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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431380/recent-aspects-of-uranium-toxicology-in-medical-geology
#1
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Olav Albert Christophersen, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Olle Selinus, Jan Aaseth
Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431356/heavy-metals-pollution-levels-and-children-health-risk-assessment-of-yerevan-kindergartens-soils
#2
Gevorg Tepanosyan, Nairuhi Maghakyan, Lilit Sahakyan, Armen Saghatelyan
Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk...
April 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431316/pbdes-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pose-a-risk-to-captive-giant-pandas
#3
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Aaron M Ellison, Yan Zhao, Qing-Yi Ma
The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429273/assessment-of-the-temporal-and-spatial-distribution-of-atmospheric-pcns-and-their-air-soil-exchange-using-passive-air-samplers-in-shanghai-east-china
#4
Qingqi Die, Zhiqiang Nie, Bo Yue, Xuemei Zhu, Xingbao Gao, Jianyuan Wang, Yufei Yang, Yanyan Fang, Qifei Huang
A total of 47 passive air samples and 25 soil samples were collected to study the temporal trend, distribution, and air-soil exchange of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Shanghai, China. Atmospheric PCNs ranged from 3.44 to 44.1 pg/m(3) (average of 21.9 pg/m(3)) in summer and 13.6 to 153 pg/m(3) (average of 40.0 pg/m(3)) in winter. In the soil samples, PCN concentrations were 54.7-1382 pg/g dry weight (average of 319 pg/g). Tri-CNs and tetra-CNs were two dominant homolog groups in air samples, while di-CNs were also found at comparable proportions to tri-CNs and tetra-CNs in soil samples...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427843/relative-importance-of-different-exposure-routes-of-heavy-metals-for-humans-living-near-a-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator
#5
Tong Li, Yi Wan, Yujie Ben, Senrong Fan, Jianying Hu
The potential health effects of toxic chemicals (e.g. heavy metals) emitted by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are of great concern to local residents, however there have been few studies on the contributions of different exposure pathways and their subsequent effects on the body burden of residents living near MSWIs. In this study, multiple exposure routes of heavy metals including Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn were assessed by investigating the metals in foods (such as vegetables, crops, meats and fruits etc...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426408/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-naegleria-strain-from-a-recreational-water-fountain-in-tenerife-canary-islands-spain
#6
María Reyes-Batlle, Carolina Wagner, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, Basilio Valladares, Jose E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Among the pathogenic genera included in this group Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris have been reported to be causative agents of lethal encephalitis, disseminated infections and keratitis. Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic FLA species which causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). At present there are not many available data on the distribution of Naegleria species in Spain from environmental sources...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424091/investigations-into-the-association-between-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-haemoglobin-and-child-development-indices-in-manufahi-district-timor-leste
#7
Suzy J Campbell, Susana V Nery, Catherine A D'Este, Darren J Gray, James S McCarthy, Rebecca J Traub, Ross M Andrews, Stacey Llewellyn, Andrew J Vallely, Gail M Williams, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste has a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. High proportions of the population have been reported as being anaemic, and extremely high proportions of children as stunted or wasted. There have been no published analyses of the contributions of STH to these morbidity outcomes in Timor-Leste. METHODS: Using baseline cross-sectional data from 24 communities (18 communities enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial, and identically-collected data from six additional communities), analyses of the association between STH infections and community haemoglobin and child development indices were undertaken...
April 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422580/glyphosate-and-paraquat-in-maternal-and-fetal-serums-in-thai-women
#8
Pornpimol Kongtip, Noppanun Nangkongnab, Ratanavadee Phupancharoensuk, Chonlada Palarach, Dusit Sujirarat, Supha Sangprasert, Malasod Sermsuk, Namthip Sawattrakool, Susan Renee Woskie
OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study measured the glyphosate and paraquat concentrations found in maternal and umbilical cord serum in 82 pregnant women who gave birth in three provinces of Thailand. METHODS: Through questionnaires and biological samples collected at childbirth, factors such as personal characteristics, occupation, agricultural activities, and herbicide use in agricultural work were evaluated as predictors of glyphosate and paraquat levels in the pregnant women...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421081/mechanistic-insight-into-salt-tolerance-of-acacia-auriculiformis-the-importance-of-ion-selectivity-osmoprotection-tissue-tolerance-and-na-exclusion
#9
Md M Rahman, Md A Rahman, Md G Miah, Satya R Saha, M A Karim, Mohammad G Mostofa
Salinity, one of the major environmental constraints, threatens soil health and consequently agricultural productivity worldwide. Acacia auriculiformis, being a halophyte, offers diverse benefits against soil salinity; however, the defense mechanisms underlying salt-tolerant capacity in A. auriculiformis are still elusive. In this study, we aimed to elucidate mechanisms regulating the adaptability of the multi-purpose perennial species A. auriculiformis to salt stress. The growth, ion homeostasis, osmoprotection, tissue tolerance and Na(+) exclusion, and anatomical adjustments of A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420084/assessment-of-the-occupational-health-and-food-safety-risks-associated-with-the-traditional-slaughter-and-consumption-of-goats-in-gauteng-south-africa
#10
Daniel N Qekwana, Cheryl M E McCrindle, James W Oguttu, Delia Grace
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the occupational health and food safety risks associated with the traditional slaughter of goats and the consumption of such meat in Tshwane, South Africa. METHODS: A convenience sample of 105 respondents agreed to be interviewed using structured questionnaires. RESULTS: A high proportion (62.64%) of practitioners admitted to not wearing protective clothing during slaughter. Slaughtering was mainly carried out by males (99%) with experience (62...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419900/dimethylarsenate-dma-exposure-influences-germination-rates-arsenic-uptake-and-arsenic-species-formation-in-wheat
#11
Elliott G Duncan, William A Maher, Simon D Foster, Frank Krikowa, Cathryn A O'Sullivan, Margaret M Roper
The contamination of cereals with arsenic (As) is a global health and agronomic concern. This study compared the physiological response, As uptake and As speciation in the grains and above ground tissues of 20 wheat cultivars exposed to 5 mg As kg(-1) soil as either arsenate (As(V)) or dimethylarsenate (DMA) under glasshouse conditions. Germination rates for the majority of cultivars exceeded 80% for the majority of cultivars when exposed to As(V), but fell significantly to 20-40% when exposed to DMA. For a number of cultivars, grain yields were 20-50% lower when plants were exposed to DMA compared to As(V)...
April 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417939/soil-lead-and-children-s-blood-lead-disparities-in-pre-and-post-hurricane-katrina-new-orleans-usa
#12
Howard W Mielke, Christopher R Gonzales, Eric T Powell
This study appraises New Orleans soil lead and children's lead exposure before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina flooded the city. Introduction: Early childhood exposure to lead is associated with lifelong and multiple health, learning, and behavioral disorders. Lead exposure is an important factor hindering the long-term resilience and sustainability of communities. Lead exposure disproportionately affects low socioeconomic status of communities. No safe lead exposure is known and the common intervention is not effective...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412619/denitrification-potential-in-the-subsurface-environment-in-the-manawatu-river-catchment-new-zealand-indications-from-oxidation-reduction-conditions-hydrogeological-factors-and-implications-for-nutrient-management
#13
Aldrin Rivas, Ranvir Singh, David Horne, Jonathan Roygard, Abby Matthews, Michael J Hedley
A sound understanding of the effects of hydrogeological factors on loss, transport and transformation of farm nutrients is essential for predicting their impacts on ecosystem health of receiving waters. We assessed the potential of groundwater to attenuate nitrate through denitrification, and the distribution of this potential across the Tararua Groundwater Management Zone (GWMZ) in the Manawatu River catchment, New Zealand. We combined a number of methods in an unprecedented manner to confirm findings and obtain supporting evidence for the features that determine the subsurface denitrification characteristics...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412486/removal-of-toxic-metals-from-vanadium-contaminated-soils-using-a-washing-method-reagent-selection-and-parameter-optimization
#14
Jianguo Jiang, Meng Yang, Yuchen Gao, Jiaming Wang, Dean Li, Tianran Li
Vanadium (V) contamination in soils is an increasing worldwide concern facing human health and environmental conservation. The fractionation of a metal influences its mobility and biological toxicity. We analyzed the fractionations of V and several other metals using the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure. Among methods for removing metal contamination, soil washing is an effective permanent treatment. We conducted experiments to select the proper reagents and to optimize extraction conditions. Citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, and Na2EDTA all exhibited high removal rates of the extractable state of V...
March 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412010/assessment-of-impact-of-urbanisation-on-background-radiation-exposure-and-human-health-risk-estimation-in-kuala-lumpur-malaysia
#15
M S M Sanusi, A T Ramli, W M S W Hassan, M H Lee, A Izham, M N Said, H Wagiran, A Heryanshah
Kuala Lumpur has been undergoing rapid urbanisation process, mainly in infrastructure development. The opening of new township and residential in former tin mining areas, particularly in the heavy mineral- or tin-bearing alluvial soil in Kuala Lumpur, is a contentious subject in land-use regulation. Construction practices, i.e. reclamation and dredging in these areas are potential to enhance the radioactivity levels of soil and subsequently, increase the existing background gamma radiation levels. This situation is worsened with the utilisation of tin tailings as construction materials apart from unavoidable soil pollutions due to naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction materials, e...
April 12, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411513/contamination-source-identification-and-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-soils-of-vegetable-greenhouses-in-shandong-china
#16
Chao Chai, Qiqi Cheng, Juan Wu, Lusheng Zeng, Qinghua Chen, Xiangwei Zhu, Dong Ma, Wei Ge
The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in soil (n=196) and vegetable (n=30) collected from greenhouses, and also in the soil (n=27) collected from agriculture fields close to the greenhouses in Shandong Province, China. The total PAH concentration (∑16PAH) ranged from 152.2µg/kg to 1317.7µg/kg, within the moderate range in agricultural soils of China. Three-ring PAHs were the dominant species, with Phe (16.3%), Ace (13.1%), and Fl (10.5%) as the major compounds. The concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW ≤3 rings) PAHs were high in the east and north of Shandong, while the concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW ≥4 rings) PAHs were high in the south and west of the study area...
April 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409427/environment-polluting-conventional-chemical-control-compared-to-an-environmentally-friendly-ipm-approach-for-control-of-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l-in-china-a-review
#17
Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Farooq, Wajid Nasim, Waseem Akram, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Waqar Jaleel, Xun Zhu, Haichen Yin, Shuzhong Li, Shah Fahad, Saddam Hussain, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan, Fengliang Jin
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is recognized as a widely distributed destructive insect pest of Brassica worldwide. The management of this pest is a serious issue, and an estimated annual cost of its management has reached approximately US$4 billion. Despite the fact that chemicals are a serious threat to the environment, lots of chemicals are applied for controlling various insect pests especially P. xylostella. An overreliance on chemical control has not only led to the evolution of resistance to insecticides and to a reduction of natural enemies but also has polluted various components of water, air, and soil ecosystem...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407499/alleviation-of-heavy-metal-toxicity-and-phytostimulation-of-brassica-campestris-l-by-endophytic-mucor-sp-mhr-7
#18
Mahwish Zahoor, Muhammad Irshad, Hazir Rahman, Muhammad Qasim, Sahib Gul Afridi, Muhammad Qadir, Anwar Hussain
Heavy metal (HM) pollution is of great concern in countries like Pakistan where a huge proportion of human population is exposed to it. These toxic metals are making their way from water bodies to soil where it not only interferes with plant growth and development but also initiates serious health issues in human consuming the produce of such soils. Bioremediation is one of the most viable and efficient solution for the problem. Purpose of the current study was to isolate endophytic fungi from plants grown on HM contaminated soil and screen them for their ability to tolerate multiple HM including chromium (Cr(6+)), manganese (Mn(2+)), cobalt (Co(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+))...
April 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407275/agriculturally-important-microbial-biofilms-present-status-and-future-prospects
#19
REVIEW
Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, Radha Prasanna, Anil Kumar Saxena
Microbial biofilms are a fascinating subject, due to their significant roles in the environment, industry, and health. Advances in biochemical and molecular techniques have helped in enhancing our understanding of biofilm structure and development. In the past, research on biofilms primarily focussed on health and industrial sectors; however, lately, biofilms in agriculture are gaining attention due to their immense potential in crop production, protection, and improvement. Biofilms play an important role in colonization of surfaces - soil, roots, or shoots of plants and enable proliferation in the desired niche, besides enhancing soil fertility...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407191/genome-wide-association-analysis-of-body-conformation-traits-in-mexican-holstein-cattle-using-a-mix-of-sampled-and-imputed-snp-genotypes
#20
M E González, V M González, M F Montaño, G E Medina, P Mahadevan, C Villa, R Villa
In arid and semi-arid zones, animal health and production are closely correlated with body conformation traits. These selected traits, in turn, allow livestock to adapt unfavorable soil and environmental conditions. The primary objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association analysis for a set of sampled and imputed SNPs with 16 conformation traits in a population of Holstein cows from a desert area of Northwestern Mexico. Imputation from 6K to 50K SNPs was performed as a low-cost optimization strategy...
April 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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