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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937998/selection-of-dna-aptamers-specific-for-live-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Jennifer Soundy, Darren Day
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particular cystic fibrosis sufferers, burns victims, diabetics and neonates. It thrives in moist places where it forms biofilms that are exceedingly difficult to eradicate on hospital surfaces, in water supplies and implanted biomaterials. Using a live cell SELEX approach we selected DNA aptamers to P. aeruginosa grown as biofilms in microfluidic cells. From a pool of aptamer candidates showing tight binding a stem-loop structure was identified as being important for binding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935906/resilience-of-the-larval-slipper-limpet-crepidula-onyx-to-direct-and-indirect-diet-effects-of-ocean-acidification
#2
Elizaldy A Maboloc, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Ocean acidification (OA) is known to directly impact larval physiology and development of many marine organisms. OA also affects the nutritional quality and palatability of algae, which are principal food sources for many types of planktonic larvae. This potential indirect effect of OA via trophic interactions, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, veligers of Crepidula onyx were exposed to different pH levels representing the ambient (as control) and low pH values (pH 7.7 and pH 7.3) for 14 days, and were fed with Isochrysis galbana cultured at these three respective pHs...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931902/red-light-phenotype-in-a-marine-diatom-involves-a-specialized-oligomeric-red-shifted-antenna-and-altered-cell-morphology
#3
Miroslava Herbstová, David Bína, Radek Kaňa, František Vácha, Radek Litvín
Diatoms greatly contribute to carbon fixation and thus strongly influence the global biogeochemical balance. Capable of chromatic acclimation (CA) to unfavourable light conditions, diatoms often dominate benthic ecosystems in addition to their planktonic lifestyle. Although CA has been studied at the molecular level, our understanding of this phenomenon remains incomplete. Here we provide new data to better explain the acclimation-associated changes under red-enhanced ambient light (RL) in diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, known to express a red-shifted antenna complex (F710)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931063/plant-flavones-enhance-antimicrobial-activity-of-respiratory-epithelial-cell-secretions-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee
Flavones are a class of natural plant secondary metabolites that have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. Some flavones also activate the T2R14 bitter taste receptor, which is expressed in motile cilia of the sinonasal epithelium and activates innate immune nitric oxide (NO) production. Flavones may thus be potential therapeutics for respiratory infections. Our objective was to examine the anti-microbial effects of flavones on the common sinonasal pathogens Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, evaluating both planktonic and biofilm growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930178/diagnostic-value-of-endotracheal-aspirates-sonication-on-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-microbiologic-diagnosis
#5
Laia Fernández-Barat, Ana Motos, Otavio T Ranzani, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Elisabet Aguilera Xiol, Tarek Senussi, Chiara Travierso, Chiara Chiurazzi, Francesco Idone, Laura Muñoz, Jordi Vila, Miquel Ferrer, Paolo Pelosi, Francesco Blasi, Massimo Antonelli, Antoni Torres
Microorganisms are able to form biofilms within respiratory secretions. Methods to disaggregate such biofilms before utilizing standard, rapid, or high throughput diagnostic technologies may aid in pathogen detection during ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) diagnosis. Our aim was to determine if sonication of endotracheal aspirates (ETA) would increase the sensitivity of qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative bacterial cultures in an animal model of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonasaeruginosa or by methicillin resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA)...
September 20, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929959/-in-vitro-effect-of-vancomycin-and-daptomycin-on-biofilm-formation-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-strains
#6
Duygu Nilüfer Öcal, İştar Dolapçı, Zeynep Gençtürk, Alper Tekeli
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are one of the primer agents of blood stream infections (BSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) which are associated mostly with the usage of central venous catheters and, important causes of morbidity and mortality despite the usage of antibacterial and supportive treatment. It is important to determine the properties of these causative microorganisms in order to make appropriate treatment of such infections. The aims of our study were to evaluate the biofilm formation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) which were causative agents of bloodstream (BSI) and catheter related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI), to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of planktonic forms and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of sessile forms for vancomycin and daptomycin and to evaluate the efficacy of these antibiotics in infections with biofilm-forming isolates in vitro...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928205/bola-is-required-for-the-accurate-regulation-of-c-di-gmp-a-central-player-in-biofilm-formation
#7
Ricardo N Moreira, Clémentine Dressaire, Susana Barahona, Lisete Galego, Volkhard Kaever, Urs Jenal, Cecília M Arraiano
The bacterial second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a nearly ubiquitous intracellular signaling molecule involved in the transition from the motile to the sessile/biofilm state in bacteria. C-di-GMP regulates various cellular processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. BolA is a transcription factor that promotes survival in different stresses and is also involved in biofilm formation. Both BolA and c-di-GMP participate in the regulation of motility mechanisms leading to similar phenotypes...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926942/the-semi-synthetic-peptide-lin-sb056-1-in-combination-with-edta-exerts-strong-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-conditions-mimicking-cystic-fibrosis-sputum
#8
Giuseppantonio Maisetta, Lucia Grassi, Semih Esin, Ilaria Serra, Mariano A Scorciapino, Andrea C Rinaldi, Giovanna Batoni
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The ability of the bacterium to form biofilms and the presence of a thick and stagnant mucus in the airways of CF patients largely contribute to antibiotic therapy failure and demand for new antimicrobial agents able to act in the CF environment. The present study investigated the anti-P. aeruginosa activity of lin-SB056-1, a recently described semi-synthetic antimicrobial peptide, used alone and in combination with the cation chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926213/whole-genome-amplification-and-sequencing-of-a-daphnia-resting-egg
#9
Justin B Lack, Lawrence J Weider, Punidan D Jeyasingh
Resting eggs banks are unique windows that allow us to directly observe shifts in population genetics, and phenotypes over time as natural populations evolve. Although a variety of planktonic organisms also produce resting stages, the keystone freshwater consumer, Daphnia, is a well-known model for paleogenetics and resurrection ecology. Nevertheless, paleogenomic investigations are limited largely because resting eggs do not contain enough DNA for genomic sequencing. In fact, genomic studies even on extant populations include a laborious preparatory phase of batch culturing dozens of individuals to generate sufficient genomic DNA...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926207/seasonal-rather-than-spatial-variability-drives-planktonic-and-benthic-bacterial-diversity-in-a-microtidal-lagoon-and-the-adjacent-open-sea
#10
G M Quero, L Perini, G Pesole, C Manzari, C Lionetti, M Bastianini, M Marini, G M Luna
Coastal lagoons are highly productive ecosystems, which are experiencing a variety of human disturbances at increasing frequency. Bacteria are key ecological players within lagoons, yet little is known about the magnitude, patterns and drivers of diversity in these transitional environments. We carried out a seasonal study in the Venice Lagoon (Italy) and the adjacent sea, to simultaneously explore diversity patterns in different domains (pelagic, benthic) and their spatio-temporal variability, and test the role of environmental gradients in structuring assemblages...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923863/synergistic-effects-of-tacrolimus-and-azoles-against-exophiala-dermatitidis
#11
Lujuan Gao, Yi Sun, Chengyan He, Tongxiang Zeng, Ming Li
In vitro interactions of tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, and azoles including itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole against planktonic cells and biofilms of Exophiala dermatitidis were assessed via broth microdilution checkerboard technique. A total of 16 clinical isolates were studied. The results revealed favorable synergistic inhibitory activity between tacrolimus and itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole against planktonic cells of E. dermatitidis However, limited synergism was observed against biofilms of E...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922804/hunting-for-agile-prey-trophic-specialisation-in-leptophryid-amoebae-vampyrellida-rhizaria-revealed-by-two-novel-predators-of-planktonic-algae
#12
Sebastian Hess
Vampyrellid amoebae (Vampyrellida, Rhizaria) are widespread in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems and consume a wide range of eukaryotes, e.g. algae, fungi and micrometazoa. Environmental sequences indicate that only a small fraction of their genetic diversity is phenotypically characterised, emphasising the need to further explore unknown vampyrellids and their interactions with prey organisms. This study tests the prey range specificity of three vampyrellid amoebae with 49 strains of three common groups of freshwater algae (Zygnematophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Volvocales), and documents specific interactions by time-lapse microscopy...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920144/effects-of-caatinga-plant-extracts-in-planktonic-growth-and-biofilm-formation-in-ralstonia-solanacearum
#13
Carolina Barbosa Malafaia, Ana Cláudia Silva Jardelino, Alexandre Gomes Silva, Elineide Barbosa de Souza, Alexandre José Macedo, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia, Márcia Vanusa Silva
This study describes the first antibiofilm and antibacterial screening for plants from Caatinga against Ralstonia solanacearum, a causal agent of bacterial wilt that presents serious difficulties in control. There were prepared 22 aqueous extracts of plants collected in the Vale do Catimbau-PE, Brazil. The potential antibacterial activity was evaluated by absorbance in OD600 and the antibiofilm activity through the crystal violet method, both of them performed in microplate against isolates of R. solanacearum biofilm formers...
September 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919715/in-vitro-inhibitory-activities-of-magnolol-against-candida-spp
#14
Peiru Zhou, Jingya Fu, Hong Hua, Xiaosong Liu
Candida spp. cause various infections involving the skin, mucosa, deep tissues, and even life-threatening candidemia. They are regarded as an important pathogen of nosocomial bloodstream infection, with a high mortality rate. As a result of prolonged exposure to azoles, the therapeutic failure associated with azoles resistance has become a serious challenge in clinical situations. Therefore, novel, alternative antifungals are required urgently. In the present study, the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method and the 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay were used to evaluate the antifungal effects of magnolol against various standard Candida strains in planktonic mode and biofilm formation, respectively...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919336/staphylococcus-aureus-dry-surface-biofilms-are-more-resistant-to-heat-treatment-than-traditional-hydrated-biofilms
#15
A Almatroudi, S Tahir, H Hu, D Chowdhury, I B Gosbell, S O Jensen, G S Whiteley, A K Deva, T Glasbey, K Vickery
BACKGROUND: The importance of biofilms to clinical practice is being increasingly realised. Biofilm tolerance to antibiotics is well described but limited work has been conducted on the efficacy of heat disinfection and sterilization against biofilms. AIM: To test the susceptibility of planktonic, hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm forms of Staphylococcus aureus, to dry heat and wet heat treatments. METHODS: S. aureus was grown as both hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm in the CDC biofilm generator...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919018/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-the-calanoid-copepod-neocalanus-flemingeri-a-new-resource-for-emergence-from-diapause
#16
Vittoria Roncalli, Matthew C Cieslak, Stephanie A Sommer, Russell R Hopcroft, Petra H Lenz
Copepods, small planktonic crustaceans, are key links between primary producers and upper trophic levels, including many economically important fishes. In the subarctic North Pacific, the life cycle of copepods like Neocalanus flemingeri includes an ontogenetic migration to depth followed by a period of diapause (a type of dormancy) characterized by arrested development and low metabolic activity. The end of diapause is marked by the production of the first brood of eggs. Recent temperature anomalies in the North Pacific have raised concerns about potential negative effects on N...
September 14, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915875/plectranthus-amboinicus-essential-oil-and-carvacrol-bioactive-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-of-oxacillin-and-vancomycin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Sara Edwirgens Costa Benício Vasconcelos, Hider Machado Melo, Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante, Francisco Eduardo Aragão Catunda Júnior, Mário Geraldo de Carvalho, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues Menezes, Oscarina Viana de Sousa, Renata Albuquerque Costa
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a worldwide concern and in order to find an alternative to this problem, the occurrence of antimicrobial compounds in Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil was investigated. Thus, this study aims to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food to antibiotics, P. amboinicus essential oil (PAEO) and carvacrol. METHODS: Leaves and stem of P. amboinicus were used for extraction of essential oil (PAEO) by hydrodistillation technique and EO chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer...
September 16, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915336/the-microbiome-associated-with-two-synechococcus-ribotypes-at-different-levels-of-ecological-interaction
#18
Cristiana Callieri, Stefano Amalfitano, Gianluca Corno, Andrea Di Cesare, Roberto Bertoni, Ester Eckert
Planktonic cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Synechococcus are ubiquitously distributed in marine and fresh waters, substantially contributing to total carbon fixation on a global scale. While their ecological relevance is acknowledged, increasing resolution in molecular techniques allows disentangling cyanobacteria's role at the micro-scale, where complex microbial interactions may drive the overall community assembly. The interplay between phylogenetically different Synechococcus clades and their associated bacterial communities can affect their ecological fate and susceptibility to protistan predation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914537/coupling-bioflocculation-of-dehalococcoides-mccartyi-to-high-rate-reductive-dehalogenation-of-chlorinated-ethenes
#19
Anca G Delgado, Devyn Fajardo-Williams, Emily Bondank, Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Continuous bioreactors operated at low hydraulic retention times have rarely been explored for reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes. The inability to consistently develop such bioreactors affects the way growth approaches for Dehalococcoides mccartyi bioaugmentation cultures are envisioned. It also affects interpretation of results from in situ continuous treatment processes. We report bioreactor performance and dehalogenation kinetics of a D. mccartyi-containing consortium in an upflow bioreactor...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913903/acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-hospital-acquired-infection-biofilm-production-and-drug-susceptibility
#20
Paweł Krzyściak, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Monika Pobiega, Dorota Romaniszyn, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
Acinetobacter baumannii cause opportunistic nosocomial infections and is often multidrug resistant. It has ability to form biofilm. The possession of drug resistance mechanism and ability of biofilm formation seems to be the different way to enhancement of viability in stressful environment. In this study, we evaluate relation between these two factors. The biofilm formation was investigated in M63 medium with casein in microtiter plates, and the drug susceptibility was performed by disk diffusion methods. We found that 80-98% strains formed a biofilm...
September 15, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
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