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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917929/development-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-chitosan-hybrid-micro-and-macroparticles-for-encapsulation-of-probiotic-bacteria
#1
P Singh, B Medronho, L Alves, G J da Silva, M G Miguel, B Lindman
Novel carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan (CMC-Cht) hybrid micro- and macroparticles were successfully prepared in aqueous media either by drop-wise addition or via nozzle-spray methods. The systems were either physically or chemically crosslinked using genipin as the reticulation agent. The macroparticles (ca. 2mm) formed are found to be essentially of the core-shell type, while the microparticles (ca. 5μm) are apparently homogeneous. The crosslinked particles are robust, thermally resistant and less sensitive to pH changes...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915970/a-new-proposed-mechanism-of-action-for-gastric-bypass-surgery-air-hypothesis
#2
Hasan Celiker
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is one of the most effective treatments for obesity and type II diabetes. RYGB was originally believed to work by mechanically restricting caloric intake or causing macronutrient malabsorption. However, such mechanical effects play no role in the remarkable efficacy of gastric bypass. Instead, mounting evidence shows that altered neuroendocrine signaling is responsible for the weight reducing effects of RYGB. The exact mechanism of this surgical response is still a mystery...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915953/syntrophic-imbalance-and-the-etiology-of-bacterial-endoparasitism-diseases
#3
James F White
This article outlines the proposed 'syntrophic imbalance hypothesis' for etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. This hypothesis involves microbes (archaea and bacteria) that exist in human body biofilms in syntrophic associations, where bacteria ferment nutrients to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are used by methanogenic archaeons to produce methane. Overgrowth of archaea on human tissues (e.g., in association with intestines, teeth or lungs) results in excessive removal of SCFAs from the biofilms and this triggers bacteria in the free-living biofilm state to convert to the endoparasitic state and become intracellular in host cells where they incite inflammation and disease...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915922/recent-urbanization-in-china-is-correlated-with-a-westernized-microbiome-encoding-increased-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#4
Kathryn Winglee, Annie Green Howard, Wei Sha, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Jiawu Liu, Donghui Jin, Anthony A Fodor, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Urbanization is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, which all also show associations with the microbiome. While microbial community composition has been shown to vary across continents and in traditional versus Westernized societies, few studies have examined urban-rural differences in neighboring communities within a single country undergoing rapid urbanization. In this study, we compared the gut microbiome, plasma metabolome, dietary habits, and health biomarkers of rural and urban people from a single Chinese province...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915390/navy-and-black-bean-supplementation-primes-the-colonic-mucosal-microenvironment-to-improve-gut-health
#5
Jennifer M Monk, Dion Lepp, Wenqing Wu, K Peter Pauls, Lindsay E Robinson, Krista A Power
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914591/mucosa-associated-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#6
Mathias L Richard, Giuseppina Liguori, Bruno Lamas, Giovanni Brandi, Gregory da Costa, Thomas W Hoffmann, Massimo Pierluigi Di Simone, Carlo Calabrese, Gilberto Poggioli, Philippe Langella, Massimo Campieri, Harry Sokol
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota has also been recognized as potentially involved in aggravating or favoring the tumor development. However, very little is known on the structure and role of the microbiota in colitis associated cancer (CAC), an important complication of IBD in human. Here we analyzed the bacterial and fungal composition of the mucosa associated microbiota of patients suffering CAC, sporadic cancer (SC) and of healthy subjects (HS) by barcode sequences analysis on the following cohort: 7 CAC patients, 10 SC patients and 10 HS using 16S (MiSeq) and ITS2 (pyrosequencing) sequencing, for bacteria and fungi respectively...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914579/a-polymicrobial-view-of-disease-potential-in-crohn-s-associated-adherent-invasive-e-coli
#7
Wael Elhenawy, Alexander Oberc, Brian K Coombes
The human gut is home to trillions of bacteria and provides the scaffold for one of the most complex microbial ecosystems in nature. Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, involve a compositional shift in the microbial constituents of this ecosystem with a marked expansion of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Escherichia coli. Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) strains are frequently isolated from the biopsies of Crohn's patients, where their ability to elicit inflammation suggests a possible role in Crohn's pathology...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912092/comparison-of-gut-microbiota-in-adult-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-healthy-individuals
#8
Mansour Sedighi, Shabnam Razavi, Fatemeh Navab-Moghadam, Mohammad E Khamseh, Fariba Alaei-Shahmiri, Amirhosein Mehrtash, Nour Amirmozafari
Recent studies indicate that inflammatory reactions leading to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may also contribute to variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, suggesting a relation between T2DM and bacterial residents in the intestinal tract. This case-control study was designed to evaluate the composition of the gut microbiota dominant bacterial groups in patients with T2DM compared to the healthy people. A total of 36 adult subjects (18 patients diagnosed with T2DM and 18 healthy persons) were included in the study...
September 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912045/sulfate-reducing-bacteria-stimulate-gut-immune-responses-and-contribute-to-inflammation-in-experimental-colitis
#9
Vanessa Ribeiro Figliuolo, Liliane Martins Dos Santos, Alessandra Abalo, Hayandra Nanini, Angela Santos, Nilda M Brittes, Claudio Bernardazzi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Leda Quercia Vieira, Robson Coutinho-Silva, Claudia Mara Lara Melo Coutinho
The intestinal microbiota is critical for mammalian immune system development and homeostasis. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are part of the normal gut microbiota, but their increased levels may contribute to colitis development, likely in association with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Here, we investigated the effects of SRB in the gut immune response in germ-free mice, and in experimental colitis. After 7days of colonization with Desulfovibrio indonesiensis or with a human SRB consortium (from patients with colitis), germ-free mice exhibited alterations in the colonic architecture, with increased cell infiltration in the lamina propria...
September 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911547/multifunctions-of-dietary-polyphenols-in-the-regulation-of-intestinal-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Makoto Shimizu
Food for specified health use is a type of functional food approved by the Japanese government, with more than 1250 products in 10 health-claim categories being approved as of April 2016. Polyphenols are currently used as functional ingredients in seven of the 10 categories. Although they have not yet been used for the food-for-specified-health-use category of "gut health promotion," polyphenols are expected to contribute to the future development of gut-modulating food. Intestinal functions include digestion/absorption, acting as a barrier, recognition of external factors, and signal transduction...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910629/choline-theft-an-inside-job
#11
Marina Mora-Ortiz, Sandrine Paule Claus
Choline is a crucial methyl donor necessary for epigenetic regulation. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Romano et al. (2017) demonstrate that choline-utilizing gut bacteria compete with their host for this essential resource, calling for a systematic consideration of gut microbial composition for personalized diet recommendations.
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904640/short-term-dietary-methionine-supplementation-affects-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-mouse-gut-and-leads-to-altered-microbiome-profiles-barrier-function-gene-expression-and-histomorphology
#12
Isabelle R Miousse, Rupak Pathak, Sarita Garg, Charles M Skinner, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Howard Hendrickson, Reid D Landes, Annie Lumen, Alan J Tackett, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Igor Koturbash
BACKGROUND: Methionine, a central molecule in one-carbon metabolism, is an essential amino acid required for normal growth and development. Despite its importance to biological systems, methionine is toxic when administered at supra-physiological levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term methionine dietary modulation on the proximal jejunum, the section of the gut specifically responsible for amino acid absorption, in a mouse model. Eight-week-old CBA/J male mice were fed methionine-adequate (MAD; 6...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904372/butyrate-producing-bacteria-supplemented-in-vitro-to-crohn-s-disease-patient-microbiota-increased-butyrate-production-and-enhanced-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity
#13
Annelies Geirnaert, Marta Calatayud, Charlotte Grootaert, Debby Laukens, Sarah Devriese, Guy Smagghe, Martine De Vos, Nico Boon, Tom Van de Wiele
The management of the dysbiosed gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is gaining more attention as a novel target to control this disease. Probiotic treatment with butyrate-producing bacteria has therapeutic potential since these bacteria are depleted in IBD patients and butyrate has beneficial effects on epithelial barrier function and overall gut health. However, studies assessing the effect of probiotic supplementation on microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions are rare. In this study, butyrate-producing bacteria (three mono-species and one multispecies mix) were supplemented to the fecal microbial communities of ten Crohn's disease (CD) patients in an in vitro system simulating the mucus- and lumen-associated microbiota...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904330/analysis-of-mucosa-associated-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer
#14
Kehan Xu, Bo Jiang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the microbiota community structure, assess differences in intestinal bacterial types, and identify metagenomic biomarkers for disparate stages of colorectal cancer formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 individuals were recruited: 61 cases with non-tumor colon were regarded as the normal group, 47 cases with histology-substantiated colorectal adenomas were regarded as the adenoma group, and 52 cases with invasive adenocarcinomas were regarded as the cancer group...
September 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904137/seasonal-variation-in-nutrient-utilization-shapes-gut-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-wild-giant-pandas
#15
Qi Wu, Xiao Wang, Yun Ding, Yibo Hu, Yonggang Nie, Wei Wei, Shuai Ma, Li Yan, Lifeng Zhu, Fuwen Wei
Wild giant pandas use different parts of bamboo (shoots, leaves and stems) and different bamboo species at different times of the year. Their usage of bamboo can be classified temporally into a distinct leaf stage, shoot stage and transition stage. An association between this usage pattern and variation in the giant panda gut microbiome remains unknown. Here, we found associations using a gut metagenomic approach and nutritional analyses whereby diversity of the gut microbial community in the leaf and shoot stages was significantly different...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904023/%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-derived-metabolites-from-gut-lactic-acid-bacteria-induce-differentiation-of-anti-inflammatory-m2-macrophages-through-g-protein-coupled-receptor-40
#16
Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Yumiko Yasuoka, Tsuyoshi Goto, Nahoko Kitamura, Si-Bum Park, Shigenobu Kishino, Ikuo Kimura, Mayu Kasubuchi, Haruya Takahashi, Yongjia Li, Yu-Sheng Yeh, Huei-Fen Jheng, Mari Iwase, Masashi Tanaka, Shinya Masuda, Takayuki Inoue, Hajime Yamakage, Toru Kusakabe, Fumito Tani, Akira Shimatsu, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Jun Ogawa, Noriko Satoh-Asahara, Teruo Kawada
Among dietary fatty acids with immunologic effects, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), have been considered as factors that contribute to the differentiation of M2-type macrophages (M2 macrophages). In this study, we examined the effect of ALA and its gut lactic acid bacteria metabolites 13-hydroxy-9(Z),15(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (13-OH) and 13-oxo-9(Z),15(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo) on the differentiation of M2 macrophages from bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and investigated the underlying mechanisms...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902840/maternal-gut-bacteria-promote-neurodevelopmental-abnormalities-in-mouse-offspring
#17
Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Yeong Shin Yim, Soyoung Ha, Koji Atarashi, Tze Guan Tan, Randy S Longman, Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman, Gloria B Choi, Jun R Huh
Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioural abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in both primate and rodent offspring. In humans, epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of fetuses to maternal inflammation increases the likelihood of developing autism spectrum disorder. In pregnant mice, interleukin-17a (IL-17a) produced by T helper 17 (TH17) cells (CD4(+) T helper effector cells involved in multiple inflammatory conditions) induces behavioural and cortical abnormalities in the offspring exposed to MIA...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901786/effect-of-gestational-age-on-the-epidemiology-of-late-onset-sepsis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-a-review
#18
Elsa de Palma Afonso, Stijn Blot
Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Late-onset sepsis affects a significant percentage of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Most affected newborns are preterm or low birth weight, but late-onset sepsis also affects late preterm and term infants. Understanding how gestational age affects the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis can be of use when defining strategies for its prevention and clinical management in NICU. Areas covered: Available evidence suggests the incidence and mortality of late-onset sepsis is higher in preterm and VLBW infants, but pathogen distribution and risk exposure is similar across all infants admitted to NICU...
September 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901209/the-distinct-properties-of-natural-and-gm-cry-insecticidal-proteins
#19
Jonathan R Latham, Madeleine Love, Angelika Hilbeck
The Cry toxins are a family of crystal-forming proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Their mode of action is thought to be to create pores that disrupt the gut epithelial membranes of juvenile insects. These pores allow pathogen entry into the hemocoel, thereby killing the insect. Genes encoding a spectrum of Cry toxins, including Cry mutants, Cry chimaeras and other Cry derivatives, are used commercially to enhance insect resistance in genetically modified (GM) crops. In most countries of the world, such GM crops are regulated and must be assessed for human and environmental safety...
September 13, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900429/plasma-derived-polyreactive-secretory-like-iga-and-igm-opsonizing-salmonella-enterica-typhimurium-reduces-invasion-and-gut-tissue-inflammation-through-agglutination
#20
Gilles Bioley, Justine Monnerat, Marius Lötscher, Cédric Vonarburg, Adrian Zuercher, Blaise Corthésy
Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of enteropathogenic bacteria, development of alternative treatments to fight against gut infections is a major health issue. While vaccination requires that a proper combination of antigen, adjuvant, and delivery route is defined to elicit protective immunity at mucosae, oral delivery of directly active antibody preparations, referred to as passive immunization, sounds like a valuable alternative. Along the gut, the strategy suffers, however, from the difficulty to obtain sufficient amounts of antibodies with the appropriate specificity and molecular structure for mucosal delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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