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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885628/bcaa-metabolism-and-nh3-homeostasis
#1
M E Conway, S M Hutson
The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids required not only for growth and development, but also as nutrient signals and as nitrogen donors to neurotransmitter synthesis and glutamate/glutamine cycling. Transamination and oxidative decarboxylation of the BCAAs are catalysed by the branched-chain aminotransferase proteins (BCATm, mitochondrial and BCATc, cytosolic) and the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC), respectively. These proteins show tissue, cell compartmentation, and protein-protein interactions, which call for substrate shuttling or channelling and nitrogen transfer for oxidation to occur...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873007/difference-in-capsaicinoid-biosynthesis-gene-expression-in-the-pericarp-reveals-elevation-of-capsaicinoid-contents-in-chili-peppers-capsicum-chinense
#2
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Fumihiro Nakashima, Erasmus Kirii, Tanjuro Goto, Yuichi Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro Yasuba
This research reveals that the up-regulated expression of multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pericarp tissue leads to the elevation of total capsaicinoid content in chili pepper fruit. Capsaicinoids are health-functional compounds that are produced uniquely in chili pepper fruits. A high capsaicinoid level is one of the major parameters determining the commercial quality and health-promoting properties of chili peppers. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for its high contents, we compared an extremely pungent cultivar 'Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow' (MY) with other cultivars of different pungency levels (Fushimi-amanaga, Takanotsume, Red Habanero)...
November 21, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871372/a-novel-highly-thermostable-branched-chain-amino-acid-aminotransferase-from-the-crenarchaeon-vulcanisaeta-moutnovskia
#3
Tatiana N Stekhanova, Andrey L Rakitin, Andrey V Mardanov, Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Vladimir O Popov
A new fold-type IV branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase VMUT0738 from the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeon Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified VMUT0738 showed activity toward numerous aliphatic and aromatic l-amino acids and 2-oxo acids at optimal pH 8.0. Distinguishing features of the VMUT0738 compared with typical BCAT are the absence of activity toward acidic substrates, high activity toward basic ones, and low but detectable activity toward the (R)-enantiomer of α-methylbenzylamine (0...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714478/clinically-applied-procedures-for-human-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation-result-in-different-levels-of-efficacy-and-efficiency
#4
Lobke Bastings, Johan R Westphal, Catharina C M Beerendonk, Ruud L M Bekkers, Petra L M Zusterzeel, Jan C M Hendriks, Didi D M Braat, Ronald Peek
PURPOSE: Different protocols are being used worldwide for the cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue for fertility preservation purposes. The efficiency and efficacy of the majority of these protocols has not been extensively evaluated, possibly resulting in sub-optimally cryopreserved ovarian tissue. To address the impact of this issue, we assessed the effects of two clinically successful human ovarian tissue slow-freezing cryopreservation procedures on the quality of the cryopreserved tissue...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523731/experimental-and-computational-studies-on-the-unusual-substrate-specificity-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-aminotransferase-from-thermoproteus-uzoniensis
#5
Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Tatiana N Stekhanova, Dmitry A Suplatov, Andrey V Mardanov, Nikolai V Ravin, Vladimir O Popov
PLP-Dependent fold-type IV branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCATs) from archaea have so far been poorly characterized. A new BCAT from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermoproteus uzoniensis (TUZN1299) has been studied. TUZN1299 was found to be highly active toward branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), positively charged amino acids, l-methionine, l-threonine, l-homoserine, l-glutamine, as well as toward 2-oxobutyrate and keto analogs of BCAAs, whereas l-glutamate and α-ketoglutarate were not converted in the overall reaction...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458092/crystal-structures-of-rida-an-important-enzyme-for-the-prevention-of-toxic-side-products
#6
Xiwen Liu, Jianhua Zeng, Xiaolei Chen, Wei Xie
The YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family proteins are highly conserved across all three domains of life, and most of them currently have no clearly defined biological roles. In vitro, these proteins were found to hydrolyze the enamine/imine intermediates generated from serine or threonine, and were renamed Reactive Intermediate Deaminase A (RidA). RidA was recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana, and by deaminating the toxic enamine/imine intermediates, it prevents the inactivation of many functionally important pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes in plants such as branched-chain aminotransferase BCAT (IlvE)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428465/adduct-formation-b-h-activation-and-ring-expansion-at-room-temperature-from-reactions-of-hbcat-with-nhcs
#7
Sabrina Würtemberger-Pietsch, Heidi Schneider, Todd B Marder, Udo Radius
We report the reactions of catecholborane (HBcat; 1) with unsaturated and saturated NHCs as well as CAAC(Me) . Mono-NHC adducts of the type HBcat⋅NHC (NHC=nPr2 Im, iPr2 Im, iPr2 Im(Me) , and Dipp2 Im) were obtained by stoichiometric reactions of HBcat with the unsaturated NHCs. The reaction of CAAC(Me) with HBcat yielded the B-H activated product CAAC(Me) (H)Bcat via insertion of the carbine-carbon atom into the B-H bond. The saturated NHC Dipp2 SIm reacted in a 2:2 ratio yielding an NHC ring-expanded product at room temperature forming a six-membered -B-C=N-C=C-N- ring via C-N bond cleavage and further migration of the hydrides from two HBcat molecules to the former carbene-carbon atom...
September 5, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373929/metformin-inhibits-branched-chain-amino-acid-bcaa-derived-ketoacidosis-and-promotes-metabolic-homeostasis-in-msud
#8
Davis S Sonnet, Monique N O'Leary, Mark A Gutierrez, Steven M Nguyen, Samiha Mateen, Yuehmei Hsu, Kylie P Mitchell, Antonio J Lopez, Jerry Vockley, Brian K Kennedy, Arvind Ramanathan
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder caused by the dysfunction in the branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) enzyme. This leads to buildup of branched-chain keto-acids (BCKA) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in body fluids (e.g. keto-isocaproic acid from the BCAA leucine), leading to numerous clinical features including a less understood skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients. KIC is an inhibitor of mitochondrial function at disease relevant concentrations. A murine model of intermediate MSUD (iMSUD) shows significant skeletal muscle dysfunction as by judged decreased muscle fiber diameter...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254478/nhc-nickel-catalyzed-suzuki-miyaura-cross-coupling-reactions-of-aryl-boronate-esters-with-perfluorobenzenes
#9
Jing Zhou, Johannes H J Berthel, Maximilian W Kuntze-Fechner, Alexandra Friedrich, Todd B Marder, Udo Radius
An efficient Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of perfluorinated arenes with aryl boronate esters using NHC nickel complexes as catalysts is described. The efficiencies of different boronate esters (p-tolyl-Beg, p-tolyl-Bneop, p-tolyl-Bpin, p-tolyl-Bcat) and the corresponding boronic acid (p-tolyl-B(OH)2) in this type of cross-coupling reaction were evaluated (eg, ethyleneglycolato; neop, neopentylglycolato; pin, pinacolato; cat, catecholato). Aryl-Beg was shown to be the most reactive boronate ester among those studied...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150955/reaction-of-a-2-4-6-triphenylphosphinine-ferrate-anion-with-electrophiles-a-new-route-to-phosphacyclohexadienyl-complexes
#10
Christian M Hoidn, Robert Wolf
A novel, versatile route to phosphorus- and carbon-substituted η(5)-phosphacyclohexadienyl complexes was developed. Reaction of the anionic 2,4,6-triphenylphosphinine iron complex [K([18]crown-6)(thf)2][Cp*Fe(PC5Ph3H2)] (1) with selected main group element electrophiles afforded the new complexes [Cp*Fe(2-endo-H-PC5Ph3H2)] (endo-3), [Cp*Fe(2-exo-H-PC5Ph3H2)] (exo-3), [Cp*Fe(1-Me-PC5Ph3H2)] (4), [Cp*Fe(1-Me3Si-PC5Ph3H2)] (5), [Cp*Fe(1-PPh2-PC5Ph3H2)] (6) and [Cp*Fe(2-BCat-PC5Ph3H2)] (7, BCat = 2-benzo[d][1,3,2]dioxaborol-2-yl)...
June 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26873431/a-comparison-of-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-ad8-and-bcat-sf-in-identifying-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-long-term-care-residents
#11
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace
We compared the accuracy of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form (BCAT-SF) and AD8 in identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among long-term care residents. Psychometric analyses of 357 long-term care residents (n = 228, nursing home; n = 129, assisted living) in Maryland referred for neuropsychological evaluation evidenced robust internal consistency reliability and construct validity for the BCAT-SF. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated superior predictive validity for the BCAT-SF in identifying MCI and dementia relative to the AD8...
September 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872794/first-structure-of-archaeal-branched-chain-amino-acid-aminotransferase-from-thermoproteus-uzoniensis-specific-for-l-amino-acids-and-r-amines
#12
Konstantin M Boyko, Tatiana N Stekhanova, Alena Yu Nikolaeva, Andrey V Mardanov, Andrey L Rakitin, Nikolai V Ravin, Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Vladimir O Popov
The gene TUZN1299 from the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermoproteus uzoniensis encoding a new 32.8 kDa branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein TUZN1299 was purified to homogeneity in the PLP-bound form. TUZN1299 was active towards branched-chain amino acids (L-Val, L-Leu, L-Ile) and showed low but detectable activity toward (R)-alpha-methylbenzylamine. The enzyme exhibits high-temperature optimum, thermal stability, and tolerance to organic solvents...
March 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26659116/branched-chain-aminotransferases-control-torc1-signaling-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Joanne M Kingsbury, Neelam D Sen, Maria E Cardenas
The conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) integrates nutrient signals to orchestrate cell growth and proliferation. Leucine availability is conveyed to control TORC1 activity via the leu-tRNA synthetase/EGOC-GTPase module in yeast and mammals, but the mechanisms sensing leucine remain only partially understood. We show here that both leucine and its α-ketoacid metabolite, α-ketoisocaproate, effectively activate the yeast TORC1 kinase via both EGOC GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Leucine and α-ketoisocaproate are interconverted by ubiquitous branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT), which in yeast are represented by the mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes Bat1 and Bat2, respectively...
December 2015: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26620638/branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-is-a-conserved-regulator-of-physiological-ageing
#14
Johannes Mansfeld, Nadine Urban, Steffen Priebe, Marco Groth, Christiane Frahm, Nils Hartmann, Juliane Gebauer, Meenakshi Ravichandran, Anne Dommaschk, Sebastian Schmeisser, Doreen Kuhlow, Shamci Monajembashi, Sibylle Bremer-Streck, Peter Hemmerich, Michael Kiehntopf, Nicola Zamboni, Christoph Englert, Reinhard Guthke, Christoph Kaleta, Matthias Platzer, Jürgen Sühnel, Otto W Witte, Kim Zarse, Michael Ristow
Ageing has been defined as a global decline in physiological function depending on both environmental and genetic factors. Here we identify gene transcripts that are similarly regulated during physiological ageing in nematodes, zebrafish and mice. We observe the strongest extension of lifespan when impairing expression of the branched-chain amino acid transferase-1 (bcat-1) gene in C. elegans, which leads to excessive levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We further show that BCAAs reduce a LET-363/mTOR-dependent neuro-endocrine signal, which we identify as DAF-7/TGFβ, and that impacts lifespan depending on its related receptors, DAF-1 and DAF-4, as well as ultimately on DAF-16/FoxO and HSF-1 in a cell-non-autonomous manner...
2015: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26471562/ethylene-and-1-mcp-regulate-major-volatile-biosynthetic-pathways-in-apple-fruit
#15
Xiaotang Yang, Jun Song, Lina Du, Charles Forney, Leslie Campbell-Palmer, Sherry Fillmore, Paul Wismer, Zhaoqi Zhang
The effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on apple fruit volatile biosynthesis and gene expression were investigated. Statistical analysis identified 17 genes that changed significantly in response to ethylene and 1-MCP treatments. Genes encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT) and amino acid decarboxylases (AADC) were up-regulated during ripening and further enhanced by ethylene treatment. Genes related to fatty acid synthesis and metabolism, including acyl-carrier-proteins (ACPs), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (MCAT), acyl-ACP-desaturase (ACPD), lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC2), β-oxidation, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHD), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD), and alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) also increased during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26469856/imido-hydrido-complexes-of-mo-iv-catalysis-and-mechanistic-aspects-of-hydroboration-reactions
#16
Andrey Y Khalimon, Philip M Farha, Georgii I Nikonov
Imido-hydrido complexes (ArN)Mo(H)(Cl)(PMe3)3 (1) and (ArN)Mo(H)2(PMe3)3 (2) (Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) catalyse a variety of hydroboration reactions, including the rare examples of addition of HBCat to nitriles to form bis(borylated) amines RCH2N(BCat)2. Stoichiometric reactivity of complexes 1 and 2 with nitriles and HBCat suggest that catalytic reactions proceed via a series of agostic borylamido and borylamino complexes. For complex 1, catalysis starts with addition of nitriles across the Mo-H bond to give (ArN)Mo(Cl)(N[double bond, length as m-dash]CHR)(PMe3)2; whereas for complex 2 stoichiometric reactions suggest initial addition of HBCat to form the agostic complex Mo(H)2(PMe3)3(η(3)-NAr-HBcat) (16)...
November 21, 2015: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26339861/conclusive-evidence-on-the-mechanism-of-the-rhodium-mediated-decyanative-borylation
#17
Miguel A Esteruelas, Montserrat Oliván, Andrea Vélez
The stoichiometric reactions proposed in the mechanism of the rhodium-mediated decyanative borylation have been performed and all relevant intermediates isolated and characterized including their X-ray structures. Complex RhCl{xant(P(i)Pr2)2} (1, xant(P(i)Pr2)2 = 9,9-dimethyl-4,5-bis(diisopropylphosphino)xanthene) reacts with bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2), in benzene, to give the rhodium(III) derivative RhHCl(Bpin){xant(P(i)Pr2)2} (4) and PhBpin. The reaction involves the oxidative addition of B2pin2 to 1 to give RhCl(Bpin)2{xant(P(i)Pr2)2}, which eliminates ClBpin generating Rh(Bpin){xant(P(i)Pr2)2} (2)...
September 30, 2015: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26244129/change-of-gene-expression-on-protein-uptake-composition-and-hindlimb-suspension-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#18
Wookwang Cheon, Kiwon Lim
PURPOSE: This study was to investigate changes in BCAT and BCKDH genes by Hindlimb-Suspension (HS) and protein intake composition (casein, Whey protein) in rats. METHODS: Following 5-day preliminary feeding, forty-eight male 5 weeks old Sprague Dawley albino rats (110g) divided into 17% protein intake group (24 rats) and 30% protein intake group (24 rats), and each group divided further into Hindlimb-Suspension group (HS; 12 rats) and control group(CON; 12 rats)...
June 2015: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26020578/rapid-cognitive-assessment-of-nursing-home-residents-a-comparison-of-the-brief-interview-for-mental-status-bims-and-brief-cognitive-assessment-tool-short-form-bcat-sf
#19
Ryan A Mace, William E Mansbach, Kristen M Clark
In nursing homes, the ability to identify residents with cognitive impairment is critical; however, many providers fail to address symptoms of dementia due to insufficient time to assess cognition. In the current study, the authors compared two rapidly administered instruments, the Brief Interview for Mental Status (BIMS) and Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form (BCAT-SF), in predicting specific cognitive stages. Two hundred twenty-five nursing home residents who were referred for neurocognitive evaluation and met inclusion criteria participated in the study...
January 2016: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25907640/reconstruction-techniques-in-comparison-for-reverse-shoulder-trauma-prosthesis-in-the-elderly-a-follow-up-between-2-and-4%C3%A2-years
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Raffaele Russo, Fabio Cautiero, Alberto Fontanarosa, Giuseppe della Rotonda, Giuliana Valerio
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of a bone graft technique called bCAT (bone Collar And Tie), in which the fractured humeral head is modelled into a collar shape versus puzzle piece reconstruction (PPR) in elderly patients with complex proximal humeral fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2005 and 2011, we have performed 46 reverse shoulder prosthesis in patients with a mean age of 73.8 years (range 69-95) affected by shoulder complex fracture...
July 2015: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
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