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R S Corrêa, V F Melo, G G F Abreu, M H Sousa, J A Chaker, J A Gomes
Soil traces are useful as forensic evidences because they frequently adhere to individuals and objects associated with crimes and can place or discard a suspect at/from a crime scene. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic components and among them soil clay contains signatures that make it reliable as forensic evidence. In this study, we hypothesized that soils can be forensically distinguished through the analysis of their clay fraction alone, and that samples of the same soil type can be consistently distinguished according to the distance they were collected from each other...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
N M Malepfane, P Muchaonyerwa
Global generation of human hair waste and its disposal at landfills could contribute to the leaching of nitrates into ground water. High concentrations of nitrogen (N) and other elements suggest that the waste could be a source of plant nutrients and differences in ethnic hair types could affect nutrient release and fertiliser value. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hair type, as an N source, and pre-incubation time on dry-matter yield, nutrient uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L...
January 25, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ren-Yong Shi, Jiu-Yu Li, Jun Jiang, Muhammad Aqeel Kamran, Ren-Kou Xu, Wei Qian
The effect of corn straw biochar on inhibiting the re-acidification of acid soils derived from different parent materials due to increased soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) was investigated using indoor incubation and simulated acidification experiments. The incorporation of the biochar increased the pHBC of all four soils due to the increase in soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). When 5% biochar was incorporated, the pHBC was increased by 62, 27, 32, and 24% for the Ultisols derived from Tertiary red sandstone, Quaternary red earth, granite, and the Oxisol derived from basalt, respectively...
January 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira, Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado, Charles W Rice, Dorivar A Ruiz Diaz, Clever Briedis, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves
In a climate change scenario, it is important to understand the factors that lead to changes in a soil carbon (C) sink. It is recognized that such process is highly dependent on climate, soil properties, topography, and vegetation. However, few studies demonstrate how these mechanisms operate in highly weathered Oxisols. Therefore, this study evaluated the driving factors for C recovery and accumulation and its relations with fertility attributes in the soil profile (0 to 1m depth) in no-till (NT) croplands of south Brazil...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Li-Ying Ren, Zhi-Neng Hong, Zhao-Dong Liu, Ren-Kou Xu
The primary objective of this study was to determine the capacity and the mechanisms of adhesion of Bacillus subtilis onto variable- and constant-charge soil colloids. The adhesion process was investigated using in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential, and batch adhesion experiments. The maximum adhesion capacity of B. subtilis on the colloids of Oxisol, Ultisol, and Alfisol reached 699.17, 462.56, and 258.82mgg-1 , respectively. B. subtilis adhesion to all three soil colloids decreased as the suspension pH increased from 3 to 8...
February 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira, João Carlos de Moraes Sá, Rattan Lal, Florent Tivet, Clever Briedis, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves, Jucimare Romaniw
Conclusions based on studies of the impacts of soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions and soil texture on macroaggregation and SOC stabilization in long-term (>20years) no-till (NT) fields remain debatable. This study was based on the hypothesis that the amount and frequency of biomass-C input associated with NT can be a pathway to formation of macroaggregates and to SOC buildup. The objectives were to: 1) assess the macroaggregate distribution (proportional mass, class mass) and the SOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks of extra-large (8-19mm), large (2-8mm) and small (0...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ricardo Perobelli Borba, Victor Sanches Ribeirinho, Otávio Antonio de Camargo, Cristiano Alberto de Andrade, Carmen Silvia Kira, Aline Reneé Coscione
In this study, we performed monitoring of the soil solution (SS) over 10 years on a loamy/clayey-textured Dark Red Dystroferric Oxisol that received sewage sludge for agricultural purposes. The SS was obtained by lysimeters installed along the walls of a well at 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, 4 m and 5 m in depth. The major ions found in the SS were NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+), and the pH level ranged from 4 to 6.5 along the profile. Throughout the first three years of monitoring, the pH to a 3-m depth became more acidic, and in the last year, this trend reached 5 m...
October 25, 2017: Chemosphere
Chenggang Liu, Yanqiang Jin, Changan Liu, Jianwei Tang, Qingwei Wang, Mingxi Xu
Rubber-based agroforestry system is a vital management practice and its productivity is often controlled by soil phosphorus (P) nutrient, but little information is available on P fractions dynamics in such system. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal, management and stand age effects on P fractions, acid phosphatase activity, microbial biomass P, other physical-chemical properties and litter and roots in four systems: 10-year-old rubber mono- (YM) and intercropping (YI) with N-fixing species (NFS), 22-year-old mono- (MM) and intercropping (MI) in Xishuangbanna, Southwestern China...
October 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Gustavo Nicolodelli, Amanda Maria Tadini, Marcelo Saito Nogueira, Sebastião Pratavieira, Stephane Mounier, Jose Luis Clabel Huaman, Cléber Hilário Dos Santos, Célia Regina Montes, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori
Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) is a new tool that can be used to investigate processes of interaction between metal ions and organic matter (OM) in soils, providing a specific analysis of the structure and dynamics of macromolecules. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature reporting the use of this technique applied to whole/non-fractionated soil samples, making it a potential method for use in future studies. This work describes the use of TRFS to evaluate the fluorescence lifetimes of OM of whole soils from the Amazon region...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Reuben N Okparanma, Ikeabiama Azuazu, Josiah M Ayotamuno
This study was conducted to quantify and rank the effectiveness of onsite exsitu remediation by enhanced natural attenuation using soil quality index. The investigation was conducted at three oil spill sites in the Niger Delta (5.317°N, 6.467°E), Nigeria with a predominance of Oxisols. Baseline assessment and a two-step post-remediation monitoring of the sites were conducted. Target contaminants including total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Chenglong Ye, Tongshuo Bai, Yi Yang, Hao Zhang, Hui Guo, Zhen Li, Huixin Li, Shuijin Hu
Oxisol soils are widely distributed in the humid tropical and subtropical regions and are generally characterized with high contents of metal oxides. High metal oxides are believed to facilitate organic carbon (C) accumulation via mineral-organic C interactions but Oxisols often have low organic C. Yet, the causes that constrain organic C accumulation in Oxisol soil are not exactly clear. Here we report results from a microcosm experiment that evaluated how the quantity and size of crop residue fragments affect soil C retention in a typical Oxisol soil in southeast China...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rashidi Othman, Shah Irani Hasni, Zainul Mukrim Baharuddin, Khairusy Syakirin Has-Yun Hashim, Lukman Hakim Mahamod
Slope failure has become a major concern in Malaysia due to the rapid development and urbanisation in the country. It poses severe threats to any highway construction industry, residential areas, natural resources and tourism activities. The extent of damages that resulted from this catastrophe can be lessened if a long-term early warning system to predict landslide prone areas is implemented. Thus, this study aims to characterise the relationship between Oxisols properties and soil colour variables to be manipulated as key indicators to forecast shallow slope failure...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guilherme Deomedesse Minari, David Luciano Rosalen, Mara Cristina Pessôa da Cruz, Wanderley José de Melo, Lucia Maria Carareto Alves, Luciana Maria Saran
Soil contamination may result from the inadequate disposal of substances with polluting potential or prolonged agricultural use. Therefore, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) concentrations were assessed in a Eutroferric Red Oxisol under a no-tillage farming system with mineral fertilizer applications, a conventional tillage system with mineral fertilizer application and a conventional tillage system with sewage sludge application in an area used for agriculture for more than 80 years. We evaluated the spatial distributions of these elements in the experimental area and the effect of the different management practices on the soil retention of these metals...
October 2017: Chemosphere
Ren Bai, Jun-Tao Wang, Ye Deng, Ji-Zheng He, Kai Feng, Li-Mei Zhang
Paddy rice fields occupy broad agricultural area in China and cover diverse soil types. Microbial community in paddy soils is of great interest since many microorganisms are involved in soil functional processes. In the present study, Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing and functional gene array (GeoChip 4.2) techniques were combined to investigate soil microbial communities and functional gene patterns across the three soil types including an Inceptisol (Binhai), an Oxisol (Leizhou), and an Ultisol (Taoyuan) along four profile depths (up to 70 cm in depth) in mesocosm incubation columns...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thiago Massao Inagaki, João Carlos de Moraes Sá, Eduardo Fávero Caires, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves
Field experiments have been used to explain how soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics is affected by lime and gypsum applications, however, how SOC storage occurs is still debatable. We hypothesized that although many studies conclude that Ca-based soil amendments such as lime and gypsum may lead to SOC depletion due to the enhancement of microbial activity, the same does not occur under conservation agriculture conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on soil microbial activity and SOC stocks in a no-till field and in a laboratory incubation study simulating no-till conditions...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Alessandro Alves-Pereira, Nivaldo Peroni, Marcelo Mattos Cavallari, Maristerra R Lemes, Maria Imaculada Zucchi, Charles R Clement
Although manioc is well adapted to nutrient-poor Oxisols of Amazonia, ethnobotanical observations show that bitter manioc is also frequently cultivated in the highly fertile soils of the floodplains and Amazonian dark earths (ADE) along the middle Madeira River. Because different sets of varieties are grown in each soil type, and there are agronomic similarities between ADE and floodplain varieties, it was hypothesized that varieties grown in ADE and floodplain were more closely related to each other than either is to varieties grown in Oxisols...
April 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Jun Jiang, Zhaoxia Dai, Rui Sun, Zhenjie Zhao, Ying Dong, Zhineng Hong, Renkou Xu
Iron oxides are dominant effective adsorbents for arsenate in iron oxide-rich variable charge soils. Oxisol-derived paddy soils undergo intensive ferrolysis, which results in high leaching and transformation of iron oxides. However, little information is available concerning the effect of ferrolysis on arsenate adsorption by paddy soil and parent Oxisol. In the present study, we examined the arsenate affinity of soils using arsenate adsorption/desorption isotherms, zeta potential, adsorption kinetics, pH effect and phosphate competition experiments...
July 2017: Chemosphere
Antonio C A Carmeis Filho, Carlos A C Crusciol, Tiara M Guimarães, Juliano C Calonego, Sacha J Mooney
Tropical regions have been considered the world's primary agricultural frontier; however, some physico-chemical deficiencies, such as low soil organic matter content, poor soil structure, high erodibility, soil acidity, and aluminum toxicity, have affected their productive capacity. Lime and gypsum are commonly used to improve soil chemical fertility, but no information exists about the long-term effects of these products on the physical attributes and C protection mechanisms of highly weathered Oxisols. A field trial was conducted in a sandy clay loam (kaolinitic, thermic Typic Haplorthox) under a no-tillage system for 12 years...
2016: PloS One
Somchai Butnan, Jonathan L Deenik, Banyong Toomsan, Michael J Antal, Patma Vityakon
The ability of biochar applications to alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, CH, and NO) has been attracting research interest. However, inconsistent published results necessitate further exploration of potential influencing factors, including biochar properties, biochar rates, soil textures and mineralogy, and their interactions. Two short-term laboratory incubations were conducted to evaluate the effects of different biochars: a biochar with low ash (2.4%) and high-volatile matter (VM) (35.8%) contents produced under low-temperature (350°C) traditional kiln and a biochar with high ash (3...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
P Fischer, R Pöthig, B Gücker, M Venohr
The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) of agricultural soils is studied worldwide for risk assessment of phosphorus (P) losses. In previous studies, DPS could be reliably estimated from water-soluble P (WSP) for European and Brazilian soils. In the present study, we correlated measured WSP and Mehlich-1 P (M1P) from soils of Minas Gerais (MG) and Pernambuco (PE) (R(2) = 0.94, n = 59) to create a DPS map from monitoring data. The resulting DPS map showed high spatial variability and low values of DPS (54 ± 22%, mean and standard deviation; n = 1,827)...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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