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I-Fei Huang, Wei-Yang Lee, Jiun-Ling Wang, Chih-Hsin Hung, Hong-Hsiang Hu, Wan-Yu Hung, Yun-Ju Hung, Wen-Chi Chen, Ying-Tso Shen, Ming-Fang Cheng
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli (E. coli), particularly E. coli sequence type ST131, is becoming a global concern. Commensal bacteria, an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes, facilitate the spread of such genes to pathogenic bacterial strains. The objective of the study is to investigate the fecal carriage of MDR E. coli and ST131 E. coli in community children in Southern Taiwan. METHODS: In this prospective study, stool samples from children aged 0-18 years were obtained within 3 days of hospitalization from October 2013 to September 2014...
June 15, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Florian P Maurer, Philipp Pohle, Margrit Kernbach, Daniela Sievert, Doris Hillemann, Jan Rupp, Michael Hombach, Katharina Kranzer
OBJECTIVES: To determine MIC distributions for Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium colombiense and Mycobacterium avium, and to derive tentative epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values. METHODS: 683 bacterial isolates (M. chimaera, n = 203; M. intracellulare; n = 77; M. colombiense, n = 68; M. avium, n = 335) from 627 patients were tested by broth microdilution according to CLSI protocol M24-A2 on Sensititre RAPMYCOI plates. MICs were interpreted based on CLSI breakpoints for clarithromycin, and tentative breakpoints for amikacin, moxifloxacin and linezolid...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Yujie Hu, Yingying He, Yao Bai, Fengqin Li, Jin Xu
OBJECTIVE: Research were carried out to determine the antimicrobial resistance and mechanism of Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing in summer, 2013. METHODS: Broth microdilution method were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing to obtain the minimal inhibitory concentration( MICs)against 11 antimicrobial compounds which belongs to 8 categories and 166 Salmonella strains isolated from 33 retail chicken carcasses in Beijing in summer, 2013 were tested...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Sarva Mangala Praveena, Siti Norashikin Mohamad Shaifuddin, Syazwani Sukiman, Fauzan Adzima Mohd Nasir, Zanjabila Hanafi, Norizah Kamarudin, Tengku Hanidza Tengku Ismail, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
This study investigated the occurrence of nine pharmaceuticals (amoxicillin, caffeine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, dexamethasone, diclofenac, nitrofurazone, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) and to evaluate potential risks (human health and ecotoxicological) in Lui, Gombak and Selangor (Malaysia) rivers using commercial competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit assays. Physicochemical properties of these rivers showed the surface samples belong to Class II of Malaysian National Water Quality Standards which requires conventional treatment before consumption...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Peter Alexander Vistar Gade, Terkel Bo Olsen, Peter Østrup Jensen, Mette Kolpen, Niels Høiby, Kaj-Åge Henneberg, Thomas Sams
OUTLINE: In chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) the bacteria thrive in biofilm structures protected from the immune system of the host and from antibiotic treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that the susceptibility of the bacteria to antibiotic treatment can be significantly enhanced by hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The aim of this study is to simulate the effect of ciprofloxacin treatment in a PAO1 biofilm model with aggregates in agarose when combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment...
2018: PloS One
Sofie Tops, Marlie Bruens, Sacha van Mook-Vermulst, Diane Lamers-Jansen, Tobias Engel, Ger van den Brink, Rob van Duuren, Heiman F L Wertheim, Eva Kolwijck
Background and Objectives: A rectal culture-guided antimicrobial prophylaxis strategy may prevent infections after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP). The use of selective culture media could assist the choice of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of four selective media used for guidance of oral antibiotic prophylaxis in TRUSP. Methods: In this prospective validation study, we used MacConkey media with vancomycin plus one of the following antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (McC3 + CIP/V), trimethoprim (McC3 + TMP/V), fosfomycin (McC3 + FOF/V) or mecillinam/amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (McC3 + MEC/V)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Julie Glady-Croue, Xi-Zhi Niu, Joshua P Ramsay, Elizabeth Watkin, Riley J T Murphy, Jean-Philippe Croue
Urban wastewater treatment plant effluents represent one of the major emission sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in natural aquatic environments. In this study, the effect of artificial solar radiation on total culturable heterotrophic bacteria and ARB (including amoxicillin-resistant, ciprofloxacin-resistant, rifampicin-resistant, sulfamethoxazole-resistant, and tetracycline-resistant bacteria) present in secondary effluent was investigated. Artificial solar radiation was effective in inactivating the majority of environmental bacteria, however, the proportion of strains with ciprofloxacin-resistance and rifampicin-resistance increased in the surviving populations...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rutuja Dhawde, Ragini Macaden, Dhananjaya Saranath, Kayzad Nilgiriwala, Appasaheb Ghadge, Tannaz Birdi
In the current study, ceftazidime- and ciprofloxacin-resistant—or dual drug-resistant (DDR)— E. coli were isolated from river Mula-Mutha, which flows through rural Pune district and Pune city. The DDR E. coli were further examined for antibiotic resistance to six additional antibiotics. The study also included detection of genes responsible for ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin resistance and vectors for horizontal gene transfer. Twenty-eight percent of the identified DDR E. coli were resistant to more than six antibiotics, with 12% being resistant to all eight antibiotics tested...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
S Maham, F Fallah, Z Gholinejad, A Seifi, S M Hoseini-Alfatemi
BACKGROUND: Due to the diverse nature of bloodstream infections etiology and to the antibiotic resistance patterns in periodic intervals, rational and accurate use of antibiotics requires an understanding of common causative agents of septicemia and their susceptibility patterns. The present study aimed to determine the bacterial etiology of the neonate and pediatric septicemia, and their antibiotic resistance pattern in Tehran, North of Iran. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted along two years, from October 2014 to November 2016 among children with suspected bloodstream infection...
July 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
A Rezaei, H Fazeli, M Halaji, M Moghadampour, J Faghri
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Acinetobacter baumannii has become a global concern in nosocomial infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of MBL producing genes among clinical isolates of A. baumannii from hospitalized patients. METHODS: This study was performed from October 2015 to October 2016 at three teaching hospitals located in Isfahan, Iran. Totally, 100 A-baumannii isolates were collected from clinical specimens and identified as A-baumannii using standard microbiological methods...
July 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Mónica Martins, Sandra Sanches, Inês A C Pereira
Antibiotics and hormones are among the most concerning trace contaminants in the environment. Therefore, the present work aimed to identify anaerobic microorganisms with the ability to remove pharmaceutical products (PhPs) belonging to these two classes (ciprofloxacin, 17β-estradiol and sulfamethoxazole) under different anaerobic conditions, and to elucidate the bio-removal mechanisms involved. Ciprofloxacin was efficiently biodegraded under both nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions reaching a PhP removal superior to 80%, whereas 17β-estradiol was only biodegraded under nitrate-reducing conditions reaching a removal of 84%...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Rakesh R Chavan, Kallappa M Hosamani
An efficient, high-yield and rapid synthesis of (E)-1,5-dimethyl-4-((2-((substituted-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)methoxy)naphthalen-1-yl)methyleneamino)-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-one derivatives (3a-3i) containing Schiff base structures under microwave-irradiation has been described. Schiff base is a potential target to discover anti-inflammatory chemotherapeutics, material science, catalysis and molecular magnetism. All the newly synthesized compounds (3a-3i) have been characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Corinne E Rouquette-Loughlin, Vijaya Dhulipala, Jennifer L Reimche, Erica Raterman, Afrin A Begum, Ann E Jerse, William M Shafer
The gonococcal NorM efflux pump exports substrates with a cationic moiety including quaternary ammonium compounds such as berberine (BE) and ethidium bromide (EB) as well as antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and solithromycin. The norM gene is part of a four gene operon that is transcribed from a promoter containing a polynucleotide tract of 6 or 7 thymidines (Ts) between the -10 and -35 hexamers; the majority of gonococcal strains analyzed herein contained a T-6 sequence. Primer extension analysis showed that regardless of the length of the poly-T tract, the same transcriptional start site (TSS) was used for expression of norM Interestingly, the T-6 tract correlated with a higher level of both norM expression and gonococcal resistance to NorM substrates BE and EB...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Lambert M Felix, Seamus Grundy, Stephen J Milan, Ross Armstrong, Haley Harrison, Dave Lynes, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation of the smaller airways and associated with a mortality rate greater than twice that of the general population. Antibiotics serve as front-line therapy for managing bacterial load, but their use is weighed against the development of antibiotic resistance. Dual antibiotic therapy has the potential to suppress infection from multiple strains of bacteria, leading to more successful treatment of exacerbations, reduced symptoms, and improved quality of life...
June 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jessica Mendez, Desirée Cascales, Ana I Garcia-Torrico, Jose A Guijarro
Yersinia ruckeri is a bacterium causing fish infection processes at temperatures below the optimum for growth. A derivative Tn5 transposon was used to construct a library of Y. ruckeri mutants with transcriptional fusions between the interrupted genes and the promoterless luxCDABE and lacZY operons. In vitro analysis of β-galactosidase activity allowed the identification of 168 clones having higher expression at 18°C than at 28°C. Among the interrupted genes a SAM-dependent methyltransferase, a diguanylated cyclase, three genes involved in legionaminic acid synthesis and three transcriptional regulators were defined...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kimberly A Maciolek, Sara L Best, Vania Lopez, Natasza Posielski, Margaret Knoedler, Wade A Bushman, David F Jarrard, Tracy M Downs, E Jason Abel, Kyle A Richards
PURPOSE: To prospectively implement a prostate biopsy protocol to identify high-risk patients for bleeding or infectious complications and use risk-tailored antimicrobials, patient education, and postbiopsy monitoring with the objective of reducing complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 637 consecutive patients from June 2014 to August 2016 underwent prostate biopsy at our Veterans Affairs hospital. In the protocol cohort, patients were screened before biopsy and prophylaxis was tailored (high risk = ceftriaxone; low risk = ciprofloxacin)...
June 7, 2018: Urologic Oncology
The-Thien Tran, Celine Vidaillac, Hong Yu, Valerie F L Yong, Dan Roizman, Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Albert Y H Lim, Teck Boon Low, Gan Liang Tan, John A Abisheganaden, Mariko Siyue Koh, Jeanette Teo, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Kunn Hadinoto
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) characterized by permanent bronchial dilatation and recurrent infections has been clinically managed by long-term intermittent inhaled antibiotic therapy among other treatments. Herein we investigated dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) nanoplex with mannitol/lactose as the excipient for NCFB therapy. The DPI of CIP nanoplex was evaluated against DPI of native CIP in terms of their (1) dissolution characteristics in artificial sputum medium, (2) ex vivo mucus permeability in sputum from NCFB and healthy individuals, (3) antibacterial efficacy in the presence of sputum against clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (planktonic and biofilm), and (4) cytotoxicity towards human lung epithelial cells...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
L Bénéjat, E Sifré, C Domingues Martins, A Ducournau, A Buissonnière, E Bessède, F Mégraud, P Lehours
The aim of the present study was to propose epidemiologic cutoffs that could be used in routine practice to separate wild-type from non-wild-type Campylobacter fetus to ciprofloxacin. A total of 123 C. fetus isolates obtained from human samples were used for this purpose. Based on the determination of inhibition zone diameter, minimum inhibitory concentration, and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining region in the gyraseA gene, for all tested isolates, the following cutoffs were proposed: ciprofloxacin-wild type if the inhibition zone diameter was ≥22 mm or the minimum inhibitory concentration was ≤0...
May 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sergey Zaichik, Christian Steinbring, Claudia Menzel, Ludwig Knabl, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Helmut Ellemunter, Katharina Niedermayr, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The aim of this study was to develop a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) containing the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) exhibiting highly mucus permeating properties and antimicrobial activity in in vitro models. Various SEDDS formulations were developed and evaluated regarding droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and formulation stability. Furthermore, SEDDS permeating properties were investigated in porcine intestinal mucus, as well as in cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum freshly collected from CF patients using Transwell® setup and single particle tracking (SPT), respectively...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Ryoichi Hamasuna, Phuong Thi Le, Satoshi Kutsuna, Keiichi Furubayashi, Masahiro Matsumoto, Norio Ohmagari, Naohiro Fujimoto, Tetsuro Matsumoto, Jorgen Skov Jensen
Macrolide or fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium is spreading worldwide. We aimed to determine the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR) of parC and gyrA in cultured M. genitalium strains. In addition, we examined the prevalence of macrolide- and fluoroquinolone resistance mediating mutations in specimens collected from Japanese male patients with urethritis in two time-periods between 2005-2009 and 2010-2017, respectively, by sequencing the QRDR of parC and gyrA and domain V of the 23S rRNA gene...
2018: PloS One
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