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Héctor Parra-Sánchez, Lucinda Puebla-Clark, Mónica Reséndiz, Olivia Valenzuela, Jesús Hernández
Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are divided into the following different subtypes: cDC1, which promotes a Th1 response, and cDC2, which stimulates a Th2 and Th17 response. These cells have not been characterized in porcine lymphoid tissues. DEC205 is a receptor that increases antigen presentation and allows DCs to cross-present antigens. The objectives of this work were to characterize cDCs subsets in the tonsil, submaxillary and mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen lymphoid tissues and to determine their expression of DEC205 by flow cytometry...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Boxue Ren, Defang Li, Lingling Si, Yangfang Ding, Jichun Han, Xiaoyu Chen, Qiusheng Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence showed that alteronol has a potential antitumour effect in several tumour cells. However, the antitumour effect of alteronol on breast cancer has not been reported. This study investigated the mechanisms of alteronol-induced cell proliferation inhibition in human breast cancer T47D cells. METHODS: After treatment with alteronol, T47D cell proliferation was examined by MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species level and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated via flow cytometry...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Mo Zhou, Jinkai Zheng, Jinfeng Bi, Xinye Wu, Jian Lyu, Kun Gao
Atorvastatin (ATST), a drug commonly used to reduce the levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, is a prospective agent for the prevention of colorectal cancer in patients with hyperlipidemia. ATST in combination with functional components is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, the growth inhibitory effect of ATST combined with phloretin (PT) on SW620 and HCT116 colon cancer cells was investigated. The results of MTT assays indicated that the combination of PT and ATST markedly reduced cell survival in both cell lines compared with PT or ATST treatment administered individually...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Feihong Chen, Xiufeng Jin, Jian Zhao, Shaohua Gou
DN604, a carboplatin analogue with a functional dicarboxylato ligand, was deeply investigated to explore its ability to induce apoptosis as well as its antitumor mechanism of action. Both in vitro and in vivo assays indicated that DN604 could effectively inhibit cell viability of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells and exhibited stronger antitumor activity than carboplatin and comparable activity to cisplatin. Significantly in contrast to cisplatin, DN604 resulted in negligible toxic effects in vivo with the same tumor growth inhibition effect as cisplatin...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Dayu Li, Yun Liu, Chunbo Yu, Xiping Liu, Fang Fan
Objective To study the effect of the knock-down of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) on the cell cycle of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) Bel7402/5-Fu hepatocellular carcinoma cells and its MDR mechanism. Methods After cationic liposome-mediated siDNA-PKcs oligonucleotide transfection, the drug sensitivity of Bel7402/5-Fu cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and adriamycin (ADM) was determined by MTT assay; the cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry; meanwhile, the protein expressions of cell cycle-related proteins P21, cell cycle protein B1 (cyclin B1), cell cycle division protein 2 (CDC2) were tested by Western blotting; the expressions of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53 at both mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis...
December 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Ping Hu, Zhicai Zuo, Hang Li, Fengyuan Wang, Xi Peng, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Caixia Gao, Hetao Song, Yi Zhou, Zhengli Chen
Aflatoxin B1 shows potent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic, immunotoxic potential in humans and many species of animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the underlying mechanism of G0G1 phase and G2M phase arrest of cell cycle in the bursa of Fabricius in broilers exposed to dietary AFB1. 144 one-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly divided into two groups and fed on control diet and 0.6 mg·Kg-1 AFB1 diet for 3 weeks. Histological observation showed that AFB1 induced the increase of nuclear debris and vacuoles in lymphoid follicle of BF...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cui Qiu, Yuan-Yuan Yi, Rafael Lucena, Meng-Juan Wu, Jia-Hao Sun, Xi Wang, Quan-Wen Jin, Yamei Wang
The key kinase Cdk1 (Cdc2) promotes irreversible mitotic entry mainly by activating the phosphatase Cdc25 while suppressing the tyrosine kinase Wee1. Wee1 needs to be down-regulated at the onset of mitosis to ensure rapid activation of Cdk1. In human somatic cells, one mechanism of suppressing Wee1 activity is mediated by ubiquitylation-dependent proteolysis through the Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. This mechanism is believed to be conserved from yeasts to humans. So far, the best characterized human F-box proteins involved in recognition of Wee1 are β-TrCP and Tome-1...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Xiaoqing Cai, Lele Guo, Fei Pei, Xiaoyun Chang, Rui Zhang
Plant natural products have long been considered to be important sources of bioactive molecules. A large number of antimicrobial and anticancer agents have been isolated form plants. In the present study we evaluated the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of a plant derived secondery metabolite, Polyphyllin G. The results of antibacterial assays showed that Polyphyllin G prevented the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 13.1 to 78 μg/ml...
January 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Rong Jin, Qiuxiang Chen, Song Yao, Encheng Bai, Weitao Fu, Ledan Wang, Jiabing Wang, Xiaojing Du, Tao Wei, Haineng Xu, Chengxi Jiang, Peihong Qiu, Jianzhang Wu, Wulan Li, Guang Liang
EF24 is an IKKβ inhibitor (IC50: 72 μM) containing various anti-tumor activities. In this study, a series of EF24 analogs targeting IKKβ were designed and synthesized. Several IKKβ inhibitors with better activities than EF24 were screened out and B3 showed best IKKβ inhibitory (IC50: 6.6 μM). Molecular docking and dynamic simulation experiments further confirmed this inhibitory effect. B3 obviously suppressed the viability of Hela229, A549, SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells. Then, in SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells, B3 blocked the NF-κB signal pathway by inhibiting IKKβ phosphorylation, and followed arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase by suppressing the Cyclin B1 and Cdc2 p34 expression, induced the cell apoptosis by down-regulating Bcl-2 protein and up-regulating cleaved-caspase3...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yudui Xia, Xia Liu, Chunlin Zou, Shixiu Feng, Hongwei Guo, Yeguo Yang, Yong Lei, Jian Zhang, Yi Lu
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common head and neck malignancies and is typically treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Garcinone C, a natural compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia Champ., is a xanthone derivative with potential cytotoxic effects on certain cancers. However, there are limited studies regarding its effects on NPC cells, and its mechanism of action in NPC remains unknown. In the present study, we found that garcinone C significantly inhibited cell viability of the human NPC cell lines CNE1, CNE2, HK1 and HONE1...
January 16, 2018: Oncology Reports
Xiaoye Wang, Xun Li, Chuanhuo Hu
RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3), the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), has been proposed as a key inhibitory regulator of mammal reproduction. Our previous studies have demonstrated that RFRP-3 inhibited the expression of proliferation-related proteins in porcine granulose cells (GCs), but the inhibitory mechanism causing this has not been discovered. Here, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanism and determine the cell cycle regulatory sites of action of RFRP-3 on porcine GC proliferation...
January 11, 2018: Peptides
Brandon E Aubol, Malik M Keshwani, Laurent Fattet, Joseph A Adams
The splicing of mRNA is dependent on serine-arginine (SR) proteins that are mobilized from membrane-free, nuclear speckles to the nucleoplasm by the Cdc2-like kinases (CLKs). This movement is critical for SR protein-dependent assembly of the macromolecular spliceosome. Although CLK1 facilitates such trafficking through the phosphorylation of serine-proline dipeptides in the prototype SR protein SRSF1, an unrelated enzyme known as SR protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) performs the same function but does not efficiently modify these dipeptides in SRSF1...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Lan Wang, Hui Yang, Linli Hu, Dan Hu, Shuxia Ma, Xuejiao Sun, Liu Jiang, Jianyuan Song, Licheng Ji, Jackson Ferdinand Masau, Hanwang Zhang, Kun Qian
Decidualization is regulated by crosstalk of progesterone and the cAMP pathway. It involves extensive reprogramming of gene expression and includes a wide range of functions. To investigate how cell cycle regulatory genes drive the human endometrial stromal cell (ESC) exit cell cycle and enter differentiation, primary cultured ESC was treated with 8-Br-cAMP and MPA and cell cycle distribution was investigated by flow cytometry. High-throughput cell cycle regulatory gene expression was also studied by microarray...
January 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Yinghui Mao
Accurate sister chromatid segregation is pivotal in the faithful transmission of genetic information during each cell division. To ensure accurate segregation, eukaryotic organisms have evolved a "mitotic (or spindle assembly) checkpoint" to prevent premature advance to anaphase before successful attachment of every chromosome to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. An unattached kinetochore generates a diffusible signal that inhibits ubiquitination of substrates such as cyclin B and securins. This protocol presents an in vitro assay for studying the mitotic checkpoint using Xenopus laevis egg extracts...
January 10, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Matthew Collin, Venetia Bigley
Dendritic cells (DC) are a class of bone marrow derived cells arising from lympho-myeloid haematopoiesis that form an essential interface between the innate sensing of pathogens and the activation of adaptive immunity. This task requires a wide range of mechanisms and responses, which are divided between three major DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC), myeloid/conventional DC1 (cDC1) and myeloid/conventional DC2 (cDC2). Each DC subset develops under the control of a specific repertoire of transcription factors involving differential levels of IRF8 and IRF4 in collaboration with PU...
January 3, 2018: Immunology
Lei Xue, Zhijun Wu, Jinyuan Liu, Jinhua Luo
Gastric cancer is a common cancer in the world with high morbidity and mortality. Here, we report that FPHPB (4-(4-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)phenyl)-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)), a derivative of CMPD-1/MK2a Inhibitor, had anti-tumor activities by inhibiting gastric tumor SNU-16 and SGC7901 cells. FPHPB dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and arrested SNU-16 and SGC7901 cells in G2-M cell cycle checkpoint. Upon treatment with FPHPB, apoptotic proteins cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 were remarkably increased, and G2-M regulatory molecules, the phosphorylation of Cdc2 and Chk2, were significantly accentuated...
January 2, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tamara J Abou-Antoun, Javad Nazarian, Anthony Ghanem, Stanislav Vukmanovic, Anthony D Sandler
Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and management, more than 60% of patients with neuroblastoma present with very poor prognosis in the form of metastatic and aggressive disease. Solid tumors including neuroblastoma are thought to be heterogeneous with a sub-population of stem-like cells that are treatment-evasive with highly malignant characteristics. We previously identified a phenomenon of reversible adaptive plasticity (RAP) between anchorage dependent (AD) cells and anchorage independent (AI) tumorspheres in neuroblastoma cell cultures...
2018: PloS One
Tae-Gyun Kim, Sung Hee Kim, Min-Geol Lee
Dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous groups of innate immune cells, which orchestrate immune responses by presenting antigens to cognate T cells and stimulating other types of immune cells. Although the term 'DCs' generally represent highly mixed subsets with functional heterogeneity, the classical definition of DCs usually denotes conventional DCs (cDCs). Skin contains a unique DC network mainly composed of embryo precursor-derived epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and bone marrow-derived dermal cDCs, which can be further classified into type 1 (cDC1) and type 2 (cDC2) subsets...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mei-Chi Chang, Jang-Jaer Lee, Yi-Jane Chen, Szu-I Lin, Li-Deh Lin, Eric Jein-Wen Liou, Wei-Ling Huang, Chiu-Po Chan, Chi-Chia Huang, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
Increased levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein oxLDL) are shown to elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, stroke, and myocardial infarction. This is possibly due to the toxic effects of oxLDLs on vascular cells. Various oxLDLs including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and 7-ketocholesterol injure vascular endothelial cells and stimulate inflammatory reaction. However the toxicity of LPC on endothelial cells is not clear. In this study, human endothelial cells were exposed to LPC...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
Chun-Yan Sang, Heng-Zhi Tian, Yue Chen, Jian-Fei Liu, Shi-Wu Chen, Ling Hui
A series of 4β-(thiazol-2-yl)amino-4'-O-demethyl-4-deoxypodophyllotoxins were synthesized, and their cytotoxicities were evaluated against four human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2, HeLa, and LOVO cells) and normal human diploid fibroblast line WI-38. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antitumor activity and less toxicity than the anticancer drug etoposide. Among them, compounds 15 and 17 were found to be the most potent synthetic derivatives as topo-II inhibitors, and induced DNA double-strand breaks via the p73/ATM pathway as well as the H2AX phosphorylation in A549 cells...
December 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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