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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690991/-treatment-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcal-infections
#1
Lars Christian Lund, Barbara Juliane Holzknecht, Ulrik Stenz Justesen
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a growing healthcare concern, and since 2012 the incidence has increased eightfold in Denmark. Treatment options for infections with ampicillin-resistant VRE are sparse, and there are no Danish guidelines concerning this topic. For treatment of uncomplicated VRE urinary tract infections, ciprofloxacin or nitrofurantoin can be used. The mainstay of treatment of bacteraemia and other severe infections caused by VRE is linezolid or high-dose daptomycin. Combination treatment is recommended for complicated infections and/or prolonged therapy...
April 16, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690983/-shewanella-algae-bacteriaemia-after-a-vacation-in-thailand
#2
Anja Sofie Petersen, Frederik Federspiel, Arnold Dungu, Christian Søborg
This is a case report of a 56-year-old man, who presented with a very rare cause of erysipelas and bacteraemia caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Shewanella algae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of imported Shewanella-infection in Denmark. The patient, who had a history of liver cirrhosis, returned home from a one-month vacation in Thailand. All four blood cultures were positive for S. algae. The patient was treated successfully with IV meropenem and oral ciprofloxacin. S. algae can cause severe local and systemic infection and is not sensitive to standard treatment with penicillin...
April 9, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690929/gonococcal-sepsis-in-a-32-year-old-female-a-case-report
#3
Michael Owusu, Kwadwo Sarfo Marfo, Godfred Acheampong, Abednego Arthur, Nimako Sarpong, Justin Im, Ondari D Mogeni, Augustina Annan, Hsin-Ying Chiang, Chih-Horng Kuo, Se Eun Park, Florian Marks, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a Gram-negative bacterium which affects the urethra, throat, rectum and cervix of patients and often associated with sexually transmitted infections. The global epidemiology of the disease is not well characterised especially in resource constraint countries due to poor diagnostic capacity and inefficient reporting systems. Although important, little is known about the propensity of this bacterium to cause sepsis in immunocompetent individuals. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old female presented with fever and generalised malaise to a rural hospital in Ghana...
April 24, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688150/awareness-of-acute-kidney-injury-risk-factors-and-perspectives-on-its-practice-guidelines
#4
Numan Alabdan, Abdelhameed H Elfadol, Rami Bustami, Yousef A Al-Rajhi, Abdulla A Al-Sayyari
OBJECTIVES: Identifying and assessing risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) are crucial for its early detection and possible intervention to prevent AKI and associated adverse outcomes. This study aimed to investigate AKI risk factor awareness and risk assessment by healthcare professionals and to evaluate perspectives on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes AKI guidelines. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted among healthcare professionals (physicians and pharmacists) at XXX from December 2016 to February 2017...
April 24, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687766/identification-and-prevalence-of-rnd-family-multidrug-efflux-pump-oqxab-genes-in-enterococci-isolates-from-swine-manure-in-china
#5
Li Yuan, Ya-Jun Zhai, Hua Wu, Hua-Run Sun, Zhi-Pei He, Ya-Bin Wang, Yu-Shan Pan, Nan-Nan Kuang, Gong-Zheng Hu
PURPOSE: The resistance/nodulation/cell division (RND) family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB, has been identified as one of the leading mechanisms of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and has become increasingly prevalent among Enterobacteriaceae in recent years. However, oqxAB genes have not yet been reported in Enterococcus isolates. The aim of the present study was to identify the oqxAB genes and investigate their prevalence among Enterococcus from swine manure in China. METHODOLOGY: The oqxAB genes were screened in 87 Enterococcus isolates by PCR...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686934/development-of-micellar-hplc-uv-method-for-determination-of-pharmaceuticals-in-water-samples
#6
Danielle Cristina da Silva, Cláudio Celestino Oliveira
Method for extraction and determination of amoxicillin, caffeine, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline, diclofenac, ibuprofen, nimesulide, levonorgestrel, and 17 α -ethynylestradiol exploiting micellar liquid chromatography with PDA detector and solid-phase extraction was proposed. The usage of toxic solvents was low; the chromatographic separation of the medicaments was performed using a C18 column and mobile phases A and B containing 15.0% (v/v) ethanol, 3.0% (m/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 0...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686506/detection-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-strains-in-hamadan-west-of-iran
#7
Amir Majlesi, Reza Kamali Kakhki, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Rasoul Yousefi Mashouf, Amir Roointan, Malek Abazari, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants have arisen as a significant concern in recent years. The aim of this study was screening of resistant-clinical isolates to fluoroquinolone antibiotics and detection of qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes. For this purpose we collected 100 fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae which were from 3 hospitals in Hamadan, west provinces of Iran, between October 2012 and June 2013. The all samples were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed by PCR method...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686180/chromobacterium-violaceum-the-deadly-sepsis
#8
Guntur Darmawan, R N Yasmin Kusumawardhani, Bachti Alisjahbana, Trinugroho Heri Fadjari
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-positive bacterium producing a dark violet antioxidant pigment called violacein. It is an opportunistic pathogen and has an ubiquitous distribution, mainly resides in water and soil of tropical and subtropical regions.An-18-year-old man referred to the emergency room with a 5-day history of progressively worsening swelling of the right cheek. He sought consult and hospitalized at another institution for three days prior this admission; however, his condition deteriorated...
January 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684575/draft-genome-sequence-of-field-isolate-brucella-melitensis-strain-2007bm-1-from-india
#9
D K Singh, Bablu Kumar, Garima Shrinet, R P Singh, Aparajita Das, B G Mantur, Abhishek, Aruna Pandey, Piyali Mondal, B K Sajjanar, Soni Doimari, Vijayata Singh, Reena Kumari, A K Tiwari, Gandham Ravikumar
OBJECTIVES: Brucellosis, is among one of the most widespread important global zoonotic diseases which is endemic in many parts of India. Brucella melitensis is supposed to be the most pathogenic species for humans. Here, we report draft genome sequence of B. melitensis strain 2007BM/1 isolated from human in India. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from Brucella culture and was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. The generated reads were assembled using three de novo assemblers and the draft genome was annotated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684574/genetic-characterization-of-class-i-integrons-among-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-serovars-in-broiler-chicken-farms
#10
Rasha M Elkenany, Abdelfattah H Eladl, Reham A El-Shafei
BACKGROUND: The antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars is recorded and the integrons play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Little literatures are available on the recognition of integrons in isolated Salmonella from broiler chickens. OBJECTIVES: In this study, antibiotic resistance and characterization of class 1 (Cls1) integrons among Multidrug resistance serovars of Salmonella enterica in broiler chicken farms were performed...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684021/laboratory-and-molecular-surveillance-of-paediatric-typhoidal-salmonella-in-nepal-antimicrobial-resistance-and-implications-for-vaccine-policy
#11
Carl D Britto, Zoe A Dyson, Sebastian Duchene, Michael J Carter, Meeru Gurung, Dominic F Kelly, David R Murdoch, Imran Ansari, Stephen Thorson, Shrijana Shrestha, Neelam Adhikari, Gordon Dougan, Kathryn E Holt, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Children are substantially affected by enteric fever in most settings with a high burden of the disease, including Nepal. However pathogen population structure and transmission dynamics are poorly delineated in young children, the proposed target group for immunization programs. Here we present whole genome sequencing and antimicrobial susceptibility data on 198 S. Typhi and 66 S. Paratyphi A isolated from children aged 2 months to 15 years of age during blood culture surveillance at Patan Hospital, Nepal, 2008-2016...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683776/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-human-bloodstream-infections-showed-multidrug-resistance-profile
#12
Silvia H S P Pedroso, Savio H C Sandes, Robledo A T Filho, Alvaro C Nunes, Jose C Serufo, Luiz M Farias, Maria A R Carvalho, Maria R Q Bomfim, Simone G Santos
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important pathogens causing nosocomial infections worldwide with increasing resistance to antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to characterize resistance aspects of CNS isolated from patients with bloodstream infections acquired in hospitals in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Staphylococcus strains were characterized using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) fingerprinting with (GTG)5 primer. Phenotypic resistance was analyzed using AST-P5085 card (bioMérieuxVitek® )...
April 23, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683093/a-novel-fluorescence-based-screen-for-inhibitors-of-the-initiation-of-dna-replication-in-bacteria
#13
Rasmus N Klitgaard, Anders Lobner-Olesen
BACKGROUND: One of many strategies to overcome antibiotic resistance is the discovery of compounds targeting cellular processes, which have not yet been exploited. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using various genetic tools, we constructed a novel high throughput, cell based, fluorescence screen for inhibitors of chromosome replication initiation in bacteria. RESULTS: The screen was validated by expression of an intra-cellular cyclic peptide interfering with the initiator protein DnaA and by over-expression of the negative initiation regulator SeqA...
April 22, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680913/monitoring-of-resistance-genes-in-listeria-monocytogenes-isolates-and-their-presence-in-the-extracellular-dna-of-biofilms-a-case-study-from-the-czech-republic
#14
Martina Boháčová, Kamila Zdeňková, Zuzana Tomáštíková, Viviana Fuchsová, Kateřina Demnerová, Renáta Karpíšková, Jarmila Pazlarová
The alarming occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in food production demands continuous monitoring worldwide. One reservoir of resistance genes is thought to be eDNA. There is currently little available information in Europe about either the extracellular DNA distribution of the bacterium or the spread of resistance genes in L. monocytogenes. Therefore, our aims were to give insight into the Listeria monocytogenes resistance situation in the Czech Republic and assess the presence of resistance genes in their extracellular DNA (eDNA)...
April 21, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680695/microbiological-quality-and-antimicrobial-resistance-characterization-of-salmonella-spp-in-fresh-milk-value-chains-in-ghana
#15
Angela Parry-Hanson Kunadu, Mark Holmes, Eric L Miller, Andrew J Grant
Consumer perception of poor hygiene of fresh milk products is a major barrier to promotion of milk consumption as an intervention to alleviate the burden of malnutrition in Ghana. Fresh milk is retailed raw, boiled, or processed into unfermented cheese and spontaneously fermented products in unlicensed outlets. In this study, we have determined microbiological quality of informally retailed fresh milk products and characterized the genomic diversity and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in implicated products...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679746/prevalence-of-cfr-in-enterococcus-faecalis-strains-isolated-from-swine-farms-in-china-predominated-cfr-carrying-pcppf5-like-plasmids-conferring-non-linezolid-resistance-phenotype
#16
Liang-Xing Fang, Jia-Hong Duan, Mu-Ya Chen, Hui Deng, Hua-Qing Liang, Yan Q Xiong, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu, Xiao-Ping Liao
The cfr gene associated with linezolid resistance has attracted wide attention. However, little is known about its prevalence and mode of transmission in Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and genetic environment of the cfr gene in 91 E. faecalis isolates collected from swine faecal swabs in 30 farms in Guangdong Province, China in 2012. A relatively high prevalence of cfr was identified in E. faecalis isolates (11/91, 12.1%) by PCR. All the cfr-positive E. faecalis strains had a multidrug-resistance phenotype including erythrocin, tetracycline, gentamicin, kanamicin and ciprofloxacin, except vancomycin and linezolid...
April 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679711/establishment-of-a-drug-induced-rhabdomyolysis-mouse-model-by-co-administration-of-ciprofloxacin-and-atorvastatin
#17
Akiko Matsubara, Shingo Oda, Sho Akai, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Rhabdomyolysis is one of the serious side effects of ciprofloxacin (CPFX), a widely used antibacterial drug; and occasionally, acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs. Often, rhabdomyolysis has occurred in patients taking CPFX co-administered with statins. The purpose of this study is to establish a mouse model of drug-induced rhabdomyolysis by co-administration of CPFX and atorvastatin (ATV) and to clarify the mechanisms of its pathogenesis. C57BL/6J mice treated with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, were orally administered with CPFX and ATV for 4 days...
April 18, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678910/serotype-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-patients-at-an-equine-referral-hospital
#18
I M Leon, S D Lawhon, K N Norman, D S Threadgill, N Ohta, J Vinasco, H M Scott
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United States. Two-hundred-fifty-five Salmonella isolates were obtained from clinical samples of patients admitted to the hospital between 2007 and 2015...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678544/influence-of-excipients-on-physical-and-aerosolization-stability-of-spray-dried-high-dose-powder-formulations-for-inhalation
#19
Nivedita Shetty, Heejun Park, Dmitry Zemlyanov, Sharad Mangal, Sonal Bhujbal, Qi Tony Zhou
The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of excipients on physical and aerosolization stability of spray dried Ciprofloxacin dry powder inhaler formulations. The model drug, Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, was co-spray dried with excipients such as disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, trehalose), mannitol and L-leucine. The spray dried samples were stored at two different relative humidity (RH) conditions of: (1) 20% and (2) 55% RH at 20°C. Ciprofloxacin co-spray dried with disaccharides and L-leucine in the mass ratio of 1:1 demonstrated an increase in fine particle fraction (FPF) as compared with the spray dried Ciprofloxacin alone when stored at 20% RH...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678543/hollow-mesoporous-hydroxyapatite-nanostructures-smart-nanocarriers-with-high-drug-loading-and-controlled-releasing-features
#20
M Usman Munir, Ayesha Ihsan, Yasra Sarwar, Sadia Zafar Bajwa, Khizra Bano, Bushra Tehseen, Neelam Zeb, Irshad Hussain, M Tayyab Ansari, Madiha Saeed, Juan Li, M Zubair Iqbal, Aiguo Wu, Waheed S Khan
We report the development of effective drug loaded nanocarriers to combat multidrug resistant infection especially in case of osteomyelitis. The hollow mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (hmHANPs) and solid/non-hollow hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (sHANPs) were synthesized by core-shell and co-precipitation techniques respectively. High encapsulation of the drug (ciprofloxacin) was observed in hmHANPs as compared to sHANPs, which may be due to the hollow porous structure of hmHANPs. These nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (FESEM), N2 adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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