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Antonio C A Carmeis Filho, Carlos A C Crusciol, Tiara M Guimarães, Juliano C Calonego, Sacha J Mooney
Tropical regions have been considered the world's primary agricultural frontier; however, some physico-chemical deficiencies, such as low soil organic matter content, poor soil structure, high erodibility, soil acidity, and aluminum toxicity, have affected their productive capacity. Lime and gypsum are commonly used to improve soil chemical fertility, but no information exists about the long-term effects of these products on the physical attributes and C protection mechanisms of highly weathered Oxisols. A field trial was conducted in a sandy clay loam (kaolinitic, thermic Typic Haplorthox) under a no-tillage system for 12 years...
2016: PloS One
Somchai Butnan, Jonathan L Deenik, Banyong Toomsan, Michael J Antal, Patma Vityakon
The ability of biochar applications to alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, CH, and NO) has been attracting research interest. However, inconsistent published results necessitate further exploration of potential influencing factors, including biochar properties, biochar rates, soil textures and mineralogy, and their interactions. Two short-term laboratory incubations were conducted to evaluate the effects of different biochars: a biochar with low ash (2.4%) and high-volatile matter (VM) (35.8%) contents produced under low-temperature (350°C) traditional kiln and a biochar with high ash (3...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
P Fischer, R Pöthig, B Gücker, M Venohr
The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) of agricultural soils is studied worldwide for risk assessment of phosphorus (P) losses. In previous studies, DPS could be reliably estimated from water-soluble P (WSP) for European and Brazilian soils. In the present study, we correlated measured WSP and Mehlich-1 P (M1P) from soils of Minas Gerais (MG) and Pernambuco (PE) (R(2) = 0.94, n = 59) to create a DPS map from monitoring data. The resulting DPS map showed high spatial variability and low values of DPS (54 ± 22%, mean and standard deviation; n = 1,827)...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jane Kelly Silva Araujo, Valdomiro Severino de Souza Júnior, Flávio Adriano Marques, Paul Voroney, Regilene Angelica da Silva Souza
An understanding of the stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the umbric epipedon of Oxisols located in the tropical forests surrounded by a semi-arid region is limited but essential because of their importance in the global cycle of carbon (C). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of climatic (temperature and rainfall), soil organic matter (SOM) composition and litter on the stability of C in surfaces and subsurfaces in five Humic Oxisols along a 475-km climosequence from 143 to 963ma.s.l. in a tropical environment in northeastern Brazil...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Paulo Roger Lopes Alves, Evandro Barbosa da Silva, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni
High levels of heavy metals in soils may impose serious impacts on terrestrial organisms. In Brazil, the prevention values for evaluating the ecological risk of these elements are based only on soil chemical analyses and/or on data from ecotoxicological assays performed in soils of temperate regions. However, the attributes of the Brazilian highly-weathered tropical soils can influence the availability of heavy metals for soil fauna, resulting in different toxic values. To provide more accurate ecotoxicological risk values for arsenic (As) in tropical soils, we assessed the impacts of sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4·7H2O) on the reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and collembolans (Folsomia candida), as well as on As bioaccumulation and growth (weight loss) of E...
May 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ana Paula Maccari, Dilmar Baretta, Diovani Paiano, Sara Leston, Andreia Freitas, Fernando Ramos, Jose Paulo Sousa, Osmar Klauberg-Filho
The effects of pig manure, from diets incorporating veterinary pharmaceuticals, on survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida were evaluated. Manures derived from the following diets: corn and soymeal (CS); 85% CS diet+15% wheat meal (TR); CS diet+100ppm doxycycline+50ppm colistin+2500ppm Zn oxide (CSa); TR diet+100ppm doxycycline+50ppm colistin+2500ppm Zn oxide (TRa). Manures were tested in two subtropical soils representative of southern (Oxisol and Entisol). Despite the antibiotics no significant differences were found between the four manures within each soil...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Huaiying Yao, Sha Huang, Qiongfen Qiu, Yaying Li, Lianghuan Wu, Wenhai Mi, Feng Dai
Yellow clay paddy soil (Oxisols) is a typical soil with low productivity in southern China. Nitrification inhibitors and slow release fertilizers have been used to improve nitrogen fertilizer utilization and reduce environmental impaction of the paddy soil. However, their effects on ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in paddy soil have rarely been investigated. In the present work, we compared the influences of several slow release fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors on the community structure and activities of the ammonia oxidizers in yellow clay soil...
August 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ru-Hai Wang, Xiao-Fang Zhu, Wei Qian, Min-Hua Zhao, Ren-Kou Xu, Yuan-Chun Yu
Batch experiments were conducted to investigate cadmium(II) (Cd(II)) adsorption by two variable-charge soils (an Oxisol and an Ultisol) as influenced by the presence of pectin. When pectin dosage was less than 30 g kg(-1), the increase in Cd(II) adsorption with the increasing dose of pectin was greater than that when the pectin dosage was >30 g kg(-1). Although both Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms of Cd(II) and electrostatic adsorption data of Cd(II) by the two soils well, the Langmuir equation showed a better fit...
July 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Edison Bidone, Zuleica Castilhos, Ricardo Cesar, Maria Carla Santos, Ricardo Sierpe, Marcos Ferreira
The aim of this study is to evaluate total arsenic (As) concentrations in drinking water (main pathway of human exposure) and its hydrogeochemical controls in the "Morro do Ouro" gold mine region, which is the largest gold mine in Brazil, characterized by gold-arsenopyrite association. Arsenic concentration was generally below the detection limit (LOD < 0.5 μg L(-1)). Thus, water ingestion may not be a significant exposure pathway to local population. Low groundwater As concentrations (<1 μg L(-1)) are likely due to ore body structural setting, which plunges from 10° to >20°, being readily covered by thick phyllites that are poor in As some hundreds of meters away from the mine...
May 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jussara B Regitano, Wadson S D Rocha, Eloana J Bonfleur, Debora Milori, Luís R F Alleoni
We evaluated the effects of soil water content on the retention of diuron and its residual distribution into organomineral aggregates in four Brazilian oxisols. (14)C-Diuron was incubated for days at 25, 50, and 75% of maximum water-holding capacity for each soil. After 42 days, the physical fractionation method was used to obtain >150, 53-150, 20-53, 2-20, and <2 μm aggregate sizes. Diuron retention increased with increasing soil water content for all soils. At lower soil water content, diuron's retention was higher in the sandier soil...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
R F Silva, R Andreazza, C Da Ros, A Dellai, R J S Jacques, D Scheid
Reclamation of copper contaminated sites using forest species may be an efficient alternative to reduce the negative impact. The aim of this study was to quantify the growth and evaluate the quality of seedlings of native species at different doses of copper in the soil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with seven replications in a factorial arrangement (3×9), using three indigenous species of plants (Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa scabrella and Apuleia leiocarpa) and nine doses of copper in the soil (0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420 and 480 mg kg-1)...
November 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Marcos Rodrigues, Paulo Sergio Pavinato, Paul John Anthony Withers, Ana Paula Bettoni Teles, Wilfrand Ferney Bejarano Herrera
Crop production in the Brazilian Cerrado is limited by soil phosphorus (P) supply without large inputs of inorganic P fertilizer, which may become more costly and scarce in the future. Reducing dependency on fertilizer P requires a greater understanding of soil P supply in the highly weathered soils in this important agricultural region. We investigated the impact of no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) agriculture on accumulated (legacy) soil P and P forms in four long-term sites. Compared to the native savanna soils, tilled soils receiving regular annual P fertilizer inputs (30-50 kg P ha(-1)) increased all forms of inorganic and organic P, except highly recalcitrant P associated with the background lithology...
January 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Robson C de Castro, Vinícius de Melo Benites, Paulo César Teixeira, Marcelino José dos Anjos, Luis Fernando de Oliveira
The aim of this study was to evaluate the phosphorus (P) mobility in a tropical Brazilian soil type red Oxisol treated with three different forms of granular fertilizer. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was applied to determine the concentration of P at different distances from granular fertilizer application point. The results showed that most of the P from fertilizers tends to concentrate in a region of up to 10mm around the place of the fertilizer deposition.
November 2015: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Ru-hai Wang, Xiao-fang Zhu, Wei Qian, Yuan-chun Yu, Ren-kou Xu
The influence of pectin on Cu(II) adsorption by two variable-charge soils (an Oxisol and an Ultisol) was investigated. Pectin increased the adsorption, and the extent of adsorption increased linearly with the dose of pectin, being greater in the Oxisol than that in the Ultisol because the adsorption of pectin by the Oxisol was greater. Both Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) for both soils well. The fitting parameters of both equations indicated that pectin increased not only the adsorption capacity of the soils for Cu(II) but also the adsorption strength of Cu(II)...
December 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Julia Corá Segat, Paulo Roger Lopes Alves, Dilmar Baretta, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso
Swine production in Brazil results in a great volume of manure that normally is disposed of as agricultural fertilizer. However, this form of soil disposal, generally on small farms, causes the accumulation of large amounts of manure and this results in contaminated soil and water tables. To evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of swine manure on earthworms, several ecotoxicological tests were performed using Eisenia andrei as test organism in different tropical soils, classified respectively as Ultisol, Oxisol, and Entisol, as well as Tropical Artificial Soil (TAS)...
December 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alexsandro Santana Vieira, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias, Flavio Roces
Queens of leaf-cutting ants found their nests singly, each consisting of a vertical tunnel and a final horizontal chamber. Because of the claustral mode of nest founding, the queen and/or her initial fungus garden are exposed to threats imposed by several soil pathogens, and the antibiotic secretions produced by their metapleural glands are considered a main adaptation to deal with them. Nests of two Atta leaf-cutting ant species, Atta vollenweideri and Atta sexdens rubropilosa, occur in different soil types, alfisols and oxisols...
September 2015: Arthropod Structure & Development
Erico T F Freitas, Luciano A Montoro, Massimo Gasparon, Virginia S T Ciminelli
Iron (hydr)oxides are known to play a major role in arsenic fixation in the environment. The mechanisms for long-term fixation into their crystal structure, however, remain poorly understood, especially arsenic partitioning behavior during transformation from amorphous to crystalline phases under natural conditions. In this study, these mechanisms are investigated in Fe-Al-oxisols exposed over a period of 10 years to a sulfide concentrate in tailings impoundments. The spatial resolution necessary to investigate the markedly heterogeneous nanoscale phases found in the oxisols was achieved by combining three different, high resolution electron microscopy techniques - Nano-Beam Electron Diffraction (NBD), Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM)...
November 2015: Chemosphere
Paulo Roger L Alves, Tiago Natal-da-Luz, José Paulo Sousa, Elke J B N Cardoso
The impact of sugarcane vinasse on soil invertebrates was assessed through ecotoxicological assays. Increasing concentrations of two vinasses from different distillery plants (VA and VB), and a vinasse from a laboratory production (VC), were amended on two natural tropical Oxisols (LV and LVA) and a tropical artificial soil (TAS) to characterize the effects of the vinasses on earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), mites (Hypoaspis aculeifer) and collembolans (Folsomia candida). The highest concentrations of VA and VB were avoided by earthworms in all soils and by collembolans especially in the natural soils...
September 1, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
Daniela Montalvo, Fien Degryse, Mike J McLaughlin
Phosphorus (P) bioavailability depends on its concentration and speciation in solution. Andisols and Oxisols have very low soil solution concentration of free orthophosphate, as they contain high concentrations of strongly P-sorbing minerals (Al/Fe oxyhydroxides, allophanes). Free orthophosphate is the form of P taken up by plants, but it is not the only P species present in the soil solution. Natural colloidal P (P associated with Al, Fe, and organic matter of sizes ranging from 1 to 1000 nm) constitutes an important fraction of soil solution P in these soils; however, its availability has not been considered...
March 17, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Jaromir Dusek, Michal Dohnal, Michal Snehota, Martina Sobotkova, Chittaranjan Ray, Tomas Vogel
The fate of pesticides in tropical soils is still not understood as well as it is for soils in temperate regions. In this study, water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. The numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow, and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport...
April 2015: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
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