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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207189/effects-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-co-culture-on-calcium-induced-differentiation-of-normal-human-keratinocytes
#1
Shyam Kishor Sah, Hae Young Kim, Ji Hae Lee, Seong-Wook Lee, Hyung-Sik Kim, Yeon-Soo Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang, Tae-Yoon Kim
The influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on keratinocytes in altered microenvironments is poorly understood. Here, we co-cultured umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs with normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to evaluate their paracrine effect in the presence of high extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) ) concentration. High Ca(2+) environment to keratinocytes can disrupt normal skin barrier function due to abnormal/premature differentiation of keratinocytes. Surprisingly, we found that MSCs suppress both proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes under a high Ca(2+) environment in TGFβ1-dependent manner...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194420/andrographolide-inhibits-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-sgc7901-gastric-cancer-cells
#2
Lei Dai, Gang Wang, Wensheng Pan
To explore the mechanisms by which andrographolide inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, we employed the gastric cell line SGC7901 to investigate the anticancer effects of andrographolide. The cell survival ratio, cell migration and invasion, cell cycle, apoptosis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity were assessed. Moreover, western blotting and real-time PCR were used to examine the protein expression levels and the mRNA expression levels, respectively. The survival ratio of cells decreased with an increasing concentration of andrographolide in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192797/aberrant-buildup-of-all-trans-retinal-dimer-a-nonpyridinium-bisretinoid-lipofuscin-fluorophore-contributes-to-the-degeneration-of-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#3
Junli Zhao, Yi Liao, Jingmeng Chen, Xinran Dong, Zhan Gao, Houjian Zhang, Xiaodan Wu, Zuguo Liu, Yalin Wu
Purpose: Nondegradable fluorophores that accumulate as deleterious lipofuscin of RPE are involved in pathological mechanisms leading to the degeneration of RPE in AMD. A2E, a major component of RPE lipofuscin, could cause damage to RPE cells. Nevertheless, all-trans-retinal dimer (atRAL dimer) was found to be much more abundant than that of A2E in eyes of Abca4-/-Rdh8-/- double-knockout (DKO) mice, a rodent model showing the typical characteristics of retinopathies in AMD patients. Our aim was to elucidate the effect and mechanism of atRAL dimer-induced RPE degeneration...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187175/hspa6-augments-garlic-extract-induced-inhibition-of-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-bladder-cancer-ej-cells-implication-for-cell-cycle-dysregulation-signaling-pathway-alteration-and-transcription-factor-associated-mmp-9-regulation
#4
Seung-Shick Shin, Jun-Hui Song, Byungdoo Hwang, Dae-Hwa Noh, Sung Lyea Park, Won Tae Kim, Sung-Soo Park, Wun-Jae Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon
Although recent studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor effects of garlic extract (GE), the exact molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism associated with the inhibitory action of GE against bladder cancer EJ cell responses. Treatment with GE significantly inhibited proliferation of EJ cells dose-dependently through G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. This G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest by GE was due to the activation of ATM and CHK2, which appears to inhibit phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser216) and Cdc2 (Thr14/Tyr15), this in turn was accompanied by down-regulation of cyclin B1 and up-regulation of p21WAF1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184928/osthole-inhibits-the-tumorigenesis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#5
Zhi-Kun Lin, Jia Liu, Guo-Qiang Jiang, Guang Tan, Peng Gong, Hai-Feng Luo, Hui-Min Li, Jian Du, Zhen Ning, Yi Xin, Zhong-Yu Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer, and the majority of patients with HCC are deprived of effective curative methods. Osthole is a Chinese herbal medicine which has been reported to possess various pharmacological functions, including hepatocellular protection. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of osthole using HCC cell lines. We found that osthole inhibited HCC cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, triggered DNA damage and suppressed migration in HCC cell lines...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181383/slowly-on-slowly-off-bisubstrate-analogue-conjugates-of-5-iodotubercidin-and-histone-h3-peptide-targeting-protein-kinase-haspin
#6
Katrin Kestav, Kaido Viht, Anton Konovalov, Erki Enkvist, Asko Uri, Darja Lavogina
The atypical protein kinase Haspin serves as one of a key players in mitosis by catalysing phosphorylation of Thr3 in histone H3, and thus sustaining the normal functioning of the chromosomal passenger complex. Here, we report the development of bisubstrate-analogue inhibitors targeting Haspin. The compounds were constructed by linking 5-iodotubercidin moiety to the N-terminal sequence of histone H3. The new conjugates possessed high affinity (KD in the subnanomolar range) towards Haspin as well as slow kinetics of association and dissociation (residence time on the scale of several hours), which reflected their unique binding mode and translated into improved selectivity...
February 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178649/3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-%C3%AE-methyl-%C3%AE-nitrostyrene-inhibits-tumor-igenesis-in-colorectal-cancer-cells-through-ros-mediated-dna-damage-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#7
Chun-Hao Tsai, Amos C Hung, Yuan-Yin Chen, Ya-Wen Chiu, Pei-Wen Hsieh, Yi-Chen Lee, Yu-Han Su, Po-Chih Chang, Stephen Chu-Sung Hu, Shyng-Shiou F Yuan
The β-nitrostyrene family has been shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in types of various cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of β-nitrostyrenes in colorectal cancer remain poorly understood. In this study, we synthesized a β-nitrostyrene derivative, CYT-Rx20 (3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-β-methyl-β-nitrostyrene), and investigated its anticancer activities in human colorectal cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings showed that treatment with CYT-Rx20 reduced cell viability and induced DNA damage in colorectal cancer cells...
February 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127704/effect-of-potential-role-of-p53-on-embryo-development-arrest-induced-by-h2o2-in-mouse
#8
De-Bao Hu, Zhong-Shu Li, Ihsan Ali, Li-Jie Xu, Nan-Zhu Fang
During mammalian embryo development in vitro, mechanism of embryonic development arrest caused by oxidative stress has not been clear so far. The tumor suppressor protein p53 controls cell cycle and programmed cell death by regulating relevant signal pathway. Recent researches revealed that the concentration and distribution of p53 are closely related with reactive oxygen species (ROS). The main objective of this experiment was to explore the role of p53 on embryonic development arrest caused by oxidative stress...
January 27, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126652/a-de-novo-mutation-in-the-x-linked-pak3-gene-is-the-underlying-cause-of-intellectual-disability-and-macrocephaly-in-monozygotic-twins
#9
Jozef Hertecant, Makanko Komara, Aslam Nagi, Olfat Al-Zaabi, Waseem Fathallah, Hong Cui, Yaping Yang, Christine M Eng, Mohammad Al Sorkhy, Mohammad A Ghattas, Lihadh Al-Gazali, Bassam R Ali
Pathogenic variants in theP21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3gene (PAK3) lead to a rare non syndromic X-linked intellectual disability. The protein encoded by this gene forms an activated complex with GTP-bound RAS-like (P21), CDC2 and RAC1 proteins which then mediates a variety of cellular processes. So far, mutations in PAK3 gene have been reported in few families affected with intellectual disability associated with neurological manifestations such as speech defect, behavioral problem, brain structural abnormalities, microcephaly and cerebral palsy...
January 23, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125685/lack-of-casein-kinase-1-delta-promotes-genomic-instability-the-accumulation-of-dna-damage-and-down-regulation-of-checkpoint-kinase-1
#10
Yoshimi Endo Greer, Bo Gao, Yingzi Yang, Andre Nussenzweig, Jeffrey S Rubin
Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ) is a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates diverse cellular processes. Mice lacking CK1δ have a perinatal lethal phenotype and typically weigh 30% less than their wild type littermates. However, the causes of death and small size are unknown. We observed cells with abnormally large nuclei in tissue from Csnk1d null embryos, and multiple centrosomes in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in CK1δ (MEFCsnk1d null). Results from γ-H2AX staining and the comet assay demonstrated significant DNA damage in MEFCsnk1d null cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117030/three-combined-treatment-a-novel-hdac-inhibitor-obp-801-ym753-5-fluorouracil-and-paclitaxel-induces-g2-phase-arrest-through-the-p38-pathway-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#11
Makoto Akiyama, Yoshihiro Sowa, Tomoyuki Taniguchi, Motoki Watanabe, Shingo Yogosawa, Jo Kitawaki, Toshiyuki Sakai
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal disease among gynecological malignancies. More effective therapy is required to counter the high recurrence rates and chemotherapy resistance. We investigated the efficacy and molecular mechanisms of three-combined treatment, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor OBP-801/YM753, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel (PTX), in human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. The inhibition of cell growth was stronger with the three-combined treatment than with each single agent and with two-combined treatment...
January 23, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108734/valproic-acid-inhibits-glioblastoma-multiforme-cell-growth-via-paraoxonase-2-expression
#12
Jen-Ho Tseng, Cheng-Yi Chen, Pei-Chun Chen, Sheng-Huang Hsiao, Chi-Chen Fan, Yu-Chih Liang, Chie-Pein Chen
We studied the potential mechanisms of valproic acid (VPA) in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Using the human U87, GBM8401, and DBTRG-05MG GBM-derived cell lines, VPA at concentrations of 5 to 20 mM induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Stress-related molecules such as paraoxonase 2 (PON2), cyclin B1, cdc2, and Bcl-xL were downregulated, but p27, p21 and Bim were upregulated by VPA treatment. VPA response element on the PON2 promoter was localized at position -400/-1...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106145/cd1-and-cd1-porcine-blood-dendritic-cells-are-enriched-for-the-orthologues-of-the-two-major-mammalian-conventional-subsets
#13
Jane C Edwards, Helen E Everett, Miriam Pedrera, Helen Mokhtar, Emanuele Marchi, Ferran Soldevila, Daryan A Kaveh, Philip J Hogarth, Helen L Johns, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Falko Steinbach, Helen R Crooke, Simon P Graham
Conventional dendritic cells (cDC) are professional antigen-presenting cells that induce immune activation or tolerance. Two functionally specialised populations, termed cDC1 and cDC2, have been described in humans, mice, ruminants and recently in pigs. Pigs are an important biomedical model species and a key source of animal protein; therefore further understanding of their immune system will help underpin the development of disease prevention strategies. To characterise cDC populations in porcine blood, DC were enriched from PBMC by CD14 depletion and CD172a enrichment then stained with lineage mAbs (Lin; CD3, CD8α, CD14 and CD21) and mAbs specific for CD172a, CD1 and CD4...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103869/sinularin-induces-dna-damage-g2-m-phase-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#14
Ting-Wen Chung, Shih-Chao Lin, Jui-Hsin Su, Yu-Kuo Chen, Chi-Chien Lin, Hong-Lin Chan
BACKGROUND: Sinularin isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis has been reported to exert potent cytotoxic effects against particular types of cancer. This study was carried out to investigate the cytotoxic effects in sinularin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2, and to subsequently explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: TheMTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl- tetrazolium bromide) method was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of sinularin on HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines...
January 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103177/hbxip-a-binding-protein-of-hbx-regulates-maintenance-of-the-g2-m-phase-checkpoint-induced-by-dna-damage-and-enhances-sensitivity-to-doxorubicin-induced-cytotoxicity
#15
Hong-Rong Fei, Yun-Sheng Zhou, Ruo-Tong Li, Ming-Feng Yang, Jian Ma, Feng-Ze Wang
To maintain the integrity of the genome, cells need to detect and repair DNA damage before they complete cell division. Hepatitis B x-interacting protein (HBXIP), a binding protein of HBx (Hepatitis B virus x protein), is aberrantly overexpressed in human cancer cells and show to promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. The present study is designed to investigate the role of HBXIP on the DNA damage response. Our results show that HBXIP acts as an important regulator of G2/M checkpoint in response to DNA damage...
January 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095607/heat-shock-protein-70-promotes-coxsackievirus-b3-translation-initiation-and-elongation-via-akt-mtorc1-pathway-depending-on-activation-of-p70s6k-and-cdc2
#16
Fengping Wang, Ye Qiu, Huifang M Zhang, Paul Hanson, Xin Ye, Guangze Zhao, Ronald Xie, Lei Tong, Decheng Yang
We previously demonstrated that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection upregulated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and promoted CVB3 multiplication. Here, we report the underlying mechanism by which Hsp70 enhances viral RNA translation. By using an Hsp70-overexpressing cell line infected with CVB3, we found that Hsp70 enhanced CVB3 VP1 translation at two stages. First, Hsp70 induced upregulation of VP1 translation at the initiation stage via upregulation of internal ribosome entry site trans-acting factor lupus autoantigen protein and activation of eIF4E binding protein 1, a cap-dependent translation suppressor...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090699/modelling-irf8-deficient-human-hematopoiesis-and-dendritic-cell-development-with-engineered-ips-cells
#17
Stephanie Sontag, Malrun Förster, Jie Qin, Paul Wanek, Saskia Mitzka, Herdit M Schüler, Steffen Koschmieder, Stefan Rose-John, Kristin Seré, Martin Zenke
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, including hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny. Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is a transcription factor, which acts in hematopoiesis as lineage determining factor for myeloid cells, including dendritic cells (DC). Autosomal recessive or dominant IRF8 mutations occurring in patients cause severe monocytic and DC immunodeficiency. To study IRF8 in human hematopoiesis we generated human IRF8-/- iPS cells and IRF8-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells using RNA guided CRISPR/Cas9n genome editing...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089693/effects-of-six-priority-controlled-phthalate-esters-with-long-term-low-dose-integrated-exposure-on-male-reproductive-toxicity-in-rats
#18
Hai-Tao Gao, Run Xu, Wei-Xin Cao, Liang-Liang Qian, Min Wang, Lingeng Lu, Qian Xu, Shu-Qin Yu
Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PEs) surroundings. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to the mixture of six priority controlled phthalate esters (MIXPs): dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), on male rat reproductive system and further to explore the underlying mechanisms of the reproductive toxicity...
January 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088735/long-non-coding-rna-ccat1-promotes-human-retinoblastoma-so-rb50-and-y79-cells-through-negative-regulation-of-mir-218-5p
#19
Hongxu Zhang, Jianguang Zhong, Zhenyu Bian, Xiang Fang, You Peng, Yongping Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory role and potential mechanism of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in human retinoblastoma (RB). METHODS: The lncRNA profile in RB tissues were analyzed by microarray and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). One of the identified lncRNAs (LncRNA CCAT1) was selected for further experiments. SO-RB50 and Y79 cells were transfected with negative control, siRNA targeting lncRNA CCAT1 (si-CCAT1) and si-CCAT1+miR218-5p inhibitor, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087664/human-blood-cd1c-dendritic-cells-encompass-cd5high-and-cd5low-subsets-that-differ-significantly-in-phenotype-gene-expression-and-functions
#20
Xiangyun Yin, Haisheng Yu, Xiaoyang Jin, Jingyun Li, Hao Guo, Quanxing Shi, Zhao Yin, Yong Xu, Xuefei Wang, Rong Liu, Shouli Wang, Liguo Zhang
There are three major dendritic cell (DC) subsets in both humans and mice, that is, plasmacytoid DCs and two types of conventional DCs (cDCs), cDC1s and cDC2s. cDC2s are important for polarizing CD4(+) naive T cells into different subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Th22, and regulatory T cells. In mice, cDC2s can be further divided into phenotypically and functionally distinct subgroups. However, subsets of human cDC2s have not been reported. In the present study, we showed that human blood CD1c(+) cDCs (cDC2s) can be further separated into two subpopulations according to their CD5 expression status...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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