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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549097/cluster-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-with-high-level-azithromycin-resistance-and-decreased-ceftriaxone-susceptibility-hawaii-2016
#1
Alan R Katz, Alan Y Komeya, Robert D Kirkcaldy, A Christian Whelen, Olusegun O Soge, John R Papp, Ellen N Kersh, Glenn M Wasserman, Norman P O'Connor, Pamela S O'Brien, Douglas T Sato, Eloisa V Maningas, Gail Y Kunimoto, Juval E Tomas
Background.: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently recommends dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin for gonorrhea to ensure effective treatment and slow emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Since 2013, the prevalence of reduced azithromycin susceptibility increased in the United States; however, these strains were highly susceptible to cephalosporins. We report on a cluster of N. gonorrhoeae isolates demonstrating high-level azithromycin resistance, several of which also demonstrated decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546690/update-on-the-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-ocular-infections
#2
Darlene Miller
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the epidemiology and current antibiotic-resistant threats in ophthalmology. METHODS: Trends in frequency and antibiotic-nonsusceptible profiles during an 11 year-period (2005-2015) were evaluated and compared with the 5-year Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganism (ARMOR) study. RESULTS: Trends in the current review confirmed the continued high rates of fluoroquinolone nonsusceptbility circulating among ocular methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant S...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545411/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-from-hefei-2014-2015-genetic-characteristics-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#3
Fa-Xing Jiang, Qian Lan, Wen-Jing Le, Xiao-Hong Su
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and genetic determinants of resistance of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hefei, China, were characterized adding a breadth of information to the molecular epidemiology of gonococcal resistance in China. METHODS: 126 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from a hospital clinic in Hefei, were collected between January, 2014, and November, 2015. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of N. gonorrhoeae isolates for seven antimicrobials were determined by the agar dilution method...
May 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544933/cardiotoxic-effect-of-levofloxacin-and-ciprofloxacin-in-rats-with-without-acute-myocardial-infarction-impact-on-cardiac-rhythm-and-cardiac-expression-of-kv4-3-kv1-2-and-nav1-5-channels
#4
Ahmed M Abdelrady, Sawsan A Zaitone, Noha E Farag, Manal S Fawzy, Yasser M Moustafa
Prolongation of QT interval is possible with fluoroquinolones, yet the underlying contributing factors have not been elucidated. Two widely used fluoroquinolone drugs were at the focus of this study in rats with/without acute myocardial dysfunction (AMI) induced by isoproterenol. The effects of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin on the cardiac mRNA expression of rat Kv4.3, Kv1.2 and Nav1.5 mRNAs were determined. Administration of the two antibiotics produced dose-dependent changes in ECG parameters that were more prominent in rats with AMI than healthy rats; this was accompanied by elevations in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB...
May 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544585/effects-of-ophthalmologic-solutions-on-sinonasal-ciliated-epithelium
#5
Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Michael A Kohanski, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Off-label use of topical ophthalmologic formulations for treatment of rhinologic disease is cited in recent literature and is anecdotally prevalent among practicing otolaryngologists. Steroids, antibiotics, and other drugs designed for ocular use have subjective clinical efficacy in the nose and sinuses, but their specific effects on the ciliated epithelium are less well defined. This study examines 9 commercially available ophthalmologic drug formulations for effects on ciliary motility in sinonasal cultures, in an effort to characterize their utility as topical therapies for sinonasal diseases...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542412/low-rates-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-infectious-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-high-risk-hematology-patients-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-of-blood-stream-infection
#6
Jason R Conn, Elizabeth M Catchpoole, Naomi Runnegar, Sally J Mapp, Kate A Markey
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a medical emergency and can represent a life-threatening complication for hematology patients treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens. In clinical practice, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures and other investigations which aim to identify a causative organism or site of infection is low. We have retrospectively examined all blood cultures collected in a "real world" cohort of patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia and patients with aggressive lymphoma treated with Hyper-CVAD/MTX-cytarabine, at a single tertiary center over a five-year period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539649/interspecies-interactions-reverse-the-hazard-of-antibiotics-exposure-a-plankton-community-study-on-responses-to-ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride
#7
Changyou Wang, Ziyang Wang, Yong Zhang, Rongguo Su
The ecotoxicological effects of Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) were tested on population densities of plankton assemblages consisting of two algae (Isochrysis galbana and Platymonas subcordiformis) and a rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis). The I. galbana showed a significant decrease in densities when concentrations of CIP were above 2.0 mg L(-1) in single-species tests, while P. subcordiformis and B. plicatilis were stable in densities when CIP were less than10.0 mg L(-1). The equilibrium densities of I...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537065/-a-descriptive-study-of-hafnia-alvei-isolated-from-stool-samples-an-approach-to-its-clinical-assessment
#8
M de Frutos, E López, R Aragón, L López-Urrutia, C Ramos, M Domínguez-Gil, L Viñuela, S Garcinuño, J M Eiros
OBJECTIVE: The importance in human diarrhoeal disease of Hafnia alvei is unclear. The objective of the study was to describe the population which was isolated H. alvei in stool cultures and the therapeutic management of these cases in our Health Area. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out in 2014 and 2015. Epidemiological, clinical, treatment and evolution variables were collected in the computerized clinical history. RESULTS: A collection of 7,290 stool specimens were processed, 3,321 in 2014 and 3,969 in 2015, of which 58 (1...
May 24, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537050/prevalence-and-significance-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-bacteria-carriage-in-patients-undergoing-transrectal-ultrasound-prostate-biopsy
#9
Amir Hasanzadeh, Mohammad Reza Pourmand, Ahad Alizadeh, Gholamreza Pourmand
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQR) bacteria carriage in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx), and the relationship between the risk factors and FQR carriers as well as infections after prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs were obtained from 158 patients undergoing TRUS-Bx. The FQR organisms were isolated using selective media, and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined...
May 23, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537041/the-effect-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-on-post-operative-infection-in-patients-undergone-flexible-cystos-copy
#10
Miguel Angel Arrabal-Polo, María Del Carmen Cano-García, Miguel Arrabal-Martín, Sergio Merino-Salas
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis is required in this outpatient procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A non-randomised, prospective observational study that included 184 patients subjected to flexible cystoscopy divided into three groups: - Group 1:60 patients with prophylaxis of 500 mg of ciprofloxacin;- Group 2:62 patients with prophylaxis of 3 g of phosphomycin; and Group 3:62 without antibiotic prophylaxis. Prior to inclusion in the study, absence of infection was checked by means of a urine culture obtained 7 days before the procedure...
May 23, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536568/comparing-the-genetic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-campylobacter-jejuni-recovered-from-cattle-and-humans
#11
Wonhee Cha, Rebekah E Mosci, Samantha L Wengert, Cristina Venegas Vargas, Steven R Rust, Paul C Bartlett, Daniel L Grooms, Shannon D Manning
Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans, is a foodborne pathogen that can reside in chickens, pigs, and cattle. Because resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are commonly used to treat human infections, has emerged in C. jejuni, it is imperative to continously monitor resistance patterns and examine the genetic variation in strains from human infections and animal reservoirs. Our previous study of C. jejuni from human campylobacteriosis cases showed a significantly higher rate of tetracycline resistance compared to national trends, and identified multilocus sequence type (ST)-982 and a history of cattle contact to be associated with tetracycline resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533857/antibiogram-profile-of-uropathogens-isolated-at-bahir-dar-regional-health-research-laboratory-centre-northwest-ethiopia
#12
Awoke Derbie, Derese Hailu, Daniel Mekonnen, Bayeh Abera, Gashaw Yitayew
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) has been increasing since the introduction of chemotherapy. This study was aimed to assess the types of isolates from patients with UTI and to determine their current antimicrobial susceptibility profile. METHODS: A record based retrospective analysis of bacterial uropathogens processed in the period of January 2012 to December 2014 at Bahir Dar Health Research Laboratory Center (BRHRLC) was determined...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533233/epidemic-emergence-in-the-united-states-of-escherichia-coli-sequence-type-131-h30-2000-2009
#13
James R Johnson, Stephen Porter, Paul Thuras, Mariana Castanheira
The H30 subclone of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has become the leading antimicrobial-resistance E. coli lineage in the U.S., and often exhibits resistance to one or both of two key antimicrobial classes for treating Gram-negative infections, extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and fluoroquinolones (FQs). However, the timing of and reasons for its recent emergence are inadequately defined. Accordingly, from E. coli clinical isolates collected systematically across the U.S. by the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Programs in 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009, 234 isolates were selected randomly, stratified by year, within three resistance categories: (i) ESC-reduced susceptibility, regardless of FQ phenotype (hereafter, ESC-RS), (ii) FQ-resistant, ESC-susceptible (hereafter, FQ-R), and (iii) FQ-susceptible, ESC-susceptible (hereafter, FQ-S)...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533185/the-small-molecule-iitr08027-restores-the-antibacterial-activity-of-fluoroquinolones-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-by-efflux-inhibition
#14
Tapas Bhattacharyya, Atin Sharma, Jawed Akhter, Ranjana Pathania
Efflux pumps are one of the major determinants of multiple drug resistance. In this study, AbeM, a multidrug efflux pump in Acinetobacter baumannii, was cloned into a multicopy plasmid (pUC18) and was transformed into an efflux-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli (KAM32). The elevated resistance profile of the recombinant E. coli for ciprofloxacin was utilised to screen a small-molecule library of 8000 molecules to identify IITR08027, a small molecule that is not inhibitory on its own but that could potentiate the activity of ciprofloxacin...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531869/a-rare-case-of-subacute-appendicitis-actinomycosis-as-the-final-pathology-reports-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
G A Gómez-Torres, O S Ortega-Gárcia, E G Gutierrez-López, C A Carballido-Murguía, J A Flores-Rios, C R López-Lizarraga, C A Bautista López, C F Ploneda-Valencia
INTRODUCTION: Acute appendicitis is the most common indication for an emergency abdominal surgery in the world, with a lifetime incidence of around 10%. Actinomycetes are the etiology of appendicitis in only 0.02%-0.06%, having as the final pathology report a chronic inflammatory response; less than 10% of the cases are diagnosed before surgery. Here, we present the case of a subacute appendicitis secondary to actinomycosis. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old male presented with a twelve-day evolution of intermittent abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant, treated at the beginning with ciprofloxacin and urinary analgesic...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528943/impacts-of-dextran-sulfate-s-chain-length-on-the-characteristics-of-its-self-assembled-colloidal-complex-formed-with-amphiphilic-small-molecule-drug
#16
Hong Yu, Kunn Hadinoto
Self-assembled colloidal complexes of dextran sulfate (DXT) and amphiphilic small-molecule drugs have recently emerged as an attractive drug formulation strategy to improve drug delivery efficacy. Herein we investigated the effects of DXT's chain length (MW=5kDa and 500kDa) on the (1) physical characteristics (i.e. size, zeta potential, drug payload, colloidal stability), (2) preparation efficiency, and (3) dissolution characteristics of the colloidal complexes produced. Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) was used as the model amphiphilic drug...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527851/intentional-replantation-of-an-avulsed-immature-permanent-incisor-a-case-report
#17
Claudio Maniglia-Ferreira, Fabio de Almeida Gomes, Marcelo de Morais Vitoriano
This case report discusses the successful endodontic treatment of an open apex maxillary right permanent central incisor that had been avulsed and incorrectly replanted in a 7-year-old patient. The tooth was carefully re-extracted followed by cleaning of the alveolar socket and immediate replantation. However, pulp necrosis was diagnosed, and regenerative endodontic treatment was performed. The root canal system was disinfected by passive ultrasonic irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. At the first visit, the tooth was repositioned and immobilized with an appropriate semirigid splint...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527651/clinical-efficacy-of-cycling-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-febrile-neutropenia-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#18
Hideto Teranishi, Yuhki Koga, Hisanori Nishio, Wakako Kato, Hiroaki Ono, Shunsuke Kanno, Kentaro Nakashima, Hidetoshi Takada
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. METHODS: Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526202/capnocytophaga-canimorsus-an-underestimated-cause-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#19
Marcel Orth, Patrick Orth, Konstantinos Anagnostakos
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major clinical problem in orthopedic surgery. Capnocytophaga canimorsus (C. canimorsus) is an unusual and hardly detectable bacterium. A review of the literature indicates that C. canimorsus affects mainly immunocompromised patients. It has not been reported to cause periprosthetic joint infections in immunocompetent patients so far. This case report aims to raise awareness of C. canimorsus in orthopedic surgery with special regard to joint arthroplasty...
May 16, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525997/increased-resistance-of-gram-negative-urinary-pathogens-after-kidney-transplantation
#20
Johannes Korth, Julia Kukalla, Peter-Michael Rath, Sebastian Dolff, Marco Krull, Hana Guberina, Anja Bienholz, Benjamin Wilde, Stefan Becker, Birgit Ross, Olympia Evdoxia Anastasiou, Andreas Kribben, Oliver Witzke
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection is the most common complication after kidney transplantation. It can cause severe sepsis and transplant loss. Emergence of drug resistance among gram-negative urinary pathogens is the current challenge for urinary tract infection treatment after kidney transplantation. METHODS: This study analyzes the antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative urinary pathogens after kidney transplantation from 2009 to 2012 at the Transplant Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital Essen, Germany...
May 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
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