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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534821/from-genome-to-phenotype-an-integrative-approach-to-evaluate-the-biodiversity-of-lactococcus-lactis
#1
REVIEW
Valérie Laroute, Hélène Tormo, Christel Couderc, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Pascal Le Bourgeois, Muriel Cocaign-Bousquet, Marie-Line Daveran-Mingot
Lactococcus lactis is one of the most extensively used lactic acid bacteria for the manufacture of dairy products. Exploring the biodiversity of L. lactis is extremely promising both to acquire new knowledge and for food and health-driven applications. L. lactis is divided into four subspecies: lactis, cremoris, hordniae and tructae, but only subsp. lactis and subsp. cremoris are of industrial interest. Due to its various biotopes, Lactococcus subsp. lactis is considered the most diverse. The diversity of L...
May 19, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534820/antioxidant-properties-of-probiotic-bacteria
#2
REVIEW
Yang Wang, Yanping Wu, Yuanyuan Wang, Han Xu, Xiaoqiang Mei, Dongyou Yu, Yibing Wang, Weifen Li
Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood...
May 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533370/insect-pathogenic-fungus-interacts-with-the-gut-microbiota-to-accelerate-mosquito-mortality
#3
Ge Wei, Yiling Lai, Guandong Wang, Huan Chen, Fang Li, Sibao Wang
The insect gut microbiota plays crucial roles in modulating the interactions between the host and intestinal pathogens. Unlike viruses, bacteria, and parasites, which need to be ingested to cause disease, entomopathogenic fungi infect insects through the cuticle and proliferate in the hemolymph. However, interactions between the gut microbiota and entomopathogenic fungi are unknown. Here we show that the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana interacts with the gut microbiota to accelerate mosquito death. After topical fungal infection, mosquitoes with gut microbiota die significantly faster than mosquitoes without microbiota...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533304/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-impacts-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-potential-role-for-bile-acids
#4
Aafke Wf Janssen, Tom Houben, Saeed Katiraei, Wieneke Dijk, Lily Boutens, Nieke van der Bolt, Zeneng Wang, J Mark Brown, Stanley L Hazen, Stéphane Mandard, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov, Folkert Kuipers, Ko Willems van Dijk, Jacques Vervoort, Rinke Stienstra, Guido Jej Hooiveld, Sander Kersten
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide, yet the pathogenesis of NAFLD is only partially understood. Here, we investigated the role of the gut bacteria in NAFLD by stimulating the gut bacteria via feeding mice the fermentable dietary fiber guar gum and suppressing the gut bacteria via chronic oral administration of antibiotics. Guar gum feeding profoundly altered the gut microbiota composition, in parallel with reduced diet-induced obesity and improved glucose tolerance...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529325/anticancer-effects-of-the-microbiome-and-its-products
#5
REVIEW
Laurence Zitvogel, Romain Daillère, María Paula Roberti, Bertrand Routy, Guido Kroemer
The human gut microbiome modulates many host processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and immune and cellular responses. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the microbiome can also influence the development of cancer. In preclinical models, the host response to cancer treatment has been improved by modulating the gut microbiome; this is known to have an altered composition in many diseases, including cancer. In addition, cancer treatment with microbial agents or their products has the potential to shrink tumours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528947/syntrophic-association-of-termite-gut-bacterial-symbionts-with-bifunctional-characteristics-of-cellulose-degrading-and-polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing-bacteria
#6
Balasubramanian Cibichakravarthy, Subramani Abinaya, Solai Ramatchandirane Prabagaran
The guild between higher termites and their partnership with the diverse community of bacteria and archaea in their gut is a marvel evolutionary achievement. Sustained attempts were made worldwide with a quest for identifying viable important biological macromolecule polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating bacteria. Termite gut serve as a novel source for bacteria with dual properties like PHA production as well as cellulose degradation. Among 40 isolates cultivated, 32.5% turned positive for PCR based screening of PhaC gene...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526748/the-sialate-o-acetylesterase-esta-from-gut-bacteroidetes-species-enables-sialidase-mediated-cross-species-foraging-of-9-o-acetylated-sialoglycans
#7
Lloyd S Robinson, Warren G Lewis, Amanda L Lewis
The gut harbors many symbiotic, commensal, and pathogenic microbes that engage in the breakdown and metabolism of host carbohydrates. Sialic acids are prominent outermost carbohydrates on mucins and protect underlying glycan chains from enzymatic degradation. Sialidases produced by some members of the colonic microbiota have been shown to promote the expansion of several potential pathogens (e.g. Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Escherichia coli) that do not produce sialidases. O-acetyl ester modifications of sialic acids help resist the action of many sialidases and are found at high levels in the mammalian colon...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526080/post-weaning-diarrhea-in-pigs-risk-factors-and-non-colistin-based-control-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, John Morris Fairbrother, Francis Beaudry, Ann Letellier
Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the most serious threats for the swine industry worldwide. It is commonly associated with the proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the pig intestine. Colistin, a cationic antibiotic, is widely used in swine for the oral treatment of intestinal infections caused by E. coli, and particularly of PWD. However, despite the effectiveness of this antibiotic in the treatment of PWD, several studies have reported high rates of colistin resistant E. coli in swine...
May 19, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525602/aloin-a-component-of-the-aloe-vera-plant-leaf-induces-pathological-changes-and-modulates-the-composition-of-microbiota-in-the-large-intestine-of-f344-n-male-rats
#9
Mary D Boudreau, Greg R Olson, Volodymyr P Tryndyak, Matthew S Bryant, Robert P Felton, Frederick A Beland
In a previous study, the oral administration of an Aloe vera whole leaf extract induced dose-related mucosal and goblet cell hyperplasia in the rat colon after 13-weeks and colon cancer after two years. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether or not the administration of aloin, a component of the Aloe vera plant leaf, would replicate the pathophysiological effects that were observed in rats in the previous study with an Aloe vera whole leaf extract. Groups of 10 male F344/N rats were administered aloin at 0, 6...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525347/sustainable-farming-of-the-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor-for-the-production-of-food-and-feed
#10
Thorben Grau, Andreas Vilcinskas, Gerrit Joop
The farming of edible insects is an alternative strategy for the production of protein-rich food and feed with a low ecological footprint. The industrial production of insect-derived protein is more cost-effective and energy-efficient than livestock farming or aquaculture. The mealworm Tenebrio molitor is economically among the most important species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein. Here, we review the mass rearing of this species and its conversion into food and feed, focusing on challenges such as the contamination of food/feed products with bacteria from the insect gut and the risk of rapidly spreading pathogens and parasites...
May 17, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522324/non-invasive-three-dimensional-imaging-of-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-using-diffuse-light-imaging-tomography-combined-with-micro-computed-tomography
#12
REVIEW
Luci A Witcomb, Julie Czupryna, Kevin P Francis, Gad Frankel, Peter W Taylor
In contrast to two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, three dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) has the potential to realise spatial variations in infection patterns when imaging experimental animals dosed with derivatives of virulent bacteria carrying bioluminescent reporter genes such as the lux operon from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The method provides an opportunity to precisely localise the bacterial infection sites within the animal and enables the generation of four-dimensional movies of the infection cycle...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520899/increased-urinary-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-following-cryptosporidium-infection-and-protein-malnutrition-independent-of-microbiome-effects
#13
D T Bolick, J Mayneris-Perxachs, G L Medlock, G L Kolling, J Papin, J R Swann, R L Guerrant
Cryptosporidium infections have been associated with growth stunting even in the absence of diarrhea. Having previously detailed the effects of protein deficiency on both microbiome and metabolome in this model, we now describe the specific gut microbial and biochemical effects of Cryptosporidium infection. Protein deficient mice were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for 6-13 days and compared to uninfected controls. Following infection there was an increase in the urinary excretion of choline- and amino acid-derived metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520731/genetically-engineered-probiotic-for-the-treatment-of-phenylketonuria-pku-assessment-of-a-novel-treatment-in-vitro-and-in-the-pahenu2-mouse-model-of-pku
#14
Katherine E Durrer, Michael S Allen, Ione Hunt von Herbing
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disease characterized by the inability to convert dietary phenylalanine to tyrosine by phenylalanine hydroxylase. Given the importance of gut microbes in digestion, a genetically engineered microbe could potentially degrade some ingested phenylalanine from the diet prior to absorption. To test this, a phenylalanine lyase gene from Anabaena variabilis (AvPAL) was codon-optimized and cloned into a shuttle vector for expression in Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23C (pHENOMMenal). Functional expression of AvPAL was determined in vitro, and subsequently tested in vivo in homozygous PAHenu2 (PKU model) mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517912/keeping-good-friends-close-the-surface-and-secreted-proteomes-of-a-probiotic-bacterium-provide-candidate-proteins-for-intestinal-attachment-and-communication-with-the-host
#15
Constance J Jeffery
Bacteria use cell surface proteins and secreted proteins to interact with host tissues. Several dozen previously published proteomics studies have identified cell surface proteins for pathogens. In this issue, Celebioglu and Svensson (Proteomics 2017, XXX, XXX-XXX) use 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify secreted and cell surface proteins of a commensual gut bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. Some of the proteins are known to have functions in the cytoplasm, and their presence on the cell surface suggests they might be moonlighting proteins...
May 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513457/bacteriocins-from-lactic-acid-bacteria-as-an-alternative-to-antibiotics
#16
Aleksandra Ołdak, Dorota Zielińska
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized, proteinaceous substances that inhibit the growth of closely related species through numerous mechanisms. The classification system used in this review divided bacteriocins into four sub-groups based on their size. Currently, there is extensive research focused on bacteriocins and their usage as a food preservative. The increasing incidence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens is one of the most pressing medical problems in recent years. Recently, the potential clinical application of LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria) bacteriocin has been the subject of investigations by many scientists...
May 5, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512779/structure-of-protein-emulsion-in-food-impacts-intestinal-microbiota-caecal-luminal-content-composition-and-distal-intestine-characteristics-in-rats
#17
Martin Beaumont, Daphné Jaoui, Véronique Douard, Damien Mat, Fanny Koeth, Bénédicte Goustard, Camille Mayeur, Stanislas Mondot, Anais Hovaghimian, Steven Le Feunteun, Catherine Chaumontet, Anne-Marie Davila, Daniel Tomé, Isabelle Souchon, Camille Michon, Gilles Fromentin, François Blachier, Marion Leclerc
SCOPE: Few studies have evaluated in vivo the impact of food structure on digestion, absorption of nutrients and on microbiota composition and metabolism. In this study we evaluated in rat the impact of two structures of protein emulsion in food on gut microbiota, luminal content composition, and intestinal characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats received for 3 weeks two diets of identical composition but based on lipid-protein matrices of liquid fine (LFE) or gelled coarse (GCE) emulsion...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512451/colonization-and-succession-within-the-human-gut-microbiome-by-archaea-bacteria-and-microeukaryotes-during-the-first-year-of-life
#18
Linda Wampach, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Angela Hogan, Emilie E L Muller, Shaman Narayanasamy, Cedric C Laczny, Luisa W Hugerth, Lutz Bindl, Jean Bottu, Anders F Andersson, Carine de Beaufort, Paul Wilmes
Perturbations to the colonization process of the human gastrointestinal tract have been suggested to result in adverse health effects later in life. Although much research has been performed on bacterial colonization and succession, much less is known about the other two domains of life, archaea, and eukaryotes. Here we describe colonization and succession by bacteria, archaea and microeukaryotes during the first year of life (samples collected around days 1, 3, 5, 28, 150, and 365) within the gastrointestinal tract of infants delivered either vaginally or by cesarean section and using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR as well as 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512315/midgut-bacteria-in-deltamethrin-resistant-deltamethrin-susceptible-and-field-caught-populations-of-plutella-xylostella-and-phenomics-of-the-predominant-midgut-bacterium-enterococcus-mundtii
#19
Wenhong Li, Daochao Jin, Caihua Shi, Fengliang Li
Gut bacteria play a significant role in host insect. This study evaluated detail difference of midgut bacteria in deltamethrin-resistant, deltamethrin-susceptible and field-caught populations of diamondback moth, and studied phenomics of the predominant midgut bacterium Enterococcus mundtii. Cultivable bacteria revealed that E. mundtii and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum dominated the bacterial populations from deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-susceptible larval midguts, whereas E. mundtii was predominant in field-caught population...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512250/introduction-to-the-human-gut-microbiota
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth Thursby, Nathalie Juge
The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis and protecting against pathogens. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical Journal
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