tetanus-and-diphtheria-toxoids-by-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-extracts-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-leaves
#2
Bindhya Jayashankar, Divya Singh, Himanshi Tanwar, K P Mishra, Swetha Murthy, Sudipta Chanda, Jigni Mishra, R Tulswani, K Misra, S B Singh, Lilly Ganju
Hippophae rhamnoides L. commonly known as Seabuckthorn (SBT), a wild shrub of family Elaegnacea, has extensively used for treating various ailments like skin diseases, jaundice, asthma, lung troubles. SBT leaves have been reported to possess several pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and tissue regeneration etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adjuvant property of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts (SCEs 300ET and 350ET) of SBT leaves in balb/c mice immunized with Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoids...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092828/a-flexible-microbial-co-culture-platform-for-simultaneous-utilization-of-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-from-gas-feedstocks
#3
Eric A Hill, William B Chrisler, Alex S Beliaev, Hans C Bernstein
A new co-cultivation technology is presented that converts greenhouse gasses, CH4 and CO2, into microbial biomass. The methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20z, was coupled to a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC 7002 via oxygenic photosynthesis. The system exhibited robust growth on diverse gas mixtures ranging from biogas to those representative of a natural gas feedstock. A continuous processes was developed on a synthetic natural gas feed that achieved steady-state by imposing coupled light and O2 limitations on the cyanobacterium and methanotroph, respectively...
January 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092383/computational-study-of-the-interplay-between-intermolecular-interactions-and-co2-orientations-in-type-i-hydrates
#4
M Pérez-Rodríguez, A Vidal-Vidal, J M Míguez, F J Blas, J-P Torré, M M Piñeiro
Carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules show a rich orientation landscape when they are enclathrated in type I hydrates. Previous studies have described experimentally their preferential orientations, and some theoretical works have explained, but only partially, these experimental results. In the present paper, we use classical molecular dynamics and electronic density functional theory to advance in the theoretical description of CO2 orientations within type I hydrates. Our results are fully compatible with those previously reported, both theoretical and experimental, the geometric shape of the cavities in hydrate being, and therefore, the steric constraints, responsible for some (but not all) preferential angles...
January 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092273/in-vivo-testing-of-extracorporeal-membrane-ventilators-ila-activve%C3%A2-vs-prototype-i-lung%C3%A2
#5
Sabine Kischkel, Stefan Bergt, Beate Brock, Johan von Grönheim, Anne Herbst, Marc-Jonas Epping, Georg Matheis, Esther Novosel, Joerg Schneider, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski, Jan P Roesner, Peter I Lelkes, Brigitte Vollmar
A side-by-side comparison of the decarboxylation efficacy of two pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal lung assist devices, i.e. a first prototype of the new miniaturized ambulatory extracorporeal membrane ventilator, I-lung® versus the commercial system iLA-activve® over a period of 72 hours in a large animal model.Fifteen German Landrace pigs were anesthetized and underwent mechanical hypoventilation to induce severe hypercapnia. Decarboxylation was accomplished by either the I-lung® or the iLA-activve® via a double lumen catheter in the jugular vein...
January 4, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091650/the-w-wo3-ohmic-contact-induces-a-high-efficiency-photooxidation-performance
#6
Fangxu Wan, Lina Kong, Changhua Wang, Yingying Li, Yichun Liu, Xintong Zhang
The Schottky-type metal-semiconductor (M-S) junction works well in promoting the separation of photogenerated carriers. In this paper, another type of M-S junction, Ohmic contact of W@WO3, has been developed via an acid partial oxidation strategy. By simply tuning the experimental parameters including the acid concentration and the reaction time, WO3 nanosheets are epitaxially grown on a W core; moreover, the thickness and density of the WO3 shell can be finely controlled. The photocatalytic activities of samples are tested via degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde under UV light irradiation...
January 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091635/focused-electron-beam-based-direct-write-fabrication-of-graphene-and-amorphous-carbon-from-oxo-functionalized-graphene-on-silicon-dioxide
#7
Severin Schindler, Florian Vollnhals, Christian E Halbig, Hubertus Marbach, Hans-Peter Steinrück, Christian Papp, Siegfried Eigler
Controlled patterning of graphene is an important task towards device fabrication and thus is the focus of current research activities. Graphene oxide (GO) is a solution-processible precursor of graphene. It can be patterned by thermal processing. However, thermal processing of GO leads to decomposition and CO2 formation. Alternatively, focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) techniques can be used to pattern graphene with high spatial resolution. Based on this approach, we explore FEBIP of GO deposited on SiO2...
January 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089277/accurate-determination-of-residual-acrylic-acid-in-superabsorbent-polymer-of-hygiene-products-by-headspace-gas-chromatography
#8
Shu-Xin Zhang, Xin-Sheng Chai, Ran Jiang
This work reports on a method for the determination of residual acrylic acid (AA) in the superabsorbent polymers for hygiene products by headspace analysis. It was based on water extraction for the polymer sample at a room temperature for 50min. Then, the AA in the extractant reacted with bicarbonate solution in a closed headspace sample vial, from which the carbon dioxide generated from the reaction (within 20min at 70°C) was detected by gas chromatography (GC). It was found that there is adsorption partition equilibrium of AA between solid-liquid phases...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088564/doping-and-vacancy-effects-of-graphyne-on-so2-adsorption
#9
Sunkyung Kim, Jin Yong Lee
The adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on pristine and modified graphyne (including boron- or nitrogen- doping and introducing a single carbon atom defect) was investigated by density functional theory calculations. The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of graphyne were changed according to the dopant atom site of doping and vacancy. SO2 adsorption was obviously affected by modification of graphyne. SO2 weakly interacted with pristine and nitrogen-doped graphynes. Boron doping at the sp-hybridized carbon site and introducing a single carbon atom vacancy in graphyne brought about a dramatic enhancement in SO2 adsorption...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088548/soil-carbon-dioxide-emissions-from-a-rubber-plantation-on-tropical-peat
#10
Nur Wakhid, Takashi Hirano, Yosuke Okimoto, Siti Nurzakiah, Dedi Nursyamsi
Land-use change in tropical peatland potentially results in a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions owing to drainage, which lowers groundwater level (GWL) and consequently enhances oxidative peat decomposition. However, field information on carbon balance is lacking for rubber plantations, which are expanding into Indonesia's peatlands. To assess soil CO2 emissions from an eight-year-old rubber plantation established on peat after compaction, soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly using a closed chamber system from December 2014 to December 2015, in which a strong El Niño event occurred, and consequently GWL lowered deeply...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087725/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-low-birthweight-infants-randomised-to-different-pco2-targets-the-phelbi-follow-up-study
#11
Ulrich H Thome, Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczeny, Bettina Bohnhorst, Manuel Schmid, Hans Fuchs, Oliver Rohde, Stefan Avenarius, Hans-Georg Topf, Andrea Zimmermann, Dirk Faas, Katharina Timme, Barbara Kleinlein, Horst Buxmann, Wilfried Schenk, Hugo Segerer, Norbert Teig, Annett Bläser, Roland Hentschel, Matthias Heckmann, Rolf Schlösser, Jochen Peters, Rainer Rossi, Wolfgang Rascher, Ralf Böttger, Jürgen Seidenberg, Gesine Hansen, Maria Zernickel, Harald Bode, Jens Dreyhaupt, Rainer Muche, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. METHODS: Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087339/differential-behavioral-sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-inhalation-in-rats
#12
Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Devanshi Naik, Renu Sah
Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087235/hemodynamic-consequence-of-hand-ventilation-versus-machine-ventilation-during-transport-after-cardiac-surgery
#13
E Orestes O'Brien, Beverly J Newhouse, Brett Cronin, Kimberly Robbins, Albert P Nguyen, Swapnil Khoche, Ulrich Schmidt
OBJECTIVES: The hemodynamic consequences of ventilation of intubated patients during transport either by hand or using a transport ventilator have not been reported in patients after cardiac surgery. The authors hypothesized that bag-mask ventilation would alter end-tidal CO2 during transport and hemodynamic parameters in patients post-cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: A university-affiliated tertiary care hospital...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086776/comparison-of-two-adult-mosquito-sampling-methods-with-human-landing-catches-in-south-central-ethiopia
#14
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew, Habte Tekie, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Wakgari Deressa, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn, Hans J Overgaard
BACKGROUND: The human landing catch (HLC) is the standard reference method for measuring human exposure to mosquito bites. However, HLC is labour-intensive, exposes collectors to infectious mosquito bites and is subjected to collector bias. These necessitate local calibration and application of alternative methods. This study was undertaken to determine the relative sampling efficiency (RSE) of light traps with or without yeast-produced carbon dioxide bait vs. HLC in south-central Ethiopia...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081481/fatigue-limits-of-different-peek-materials-for-dental-implants
#15
Andreas Dominik Schwitalla, Tycho Zimmermann, Tobias Spintig, Ilona Kallage, Wolf-Dieter Müller
The increasing use of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone) as a substitute for metal implant components has led to the suggestion that it could also be used as an alternative to titanium in the field of dental implants. A major requirement for dental implant materials is their resistance to cyclic loading due to mastication. A special fatigue test was designed to evaluate the elastic behavior and long-term form stability of cylindrically shaped PEEK specimens of 4, 5 and 6mm in diameter, using 11 different PEEK materials of various grades: unfilled, filled with titanium dioxide or barium sulfate powder, reinforced with short carbon fibers or short glass fibers, and reinforced with continuous carbon fibers...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079944/an-isolable-silicon-dicarbonate-complex-from-carbon-dioxide-activation-with-a-silylone
#16
Alexander Burchert, Shenglai Yao, Robert Müller, Caspar Schattenberg, Yun Xiong, Martin Kaupp, Matthias Driess
The first isolable molecular silicon dicarbonate complex (bis-NHC)Si(CO3 )2 2 (bis-NHC=H2 C[{NC(H)=C(H)N(Dipp)}C:]2 , Dipp=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 ) was synthesized by facile reaction of the bis-N-heterocyclic carbene stabilized silylone (bis-NHC)Si 1, bearing a zero-valent silicon atom, with carbon dioxide. The monomeric silicon dioxide complex (bis-NHC)SiO2 3 supported by the bis-NHC ligand was proposed as a key intermediate resulting from double oxygenation of the zero-valent silicon atom in 1 by two molar equivalents of CO2 under liberation of CO; its subsequent Lewis acid-base reaction with CO2 leads to 2 which has been fully characterized including an single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis...
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079815/morning-breathing-exercises-prolong-lifespan-by-improving-hyperventilation-in-people-living-with-respiratory-cancer
#17
Wei-Jie Wu, Shan-Huan Wang, Wei Ling, Li-Jun Geng, Xiao-Xi Zhang, Lan Yu, Jun Chen, Jiang-Xi Luo, Hai-Lu Zhao
Disturbance of oxygen-carbon dioxide homeostasis has an impact on cancer. Little is known about the effect of breath training on cancer patients. Here we report our 10-year experience with morning breathing exercises (MBE) in peer-support programs for cancer survivors.We performed a cohort study to investigate long-term surviving patients with lung cancer (LC) and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) who practiced MBE on a daily basis. End-tidal breath holding time (ETBHT) after MBE was measured to reflect improvement in alveolar O2 pressure and alveolar CO2 pressure capacity...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079075/hydroclimate-changes-across-the-amazon-lowlands-over-the-past-45-000-years
#18
Xianfeng Wang, R Lawrence Edwards, Augusto S Auler, Hai Cheng, Xinggong Kong, Yongjin Wang, Francisco W Cruz, Jeffrey A Dorale, Hong-Wei Chiang
Reconstructing the history of tropical hydroclimates has been difficult, particularly for the Amazon basin-one of Earth's major centres of deep atmospheric convection. For example, whether the Amazon basin was substantially drier or remained wet during glacial times has been controversial, largely because most study sites have been located on the periphery of the basin, and because interpretations can be complicated by sediment preservation, uncertainties in chronology, and topographical setting. Here we show that rainfall in the basin responds closely to changes in glacial boundary conditions in terms of temperature and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078748/low-temperature-hydrogenation-of-carbon-dioxide-to-methanol-with-a-homogeneous-cobalt-catalyst
#19
Jacob Schneidewind, Rosa Adam, Wolfgang Baumann, Ralf Jackstell, Matthias Beller
Herein we describe the first homogeneous non-noble metal catalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The catalyst is formed in situ from [Co(acac)3 ], Triphos, and HNTf2 and enables the reaction to be performed at 100 °C without a decrease in activity. Kinetic studies suggest an inner-sphere mechanism, and in situ NMR and MS experiments reveal the formation of the active catalyst through slow removal of the acetylacetonate ligands.
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078392/carbon-footprint-assessment-of-western-australian-groundwater-recycling-scheme
#20
Andrew Simms, Stacey Hamilton, Wahidul K Biswas
This research has determined the carbon footprint or the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) of potable water production from a groundwater recycling scheme, consisting of the Beenyup wastewater treatment plant, the Beenyup groundwater replenishment trial plant and the Wanneroo groundwater treatment plant in Western Australia, using a life cycle assessment approach. It was found that the scheme produces 1300 tonnes of CO2 eq per gigalitre (GL) of water produced, which is 933 tonnes of CO2 eq higher than the desalination plant at Binningup in Western Australia powered by 100% renewable energy generated electricity...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
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