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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679837/development-of-a-stacked-ensemble-model-for-forecasting-and-analyzing-daily-average-pm-2-5-concentrations-in-beijing-china
#1
Binxu Zhai, Jianguo Chen
A stacked ensemble model is developed for forecasting and analyzing the daily average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in Beijing, China. Special feature extraction procedures, including those of simplification, polynomial, transformation and combination, are conducted before modeling to identify potentially significant features based on an exploratory data analysis. Stability feature selection and tree-based feature selection methods are applied to select important variables and evaluate the degrees of feature importance...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679365/influence-of-gaseous-pollutants-on-copd-exacerbations-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-comorbidities
#2
Michal Zielinski, Mariusz Gasior, Dariusz Jastrzebski, Aneta Desperak, Dariusz Ziora
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a serious public health issue. Ambient pollution and meteorological factors are considered among precipitating factors. There are few data concerning the impact of ambient pollutants other than particulates on COPD exacerbations. Among gaseous pollutants four main groups of substances are primarily monitored: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3 ). In this study, 12,889 hospitalizations in the years 2006-2014 due to exacerbations of COPD in patients having a co-existing cardiovascular pathology were retrospectively analyzed...
April 21, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679183/effects-of-respiratory-and-applied-muscle-tensing-interventions-on-responses-to-a-simulated-blood-draw-among-individuals-with-high-needle-fear
#3
Jennifer M Kowalsky, Robert Conatser, Thomas Ritz, Christopher R France
Fear of blood and needles increases risk for presyncopal symptoms. Applied muscle tension can prevent or attenuate presyncopal symptoms; however, it is not universally effective. This study examined the effects of applied muscle tension, a respiratory intervention, and a no treatment control condition, on presyncopal symptoms and cerebral oxygenation, during a simulated blood draw with individuals highly fearful of needles. Participants (n = 95) completed questionnaires, physiological monitoring, and two trials of a simulated blood draw with recovery...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677799/photoreduction-of-carbon-dioxide-to-methane-over-sb-1-5-sn-8-5-x-ti-x-o-19-0-with-high-conductivity
#4
Jeong Yeon Do, Byeong Sub Kwak, Misook Kang
In order to enhance the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4, a new type of photocatalyst, Sb1.5Sn8.5-xTixO19.0, with high conductivity and low bandgap was developed by partially incorporating Ti into the framework of Sb1.5Sn8.5O19.0 (antimony-doped tin oxide, ATO) using a controlled hydrothermal method. XRD and TEM analyses indicated that the Sb1.5Sn8.5-xTixO19.0 particles exhibited a tetragonal crystal structure and were approximately 20 nm in size. Furthermore, the bandgap and conductivity of these materials increased with increasing Ti content...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677550/impacts-of-transportation-sector-emissions-on-future-u-s-air-quality-in-a-changing-climate-part-i-projected-emissions-simulation-design-and-model-evaluation
#5
Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
Emissions from the transportation sector are rapidly changing worldwide; however, the interplay of such emission changes in the face of climate change are not as well understood. This two-part study examines the impact of projected emissions from the U.S. transportation sector (Part I) on ambient air quality in the face of climate change (Part II). In Part I of this study, we describe the methodology and results of a novel Technology Driver Model (see graphical abstract) that includes 1) transportation emission projections (including on-road vehicles, non-road engines, aircraft, rail, and ship) derived from a dynamic technology model that accounts for various technology and policy options under an IPCC emission scenario, and 2) the configuration/evaluation of a dynamically downscaled Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677172/elevated-co%C3%A2-concentrations-impact-the-semiochemistry-of-aphid-honeydew-without-having-a-cascade-effect-on-an-aphid-predator
#6
Antoine Boullis, Solène Blanchard, Frédéric Francis, François Verheggen
Honeydew is considered a cornerstone of the interactions between aphids and their natural enemies. Bacteria activity occurring in aphid honeydew typically results in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are used by the natural enemies of aphids to locate their prey. Because atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration directly impacts the physiology of plants, we raise the hypothesis that elevated CO₂ concentrations impact the quantity of honeydew produced by aphids, as well as the diversity and quantity of honeydew VOCs, leading to cascade effects on the foraging behavior of aphids' natural enemies...
April 20, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676643/climate-change-and-implications-for-prevention-california-s-efforts-to-provide-leadership
#7
John R Balmes
The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and the temperature of the earth's surface have been rising in parallel for decades, with the former recently reaching 400 parts per million, consistent with a 1.5°C increase in global warming. Climate change models predict that a "business as usual" approach, that is, no effort to control CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, will result in a more than 2°C increase in annual average surface temperature by approximately 2034. With atmospheric warming comes increased air pollution...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676075/chamber-and-field-studies-demonstrate-differential-amb-a-1-contents-in-common-ragweed-depending-on-co%C3%A2-levels
#8
Young Jin Choi, Hae Rin Oh, Jae Won Oh, Kyu Rang Kim, Mi Jin Kim, Baek Jo Kim, Won Gi Baek
Although atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) has no apparent direct effect on human health, it does have direct effects on plants. The present study evaluated the influence of increased CO₂ levels on the concentration of allergens from common ragweed pollen by setting up a chamber study to model future air conditions and a field study to evaluate current air conditions. For the chamber study, we established 20 ragweed plants in an open-top chamber under different CO₂ levels (380-400, 500-520, 600-620, and 1,000-1,100 parts per million [ppm])...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675887/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-4-sulfamoylphenyl-sulfocoumarin-carboxamides-as-selective-inhibitors-of-carbonic-anhydrase-isoforms-hca-ii-ix-and-xii
#9
Srinivas Angapelly, Andrea Angeli, Arbaj Jabbar Khan, Posa Venkata SriRamya, Claudiu Trandafir Supuran, Mohammed Arifuddin
With the aim to develop potent and selective human carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (hCAIs), we synthesized 4-sulfamoylphenyl/sulfocoumarin benzamides (5a-r and 7a-q) and evaluated for their inhibition profiles against five isoforms of zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), the cytosolic CA I and II as well as transmembrane isozymes CA IV, IX and XII. Compounds 5a-r selectively inhibited the isoform hCA II in nanomolar range, being less effective against the other isoforms. As noticeable from the literature, sulfocoumarin (1,2-benzoxathiine 2,2-dioxide) act as "prodrug" inhibitor and get hydrolysed by the esterase CA activity to form 2-hydroxyphenyl-vinylsulfonic acid, which thereafter bind to the enzyme in a similar fashion like coumarins and sulfoxocoumarins...
April 19, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675732/bias-flow-rate-and-ventilation-efficiency-during-adult-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-a-lung-model-study
#10
Osamu Nagano, Tetsuya Yumoto, Atsunori Nishimatsu, Shunsuke Kanazawa, Takahisa Fujita, Sunao Asaba, Hideo Yamanouchi
BACKGROUND: Bias flow (BF) is essential to maintain mean airway pressure (MAP) and to washout carbon dioxide (CO2 ) from the oscillator circuit during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). If the BF rate is inadequate, substantial CO2 rebreathing could occur and ventilation efficiency could worsen. With lower ventilation efficiency, the required stroke volume (SV) would increase in order to obtain the same alveolar ventilation with constant frequency. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of BF rate on ventilation efficiency during adult HFOV...
April 19, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675154/inedible-saccharides-a-platform-for-co-2-capturing
#11
REVIEW
Abdussalam K Qaroush, Hiba S Alshamaly, Shrouq S Alazzeh, Ream H Abeskhron, Khaleel I Assaf, Ala'a F Eftaiha
The economic viability of eco-friendly and renewable materials promotes the development of an alternative technology for climate change mitigation. Investigations reported over the past few years have allowed understanding the mechanism of action for a wide spectrum of saccharides toward carbon dioxide (CO2 ), in terms of reactivity, reversibility, stability and uptake. Exploiting bio-renewables, viz. , inedible saccharides, to reduce the anthropogenic carbon footprint upon providing a sustainable and promising technology that is of interest to different groups of scientists, to overcome demerits associated with the current state-of-the-art aqueous amine scrubbing agents, following a "green chemistry guideline", by employing materials with properties relevant to the environment toward sustainable development...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674598/online-monitoring-of-carbon-dioxide-and-oxygen-in-exhaled-mouse-breath-via-substrate-integrated-hollow-waveguide-fourier-transform-infrared-luminescence-spectroscopy
#12
Felicia Seichter, Erhan Tuetuencue, Tamina Hagemann, Josef Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Michael Groeger, Sandra Kress, Peter Radermacher, Boris Mizaikoff
Exhaled breath offers monitoring bio markers, as well as diagnosing diseases and therapeutic interventions. In addition, vital functions may be non-invasively monitored on-line. Animal models are frequently used in research for determining novel therapeutic approaches and/or for investigating biological pathways. The exhaled carbon dioxide concentration, exhaled and inhaled oxygen concentration, and the subsequent respiratory quotient (RQ) offer insight into metabolic activity. One may adapt breath sampling systems and equipment designed for human applications to large animal studies, however, such adaptations are usually impossible for small animals due to their minuscule breath volume...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674593/unexpected-reversal-of-c-3-versus-c-4-grass-response-to-elevated-co-2-during-a-20-year-field-experiment
#13
Peter B Reich, Sarah E Hobbie, Tali D Lee, Melissa A Pastore
Theory predicts and evidence shows that plant species that use the C4 photosynthetic pathway (C4 species) are less responsive to elevated carbon dioxide ( e CO2 ) than species that use only the C3 pathway (C3 species). We document a reversal from this expected C3 -C4 contrast. Over the first 12 years of a 20-year free-air CO2 enrichment experiment with 88 C3 or C4 grassland plots, we found that biomass was markedly enhanced at e CO2 relative to ambient CO2 in C3 but not C4 plots, as expected. During the subsequent 8 years, the pattern reversed: Biomass was markedly enhanced at e CO2 relative to ambient CO2 in C4 but not C3 plots...
April 20, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674333/intravenous-and-intratracheal-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-and-its-analog-taltirelin-reverse-opioid-induced-respiratory-depression-in-isoflurane-anesthetized-rats
#14
James D Boghosian, Anita Luethy, Joseph F Cotten
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone and a neurotransmitter widely-expressed in the CNS that regulates thyroid function and that maintains physiologic homeostasis. Following injection in rodents, TRH has multiple effects including increased blood pressure and breathing. We tested the hypothesis that TRH and its long-acting analog, taltirelin, will reverse morphine-induced respiratory depression in anesthetized rats following intravenous(IV) or intratracheal(IT) administration. TRH (1 mg/kg plus 5 mg/kg/hour IV) and talitrelin (1 mg/kg IV), when administered to rats pretreated with morphine (5 mg/kg IV), increased ventilation from 50±6 to 131±7% and 45±6 to 168±13% (percent baseline; n=4±SEM), primarily through increased breathing rates (from 76+/-9 to 260±14% and 66±8 to 318±37%)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674292/the-influence-of-mineral-particles-on-fibroblast-behaviour-a-comparative-study
#15
Diosangeles Soto Veliz, Jens C Luoto, Ilari Pulli, Martti Toivakka
Minerals are versatile tools utilised to modify and control the physical-chemical and functional properties of substrates. Those properties include ones directing cell fate; thus, minerals can potentially provide a direct and inexpensive method to manipulate cell behaviour. This paper shows how different minerals influence human dermal fibroblast behaviour depending on their properties. Different calcium carbonates, calcium sulphates, silica, silicates, and titanium dioxide were characterised using TEM, ATR-FTIR, and zeta potential measurements...
April 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674210/sources-compositions-and-optical-properties-of-humic-like-substances-in-beijing-during-the-2014-apec-summit-results-from-dual-carbon-isotope-and-fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance-mass-spectrometry-analyses
#16
Yangzhi Mo, Jun Li, Bin Jiang, Tao Su, Xiaofei Geng, Junwen Liu, Haoyu Jiang, Chengde Shen, Ping Ding, Guangcai Zhong, Zhineng Cheng, Yuhong Liao, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Gan Zhang
Humic-like substances (HULIS) are a class of high molecular weight, light-absorbing compounds that are highly related to brown carbon (BrC). In this study, the sources and compositions of HULIS isolated from fine particles collected in Beijing, China during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit were characterized based on carbon isotope (13 C and 14 C) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) analyses, respectively. HULIS were the main light-absorbing components of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), accounting for 80...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673350/is-daily-physical-activity-affected-by-dynamic-hyperinflation-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Daniela Savi, Marcello Di Paolo, Nicholas J Simmonds, Chiara Pascucci, Serena Quattrucci, Paolo Palange
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic hyperinflation and daily physical activity (DPA) in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Thirty-four clinically stable CF were studied. All patients undertook incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). CPET-related measurements included: oxygen uptake (V'O2 ), carbon dioxide production (V'CO2 ), ventilatory profile, work rate (W), inspiratory capacity (IC), end-expiratory lung volume (EELV)...
April 19, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673243/the-effect-of-additional-carbohydrate-supplements-for-7-days-after-prolonged-interval-exercise-on-exercise-performance-and-energy-metabolism-during-submaximal-exercise-in-team-sports-athletes
#18
Hun-Young Park, Jisu Kim, Miyoung Park, Nana Chung, Kiwon Lim
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of carbohydrate loading by additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes. METHODS: Twenty male team-sports athletes (14 soccer and 6 rugby players) volunteered to participate in the study and were equally divided into the experimental group (EXP, n=10) performing additional carbohydrate supplementation for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise until blood glucose level reaches 50 mg/dL or less and the control group (CON, n=10)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673032/reducing-post-laparoscopy-shoulder-pain-are-simple-strategies-are-enough
#19
Jane Daniels
Laparoscopy-induced pain is still not fully understood. There are a number of theories regarding the mechanism of pain generation, focusing on both the mechanical trauma of the peritoneal distension and the effect of the insufflated carbon dioxide. The result is irritation of the phrenic nerve and diaphragm, causing referred pain in the shoulder and pain in the upper abdomen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 19, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672959/phase-transition-induced-by-gas-adsorption-in-metal-organic-frameworks
#20
Azahara Luna-Triguero, Jose Manuel Vicent-Luna, Sofia Calero
We present a molecular simulation study with the aim of investigating the structural phase transition of ZJU-198 metal organic framework. This material has been recently synthetized with the appropriate control of window size, which performs well for the separation of mixtures of gases containing nitrogen and methane. We find that the adsorption of small gases in this structure is unusual, and provide an explanation of the molecular mechanisms involved on it. Using molecular simulation we analyze the structural distortions exerted by the adsorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethene...
April 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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