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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912343/diversification-of-transcriptional-regulation-determines-subfunctionalization-of-paralogous-branched-chain-aminotransferases-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
James González, Geovani López, Stefany Argueta, Ximena Escalera-Fanjul, Mohamed El Hafidi, Carlos Campero-Basaldua, Joseph Strauss, Lina Riego-Ruiz, Alicia González
Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbors BAT1 and BAT2 paralogous genes encoding branched chain aminotransferases (BCATs), showing opposed expression profiles and physiological role. Accordingly, in primary nitrogen sources such as glutamine, BAT1 expression is induced, supporting Bat1-dependent valine-isoleucine-leucine (VIL) biosynthesis, while BAT2 expression is repressed. Conversely, in the presence of VIL as sole nitrogen source, BAT1 expression is hindered while that of BAT2 is activated resulting in Bat2-dependent VIL catabolism...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699638/bcat1-controls-metabolic-reprogramming-in-activated-human-macrophages-and-is-associated-with-inflammatory-diseases
#2
Adonia E Papathanassiu, Jeong-Hun Ko, Martha Imprialou, Marta Bagnati, Prashant K Srivastava, Hong A Vu, Danilo Cucchi, Stephen P McAdoo, Elitsa A Ananieva, Claudio Mauro, Jacques Behmoaras
Branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT) are enzymes that initiate the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), such as leucine, thereby providing macromolecule precursors; however, the function of BCATs in macrophages is unknown. Here we show that BCAT1 is the predominant BCAT isoform in human primary macrophages. We identify ERG240 as a leucine analogue that blocks BCAT1 activity. Selective inhibition of BCAT1 activity results in decreased oxygen consumption and glycolysis. This decrease is associated with reduced IRG1 levels and itaconate synthesis, suggesting involvement of BCAA catabolism through the IRG1/itaconate axis within the tricarboxylic acid cycle in activated macrophages...
July 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638045/treatment-of-sarcopenia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-mitochondrial-activation-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid
#3
Chikako Fujii, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue, Aika Hagiwara, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masaki Ryuzaki, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Masanori Tamaki, Ayako Muraki, Toshihide Kawai, Hiroshi Itoh
Recently, sarcopenia has attracted attention as therapeutic target because it constitutes a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We focused 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which act as electron carriers in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The mice that received ALA for 8 weeks gained muscle strength and endurance, and exhibited increased muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. Administration of ALA to sarcopenia mice aged 100 weeks and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model mice also increased muscle mass and improved physical performance...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593724/a-strategy-for-creating-organisms-dependent-on-noncanonical-amino-acids
#4
Weimin Xuan, Peter G Schultz
The use of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) to control the viability of an organism provides a strategy for the development of conditional "kill switches" for live vaccines or engineered human cells. We report an approach inspired by the posttranslational acetylation/deacetylation of lysine residues, in which a protein encoded by a gene with an in-frame nonsense codon at an essential lysine can be expressed in its native state only upon genetic incorporation of N-ϵ-acetyl-l-Lys (AcK), and subsequent enzymatic deacetylation in the host cell...
July 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417264/branched-chain-amino-acids-and-brain-metabolism
#5
Justin E Sperringer, Adele Addington, Susan M Hutson
This review aims to provide a historical reference of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism and provide a link between peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) metabolism of BCAAs. Leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu, Ile, and Val) are unlike most other essential amino acids (AA), being transaminated initially in extrahepatic tissues, and requiring interorgan or intertissue shuttling for complete catabolism. Within the periphery, BCAAs are essential AAs and are required for protein synthesis, and are key nitrogen donors in the form of Glu, Gln, and Ala...
June 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387046/reversible-oxidative-addition-at-carbon
#6
Antonius F Eichhorn, Sonja Fuchs, Marco Flock, Todd B Marder, Udo Radius
The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2...
April 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314050/efficacy-of-rna-interference-knockdown-using-aerosolized-short-interfering-rnas-bound-to-nanoparticles-in-three-diverse-aphid-species
#7
M W Thairu, I H Skidmore, R Bansal, E Nováková, T E Hansen, H Li-Byarlay, S A Wickline, A K Hansen
RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a promising method for validating gene function; however, its utility in nonmodel insects has proven problematic, with delivery methods being one of the main obstacles. This study investigates a novel method of RNAi delivery in aphids, the aerosolization of short interfering RNA (siRNA)-nanoparticle complexes. By using nanoparticles as a siRNA carrier, the likelihood of cellular uptake is increased, when compared to methods previously used in insects. To determine the efficacy of this RNAi delivery system, siRNAs were aerosolized with and without nanoparticles in three aphid species: Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis glycines and Schizaphis graminum...
June 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075381/the-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-supplementation-improved-the-cognitive-function-in-the-chinese-elderly-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yacong Bo, Xueyuan Zhang, Youli Wang, Jie You, Han Cui, Yiwei Zhu, Wei Pang, Wei Liu, Yugang Jiang, Quanjun Lu
OBJECTIVE: Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may protect against mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there is still a lack of the n-3 PUFAs intervention in the elderly with MCI in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in the Chinese elderly with MCI. METHODS: Eighty six MCI individuals aged 60 years or older were randomly assigned to receive either n-3 PUFAs (480 mg DHA and 720 mg EPA per day, n = 44) or placebo (olive oil, n = 42) capsules...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067610/the-efficacy-of-a-computer-assisted-cognitive-rehabilitation-program-for-patients-with-mild-cognitive-deficits-a-pilot-study
#9
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace, Kristen M Clark
Background/Study Context: Whereas computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CR) programs show promise as tools for improving cognition in certain populations, there is not a consensus regarding their efficacy. This study focuses on restorative CR, a treatment designed to improve cognitive functioning affected by progressive brain changes due to disease or aging, through computer-assisted cognitive exercises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a computer-assisted restorative CR intervention for improving cognitive functioning in older rehabilitation patients with relatively mild cognitive deficits...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998158/prevalence-of-dementia-and-associated-factors-among-older-adults-in-iran-national-elderly-health-survey-nehs
#10
Farshad Sharifi, Hossein Fakhrzadeh, Mehdi Varmaghani, Seyed Masoud Arzaghi, Mahtab Alizadeh Khoei, Farshad Farzadfar, Parisa Taheri Tanjani
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia is increasing in Iran and the world. There is no study available on the prevalence of dementia at the national level in Iran. This study aimed to report the rate of dementia at the national level in Iran. METHODS: The National Elderly Health Survey (NEHS) was a cross-sectional study with multistage cluster random sampling on people aged ≥ 60 years in Iran. Dementia was diagnosed by trained general practitioners using Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT)...
December 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885628/bcaa-metabolism-and-nh3-homeostasis
#11
M E Conway, S M Hutson
The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids required not only for growth and development, but also as nutrient signals and as nitrogen donors to neurotransmitter synthesis and glutamate/glutamine cycling. Transamination and oxidative decarboxylation of the BCAAs are catalysed by the branched-chain aminotransferase proteins (BCATm, mitochondrial and BCATc, cytosolic) and the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC), respectively. These proteins show tissue, cell compartmentation, and protein-protein interactions, which call for substrate shuttling or channelling and nitrogen transfer for oxidation to occur...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873007/difference-in-capsaicinoid-biosynthesis-gene-expression-in-the-pericarp-reveals-elevation-of-capsaicinoid-contents-in-chili-peppers-capsicum-chinense
#12
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Fumihiro Nakashima, Erasmus Kirii, Tanjuro Goto, Yuichi Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro Yasuba
This research reveals that the up-regulated expression of multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pericarp tissue leads to the elevation of total capsaicinoid content in chili pepper fruit. Capsaicinoids are health-functional compounds that are produced uniquely in chili pepper fruits. A high capsaicinoid level is one of the major parameters determining the commercial quality and health-promoting properties of chili peppers. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for its high contents, we compared an extremely pungent cultivar 'Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow' (MY) with other cultivars of different pungency levels (Fushimi-amanaga, Takanotsume, Red Habanero)...
February 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871372/a-novel-highly-thermostable-branched-chain-amino-acid-aminotransferase-from-the-crenarchaeon-vulcanisaeta-moutnovskia
#13
Tatiana N Stekhanova, Andrey L Rakitin, Andrey V Mardanov, Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Vladimir O Popov
A new fold-type IV branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase VMUT0738 from the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeon Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified VMUT0738 showed activity toward numerous aliphatic and aromatic l-amino acids and 2-oxo acids at optimal pH 8.0. Distinguishing features of the VMUT0738 compared with typical BCAT are the absence of activity toward acidic substrates, high activity toward basic ones, and low but detectable activity toward the (R)-enantiomer of α-methylbenzylamine (0...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714478/clinically-applied-procedures-for-human-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation-result-in-different-levels-of-efficacy-and-efficiency
#14
Lobke Bastings, Johan R Westphal, Catharina C M Beerendonk, Ruud L M Bekkers, Petra L M Zusterzeel, Jan C M Hendriks, Didi D M Braat, Ronald Peek
PURPOSE: Different protocols are being used worldwide for the cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue for fertility preservation purposes. The efficiency and efficacy of the majority of these protocols has not been extensively evaluated, possibly resulting in sub-optimally cryopreserved ovarian tissue. To address the impact of this issue, we assessed the effects of two clinically successful human ovarian tissue slow-freezing cryopreservation procedures on the quality of the cryopreserved tissue...
December 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523731/experimental-and-computational-studies-on-the-unusual-substrate-specificity-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-aminotransferase-from-thermoproteus-uzoniensis
#15
Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Tatiana N Stekhanova, Dmitry A Suplatov, Andrey V Mardanov, Nikolai V Ravin, Vladimir O Popov
PLP-Dependent fold-type IV branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCATs) from archaea have so far been poorly characterized. A new BCAT from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermoproteus uzoniensis (TUZN1299) has been studied. TUZN1299 was found to be highly active toward branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), positively charged amino acids, l-methionine, l-threonine, l-homoserine, l-glutamine, as well as toward 2-oxobutyrate and keto analogs of BCAAs, whereas l-glutamate and α-ketoglutarate were not converted in the overall reaction...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458092/crystal-structures-of-rida-an-important-enzyme-for-the-prevention-of-toxic-side-products
#16
Xiwen Liu, Jianhua Zeng, Xiaolei Chen, Wei Xie
The YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family proteins are highly conserved across all three domains of life, and most of them currently have no clearly defined biological roles. In vitro, these proteins were found to hydrolyze the enamine/imine intermediates generated from serine or threonine, and were renamed Reactive Intermediate Deaminase A (RidA). RidA was recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana, and by deaminating the toxic enamine/imine intermediates, it prevents the inactivation of many functionally important pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes in plants such as branched-chain aminotransferase BCAT (IlvE)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428465/adduct-formation-b-h-activation-and-ring-expansion-at-room-temperature-from-reactions-of-hbcat-with-nhcs
#17
Sabrina Würtemberger-Pietsch, Heidi Schneider, Todd B Marder, Udo Radius
We report the reactions of catecholborane (HBcat; 1) with unsaturated and saturated NHCs as well as CAAC(Me) . Mono-NHC adducts of the type HBcat⋅NHC (NHC=nPr2 Im, iPr2 Im, iPr2 Im(Me) , and Dipp2 Im) were obtained by stoichiometric reactions of HBcat with the unsaturated NHCs. The reaction of CAAC(Me) with HBcat yielded the B-H activated product CAAC(Me) (H)Bcat via insertion of the carbine-carbon atom into the B-H bond. The saturated NHC Dipp2 SIm reacted in a 2:2 ratio yielding an NHC ring-expanded product at room temperature forming a six-membered -B-C=N-C=C-N- ring via C-N bond cleavage and further migration of the hydrides from two HBcat molecules to the former carbene-carbon atom...
September 5, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373929/metformin-inhibits-branched-chain-amino-acid-bcaa-derived-ketoacidosis-and-promotes-metabolic-homeostasis-in-msud
#18
Davis S Sonnet, Monique N O'Leary, Mark A Gutierrez, Steven M Nguyen, Samiha Mateen, Yuehmei Hsu, Kylie P Mitchell, Antonio J Lopez, Jerry Vockley, Brian K Kennedy, Arvind Ramanathan
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder caused by the dysfunction in the branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) enzyme. This leads to buildup of branched-chain keto-acids (BCKA) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in body fluids (e.g. keto-isocaproic acid from the BCAA leucine), leading to numerous clinical features including a less understood skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients. KIC is an inhibitor of mitochondrial function at disease relevant concentrations. A murine model of intermediate MSUD (iMSUD) shows significant skeletal muscle dysfunction as by judged decreased muscle fiber diameter...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254478/nhc-nickel-catalyzed-suzuki-miyaura-cross-coupling-reactions-of-aryl-boronate-esters-with-perfluorobenzenes
#19
Jing Zhou, Johannes H J Berthel, Maximilian W Kuntze-Fechner, Alexandra Friedrich, Todd B Marder, Udo Radius
An efficient Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of perfluorinated arenes with aryl boronate esters using NHC nickel complexes as catalysts is described. The efficiencies of different boronate esters (p-tolyl-Beg, p-tolyl-Bneop, p-tolyl-Bpin, p-tolyl-Bcat) and the corresponding boronic acid (p-tolyl-B(OH)2) in this type of cross-coupling reaction were evaluated (eg, ethyleneglycolato; neop, neopentylglycolato; pin, pinacolato; cat, catecholato). Aryl-Beg was shown to be the most reactive boronate ester among those studied...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150955/reaction-of-a-2-4-6-triphenylphosphinine-ferrate-anion-with-electrophiles-a-new-route-to-phosphacyclohexadienyl-complexes
#20
Christian M Hoidn, Robert Wolf
A novel, versatile route to phosphorus- and carbon-substituted η(5)-phosphacyclohexadienyl complexes was developed. Reaction of the anionic 2,4,6-triphenylphosphinine iron complex [K([18]crown-6)(thf)2][Cp*Fe(PC5Ph3H2)] (1) with selected main group element electrophiles afforded the new complexes [Cp*Fe(2-endo-H-PC5Ph3H2)] (endo-3), [Cp*Fe(2-exo-H-PC5Ph3H2)] (exo-3), [Cp*Fe(1-Me-PC5Ph3H2)] (4), [Cp*Fe(1-Me3Si-PC5Ph3H2)] (5), [Cp*Fe(1-PPh2-PC5Ph3H2)] (6) and [Cp*Fe(2-BCat-PC5Ph3H2)] (7, BCat = 2-benzo[d][1,3,2]dioxaborol-2-yl)...
June 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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