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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317562/normal-oral-flora-and-the-oral-ecosystem
#1
REVIEW
Lakshman Samaranayake, Victor H Matsubara
The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303313/significant-change-in-marine-plankton-structure-and-carbon-production-after-the-addition-of-river-water-in-a-mesocosm-experiment
#2
E Fouilland, A Trottet, C Alves-de-Souza, D Bonnet, T Bouvier, M Bouvy, S Boyer, L Guillou, E Hatey, H Jing, C Leboulanger, E Le Floc'h, H Liu, S Mas, B Mostajir, J Nouguier, D Pecqueur, E Rochelle-Newall, C Roques, C Salles, M-G Tournoud, C Vasseur, F Vidussi
Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303128/a-high-throughput-screening-platform-of-microbial-natural-products-for-the-discovery-of-molecules-with-antibiofilm-properties-against-salmonella
#3
Sonia Paytubi, Mercedes de La Cruz, Jose R Tormo, Jesús Martín, Ignacio González, Victor González-Menendez, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes, Francisca Vicente, Cristina Madrid, Carlos Balsalobre
In this report, we describe a High-Throughput Screening (HTS) to identify compounds that inhibit biofilm formation or cause the disintegration of an already formed biofilm using the Salmonella Enteritidis 3934 strain. Initially, we developed a new methodology for growing Salmonella biofilms suitable for HTS platforms. The biomass associated with biofilm at the solid-liquid interface was quantified by staining both with resazurin and crystal violet, to detect living cells and total biofilm mass, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303015/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-a-planktonic-system-and-chlorophyll-distribution-in-a-2d-spatial-domain-matching-model-and-data
#4
Davide Valenti, Giovanni Denaro, Rosalia Ferreri, Simona Genovese, Salvatore Aronica, Salvatore Mazzola, Angelo Bonanno, Gualtiero Basilone, Bernardo Spagnolo
Field data on chlorophyll distribution are investigated in a two-dimensional spatial domain of the Mediterranean Sea by using for phytoplankton abundances an advection-diffusion-reaction model, which includes real values for physical and biological variables. The study exploits indeed hydrological and nutrients data acquired in situ, and includes intraspecific competition for limiting factors, i.e. light intensity and phosphate concentration. As a result, the model allows to analyze how both the velocity field of marine currents and the two components of turbulent diffusivity affect the spatial distributions of phytoplankton abundances in the Modified Atlantic Water, the upper layer of the water column of the Mediterranean Sea...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302951/generation-of-small-colony-variants-in-biofilms-by-escherichia-coli-harboring-a-conjugative-f-plasmid
#5
Yosuke Tashiro, Hiroaki Eida, Satoshi Ishii, Hiroyuki Futamata, Satoshi Okabe
A conjugative F plasmid induces mature biofilm formation by Escherichia coli by promoting F-pili-mediated cell-cell interactions and increasing the expression of biofilm-related genes. We herein demonstrated another function for the F plasmid in E. coli biofilms; it contributes to the emergence of genetic and phenotypic variations by spontaneous mutations. Small colony variants (SCVs) were more frequently generated in a continuous flow-cell biofilm than in the planktonic state of E. coli harboring the F plasmid...
March 8, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301918/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-a-programmed-bacterial-life-for-fitness
#6
REVIEW
Keehoon Lee, Sang Sun Yoon
Biofilm is a community of microbes that typically inhabits on surfaces and is encased in an extracellular matrix. Biofilms display very dissimilar characteristics to their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are ubiquitous in the environments and influence our life tremendously in both positive and negative ways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium, known to produce robust biofilms. P. aeruginosa biofilms cause severe problems in immunocompromised patients including those with cystic fibrosis or wound infection...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299749/osmotic-stress-in-colony-and-planktonic-cells-of-pseudomonas-putida-mt-2-revealed-significant-differences-in-adaptive-response-mechanisms
#7
Nancy Hachicho, Astrid Birnbaum, Hermann J Heipieper
Planktonic cells and those grown on surfaces (or as colony biofilm) are known to show significant differences regarding growth behavior, cell physiology, gene expression and stress tolerance. In order to compare stress behavior of different growth forms, shake cultures for planktonic growth and agar plate cultivation for colony growth, were carried out with the well investigated model organism, Pseudomonas putida mt-2. Cells were exposed to sodium chloride to cause osmotic stress as one main environmental stressor bacteria have to cope with when growing in soil...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299588/chemical-cues-which-include-amino-acids-mediate-species-specific-feeding-behavior-in-invasive-filter-feeding-bigheaded-carps
#8
Aaron W Claus, Peter W Sorensen
This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299569/biodiversity-effects-on-resource-use-efficiency-and-community-turnover-of-plankton-in-lake-nansihu-china
#9
Wang Tian, Huayong Zhang, Jian Zhang, Lei Zhao, Mingsheng Miao, Hai Huang
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology, especially in aquatic ecosystems due to the ecophysiological characteristics of plankton. Recently, ecologists have obtained conflicting conclusions while analyzing the influence of species diversity on plankton resource use efficiency (RUE) and community turnover. In this study, both phytoplankton and zooplankton communities were investigated seasonally from 2011 to 2013 in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic and recovering lake in China...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297746/screening-of-anti-biofilm-compounds-from-marine-derived-fungi-and-the-effects-of-secalonic-acid-d-on-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm
#10
Jie Wang, Xu-Hua Nong, Xiao-Yong Zhang, Xin-Ya Xu, Muhammad Amin, Shu-Hua Qi
Biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus is one of the mechanisms of its drug resistance. Anti-biofilm screening of 106 compounds from marine-derived fungi displayed that 12 compounds inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation by > 50% at the concentration of 100 μg/ml, and only secalonic acid D (SAD) and B inhibited by > 90% at 6.25 μg/ml without inhibiting cell growth after 24-hour incubation. Meanwhile, it was found that the double bond between C-1 and C-10 of citrinin derivatives and the C-C connection position of two chromone monomers may be important for their anti-biofilm activities...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295286/predicting-coastal-algal-blooms-in-southern-california
#11
John A McGowan, Ethan R Deyle, Hao Ye, Melissa L Carter, Charles T Perretti, Kerri D Seger, Alain de Verneil, George Sugihara
The irregular appearance of planktonic algae blooms off the coast of southern California has been a source of wonder for over a century. Although large algal blooms can have significant negative impacts on ecosystems and human health, a predictive understanding of these events has eluded science, and many have come to regard them as ultimately random phenomena. However, the highly nonlinear nature of ecological dynamics can give the appearance of randomness and stress traditional methods-such as model fitting or analysis of variance-to the point of breaking...
March 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294997/marine-prasinoviruses-and-their-tiny-plankton-hosts-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Karen D Weynberg, Michael J Allen, William H Wilson
Viruses play a crucial role in the marine environment, promoting nutrient recycling and biogeochemical cycling and driving evolutionary processes. Tiny marine phytoplankton called prasinophytes are ubiquitous and significant contributors to global primary production and biomass. A number of viruses (known as prasinoviruses) that infect these important primary producers have been isolated and characterised over the past decade. Here we review the current body of knowledge about prasinoviruses and their interactions with their algal hosts...
March 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291235/metazoan-mitochondrial-gene-sequence-reference-datasets-for-taxonomic-assignment-of-environmental-samples
#13
Ryuji J Machida, Matthieu Leray, Shian-Lei Ho, Nancy Knowlton
Mitochondrial-encoded genes are increasingly targeted in studies using high-throughput sequencing approaches for characterizing metazoan communities from environmental samples (e.g., plankton, meiofauna, filtered water). Yet, unlike nuclear ribosomal RNA markers, there is to date no high-quality reference dataset available for taxonomic assignments. Here, we retrieved all metazoan mitochondrial gene sequences from GenBank, and then quality filtered and formatted the datasets for taxonomic assignments using taxonomic assignment tools...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289557/acoustic-monitoring-indicates-a-correlation-between-calling-and-spawning-in-captive-spotted-seatrout-cynoscion-nebulosus
#14
Eric W Montie, Matt Hoover, Christopher Kehrer, Justin Yost, Karl Brenkert, Tim O'Donnell, Michael R Denson
BACKGROUND: Fish sound production is widespread throughout many families. Territorial displays and courtship are the most common reasons for fish sound production. Yet, there is still some questions on how acoustic signaling and reproduction are correlated in many sound-producing species. In the present study, our aim was to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between calling and egg deposition in captive spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). This type of data is essential if passive acoustics is to be used to identify spawning aggregations over large spatial scales and monitor reproductive activity over annual and decadal timeframes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287302/cutaneous-wound-biofilm-and-the-potential-for-electrical-stimulation-in-management-of-the-microbiome
#15
Mohammed Ashrafi, Mohamed Baguneid, Teresa Alonso-Rasgado, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Ardeshir Bayat
Infection contributes significantly to delayed cutaneous wound healing, which impacts patient care. External application of electrical stimulation (ES) has beneficial effects on wound repair and regeneration. The majority of studies to date have explored ES in relation to planktonic microorganisms, yet evidence indicates that bacteria in chronic wounds reside as antibiotic-resistant polymicrobial biofilms, which contribute to impairing wound healing. Culture-independent sequencing techniques have revolutionized our understanding of the skin microbiome and allowed a more accurate determination of microbial taxa and their relative abundance in wounds allowing a greater understanding of the host-microbial interface...
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286224/phylogeny-classification-and-diversity-of-choreotrichia-and-oligotrichia-ciliophora-spirotrichea
#16
Luciana F Santoferrara, Viviana V Alder, George B McManus
Ciliated protists in the subclasses Choreotrichia and Oligotrichia are major components of marine plankton. Despite their ecological relevance, there are uncertainties in their systematics and diversity. We retrieved and curated all the GenBank ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from these groups, which were analyzed in two ways. The first approach was based on morphologically-identified sequences (including those of two families and six genera newly studied here by single-cell sequencing), and aimed at improving phylogenetic inferences using concatenated sequences of three rDNA loci...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283424/modelling-plankton-ecosystems-in-the-meta-omics-era-are-we-ready
#17
REVIEW
Krzysztof Franciszek Stec, Luigi Caputi, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Domenico D'Alelio, Federico Matias Ibarbalz, Matthew B Sullivan, Samuel Chaffron, Chris Bowler, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà, Daniele Iudicone
Recent progress in applying meta-omics approaches to the study of marine ecosystems potentially allows scientists to study the genetic and functional diversity of plankton at an unprecedented depth and with enhanced precision. However, while a range of persistent technical issues still need to be resolved, a much greater obstacle currently preventing a complete and integrated view of the marine ecosystem is the absence of a clear conceptual framework. Herein, we discuss the knowledge that has thus far been derived from conceptual and statistical modelling of marine plankton ecosystems, and illustrate the potential power of integrated meta-omics approaches in the field...
March 7, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282399/phylogeographic-patterning-among-two-codistributed-shrimp-species-crustacea-decapoda-palaemonidae-reveals-high-levels-of-connectivity-across-biogeographic-regions-along-the-south-african-coast
#18
Louisa E Wood, Sammy De Grave, Savel R Daniels
We compare the genetic structuring and demographic history of two sympatric caridean shrimp species with distinct life history traits, one amphidromous species Palaemon capensis and one marine/estuarine species Palaemon peringueyi, in the historical biogeographical context of South Africa. A total of 103 specimens of P. capensis collected from 12 localities and 217 specimens of P. peringueyi collected from 24 localities were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase one (CO1) locus. Results from analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA), pairwise ΦST comparisons and haplotype networks demonstrate weak to moderate genetic differentiation in P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281645/dna-interference-mediated-screening-of-maternal-factors-in-the-chordate-oikopleura-dioica
#19
Tatsuya Omotezako, Masaki Matsuo, Takeshi A Onuma, Hiroki Nishida
The maternal contribution to the oocyte cytoplasm plays an important role during embryogenesis because it is involved in early cell fate specification and embryonic axis establishment. However, screening projects targeting maternal factors have only been conducted in a limited number of animal models, such as nematodes, fruit flies, and zebrafish, while few maternal genes have been analysed because of difficulties encountered in inhibiting gene products already expressed in the ovaries. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for large-scale maternal screening are necessary...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280487/candida-albicans-mycofilms-support-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-enhances-miconazole-resistance-in-dual-species-interactions
#20
Ryan Kean, Ranjith Rajendran, Jennifer Haggarty, Eleanor M Townsend, Bryn Short, Karl E Burgess, Sue Lang, Owain Millington, William G Mackay, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Polymicrobial inter-kingdom biofilm infections represent a clinical management conundrum. The presence of co-isolation of bacteria and fungi complicates the ability to routinely administer single antimicrobial regimens, and synergy between the microorganisms influences infection severity. We therefore investigated the nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with respect to antimicrobial intervention. We characterized the interaction using biofilm assays and evaluated the effect of miconazole treatment using in vitro and in vivo assays...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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