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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929406/pharmacopollution-and-household-waste-medicine-hwm-how-reverse-logistics-is-environmentally-important-to-brazil
#1
André Luiz Pereira, Raphael Tobias de Vasconcelos Barros, Sandra Rosa Pereira
Pharmacopollution is a public health and environmental outcome of some active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) dispersed through water and/or soil. Its most important sources are the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals), livestock, aquaculture, and households (patients' excretion and littering). The last source is the focus of this article. Research questions are "What is the Household Waste Medicine (HWM) phenomenon?", "How HWM and pharmacopollution are related?", and "Why is a reverse logistic system necessary for HWM in Brazil?" This article followed the seven steps proposed by Rother (2007) for a systematic review based on the Cochrane Handbook and the National Health Service (NHS) Center for Reviews Dissemination (CDR) Report...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928945/pathogenic-helminths-in-the-past-much-ado-about-nothing
#2
Christian Mulder
Despite a long tradition on the extent to which Romanisation has improved human health, some recent studies suggest that Romanisation in general, and Roman sanitation in particular, may not have made people any healthier, given that in Roman times gastrointestinal parasites were apparently widespread, whilst in the present day such parasites rarely cause diseases. Unfortunately, this novel claim neglects the empirical evidence that worldwide infections in over 1.5 billion people are caused by ubiquitous foodborne nematodes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926811/towards-better-monitoring-of-technology-critical-elements-in-europe-coupling-of-natural-and-anthropogenic-cycles
#3
Philip Nuss, Gian Andrea Blengini
The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere')...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926696/exposure-to-animal-feces-and-human-health-a-systematic-review-and-proposed-research-priorities
#4
Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Miranda J Delahoy, Lydia McAliley, Breanna Wodnik, Karen Levy, Matthew C Freeman
Humans can be exposed to pathogens from poorly managed animal feces, particularly in communities where animals live in proximity to humans. This systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature examines the human health impacts of exposure to poorly managed animal feces transmitted via water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related pathways in low- and middle-income countries where household livestock, small-scale animal operations, and free-roaming animals are common. We identify routes of contamination by animal feces, control measures to reduce human exposure, and propose research priorities for further inquiry...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923753/concentration-and-spatial-distribution-of-organophosphate-esters-in-the-soil-sediment-profile-of-kathmandu-valley-nepal-implication-for-risk-assessment
#5
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Adrian Covaci
Despite the fact that soil and sediments, which act as a sink or potential source of organic pollutants, have been polluted with organophosphate esters (OPEs) around the globe, extremely constrained data is accessible on environmental concentration and fate of OPEs in solid matrices in whole of the South Asia particularly if there should be an occurrence in Nepal. In this study, surface soil (N=19) and sediments samples (N=20) were analyzed for eight different OPE in Kathmandu Valley during October 2014. The concentration of ∑8OPE measured in sediments samples was 12 times higher than soil and ranged 983-7460ng/g dw (median 2210ng/g dw) and 65-27,500ng/g dw (186ng/g dw), respectively...
September 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923606/actinomycetes-benefaction-role-in-soil-and-plant-health
#6
REVIEW
Asma Absar Bhatti, Shamsul Haq, Rouf Ahmad Bhat
Actinomycetes are aerobic, spore forming gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the order actinomycetales characterized with substrate and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant organisms that form thread-like filaments in the soil and are responsible for characteristically "earthy" smell of freshly turned healthy soil. They play major roles in the cycling of organic matter; inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere and decompose complex mixtures of polymer in dead plant, animal and fungal material results in production of many extracellular enzymes which are conductive to crop production...
September 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923475/chemical-and-nano-mineralogical-study-for-determining-potential-uses-of-legal-colombian-gold-mine-sludge-experimental-evidence
#7
Nazly E Sánchez-Peña, José L Narváez-Semanate, Daniela Pabón-Patiño, Javier E Fernández-Mera, Marcos L S Oliveira, Kátia da Boit, Bernardo F Tutikian, Tito J Crissien, Diana C Pinto, Iván D Serrano, Claudia I Ayala, Ana L Duarte, José D Ruiz, Luis F O Silva
The present study is focused on the chemical and nano-mineralogical characterization of sludge from gold mine activities, in order to put forward diverse solution alternatives, where lack of knowledge has been found. The sample was collected from "La Estrella" mine of Suarez, located in Department of Cauca, south-west Colombia. The sludge micro-structure and chemical composition were analyzed using a high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) equipped with a dispersive X-ray detector (EDS). X-ray diffraction technique was employed to identify the mineralogical phases present in the sludge...
August 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923008/an-eleven-year-retrospective-hospital-based-study-of-epidemiological-data-regarding-human-strongyloidiasis-in-northeast-thailand
#8
Thidarat K Prasongdee, Pokkamol Laoraksawong, Wanida Kanarkard, Ratthaphol Kraiklang, Kraisit Sathapornworachai, Sureeporn Naonongwai, Porntip Laummaunwai, Oranuch Sanpool, Pewpan M Intapan, Wanchai Maleewong
BACKGROUND: Human strongyloidiasis is a chronic and persistent gastrointestinal disease caused by infection with soil-transmitted helminths of the genus Strongyloides. The aim of this research was to obtain diagnostic prevalence regarding strongyloidiasis in northeast Thailand through a hospital-based study. METHODS: Patients' demographic data and the results of stool examinations conducted using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique were collected from the parasitology laboratory records at Srinagarind Hospital in Khon Kaen, Thailand...
September 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918574/fecal-sludge-management-in-developing-urban-centers-a-review-on-the-collection-treatment-and-composting
#9
Emmanuel Alepu Odey, Zifu Li, Xiaoqin Zhou, Loissi Kalakodio
The problems posed by fecal sludge (FS) are multidimensional because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in the increase in population, urban settlement, and waste generation. Issues concerning health and waste treatment have continued to create alarming situations. These issues had indeed interfered with the proper steps in managing FS, which contaminates the environment. FS can be used in agriculture as fertilizer because it is an excellent source of nutrients. The recent decline in crop production due to loss of soil organic component, erosion, and nutrient runoff has generated interest in the recycling of FS into soil nutrients through stabilization and composting...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916963/effects-of-different-irrigation-practices-using-treated-wastewater-on-tomato-yields-quality-water-productivity-and-soil-and-fruit-mineral-contents
#10
Azize Dogan Demir, Ustun Sahin
Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915454/assessing-the-potential-contributions-of-additional-retention-processes-to-pfas-retardation-in-the-subsurface
#11
Mark L Brusseau
A comprehensive understanding of the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for potential additional sources of retardation for PFAS transport in source zones. These include partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at air-water interfaces, partitioning to trapped organic liquids (NAPL), and adsorption at NAPL-water interfaces...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914778/screening-for-autochthonous-phytoextractors-in-a-heavy-metal-contaminated-coal-mining-area
#12
Kuangjia Li, Zijian Lun, Lin Zhao, Qilong Zhu, Yansheng Gu, Manzhou Li
In order to protect public health and crops from soil heavy metal (HM) contamination at a coal mining area in Henan, central China, HM pollution investigation and screening of autochthonous HM phytoextractors were conducted. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in surface soils exceeded the corresponding local background values and the China National Standard (CNS). The maximum potential ecological risk (RI) was 627.30, indicating very high ecological risk. The monomial risk of Cd contributed the most to the RI, varying from 85...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913631/comparative-proteomic-analysis-and-characterization-of-benzo-a-pyrene-removal-by-microbacterium-sp-strain-m-csw3-under-denitrifying-conditions
#13
Wei Qin, FuQiang Fan, Yi Zhu, Yingying Wang, Xiang Liu, Aizhong Ding, Junfeng Dou
High-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are persistent organic pollutants with great environmental and human health risks and the associated bioremediation activities have always been hampered by the lack of powerful bacterial species under redox conditions. A Microbacterium sp. strain capable of using benzo(a)pyrene as sole carbon and energy sources under denitrifying conditions was isolated. The difference in protein expression during BaP removal and removal characterization were investigated...
September 14, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905629/nanoparticle-and-ionic-zn-promote-nutrient-loading-of-sorghum-grain-under-low-npk-fertilization
#14
Christian Dimkpa, Jason C White, Wade H Elmer, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
This study evaluated the effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NP) or Zn salt amendment on sorghum yield, macronutrient use efficiency, and grain Zn-enrichment. Amendments were through soil and foliar pathways, under ''low'' and ''high'' NPK. In soil and foliar amendments, grain yield was significantly (p≤0.05) increased by both Zn types, albeit insignificantly with soil-applied Zn at low NPK. Across NPK levels and Zn exposure pathways, both Zn types increased N and P accumulation relative to control plants. Compared to N and K, both Zn types had a mixed effect on P accumulation, depending on NPK level and Zn exposure pathway, and permitted greater soil P retention...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905218/health-risk-assessment-of-an-abandoned-herbicide-factory-site-for-transportation-use-in-dalian-china
#15
Nannan Ji, Shushen Zhang, Yun Zhang, Yu Chen
An abandoned herbicide factory site was used as an example of how planning should be considered for development of the site for transportation use in Dalian, China. Exposure pathways and parameters for three types of transportation use (land for a traffic hub, land for an urban road, and land for a subway) were developed. Twenty-five sampling sites were selected and 38 soil samples were collected in March 2015. Hexachlorobenzene and benzo(a)pyrene which were extracted by Soxhlet extraction and detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were the most significant pollutants detected...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903743/a-socio-ecological-analysis-of-barriers-to-the-adoption-sustainablity-and-consistent-use-of-sanitation-facilities-in-rural-ethiopia
#16
Fikralem Alemu, Abera Kumie, Girmay Medhin, Teshome Gebre, Phoebe Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence showing that access to and use of improved sanitation is associated with healthier households and communities, barriers influencing the adoption and sustainablity of sanitation facilities remain unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study to explore barriers influencing the adoption, sustainablity and consistent use of sanitation facilities in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in the rural district of Becho, in central Ethiopia, from June to August 2016...
September 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899789/the-evolutionary-logic-of-sepsis
#17
Lajos Rózsa, Péter Apari, Mihály Sulyok, Dennis Tappe, Imre Bodó, Richárd Hardi, Viktor Müller
The recently proposed Microbiome Mutiny Hypothesis posits that members of the human microbiome obtain information about the host individuals' health status and, when host survival is compromised, switch to an intensive exploitation strategy to maximize residual transmission. In animals and humans, sepsis is an acute systemic reaction to microbes invading the normally sterile body compartments. When induced by formerly mutualistic or neutral microbes, possibly in response to declining host health, sepsis appears to fit the 'microbiome mutiny' scenario except for its apparent failure to enhance transmission of the causative organisms...
September 9, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899362/nationwide-cross-sectional-survey-of-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-in-sudan-study-protocol
#18
Seungman Cha, Sung-Tae Hong, Young-Ha Lee, Keon Hoon Lee, Dae Seong Cho, Jinmoo Lee, Jong-Yil Chai, Mousab Siddig Elhag, Soheir Gabralla Ahmad Khaled, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa Elnimeiri, Nahid Abdelgadeir Ali Siddig, Hana Abdelrazig, Sarah Awadelkareem, Azza Tag Eldin Elshafie, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed Ismail, Mutamad Amin
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings...
September 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898947/soil-enzyme-dynamics-in-chlorpyrifos-treated-soils-under-the-influence-of-earthworms
#19
Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez, J Notario Del Pino, Yvan Capowiez, Christophe Mazzia, Magali Rault
Earthworms contribute, directly and indirectly, to contaminant biodegradation. However, most of bioremediation studies using these annelids focus on pollutant dissipation, thus disregarding the health status of the organism implied in bioremediation as well as the recovery of indicators of soil quality. A microcosm study was performed using Lumbricus terrestris to determine whether earthworm density (2 or 4individuals/kg wet soil) and the time of exposure (1, 2, 6, 12, and 18wk) could affect chlorpyrifos persistence in soil initially treated with 20mg active ingredientkg(-1) wet soil...
September 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898809/occurrence-of-nitro-and-oxy-pahs-in-agricultural-soils-in-eastern-china-and-excess-lifetime-cancer-risks-from-human-exposure-through-soil-ingestion
#20
Zhe Sun, Ying Zhu, Shaojie Zhuo, Weiping Liu, Eddy Y Zeng, Xilong Wang, Baoshan Xing, Shu Tao
The quality of agricultural soil is vital to human health, however soil contamination is a severe problem in China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been found to be among the major soil contaminants in China. PAH derivatives could be more toxic but their measurements in soils are extremely limited. This study reports levels, spatial distributions and compositions of 11 nitrated (nPAHs) and 4 oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) in agricultural soils covering 26 provinces in eastern China to fill the data gap...
September 9, 2017: Environment International
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