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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429584/dna-metabarcoding-of-unfractionated-water-samples-relates-phyto-zoo-and-bacterioplankton-dynamics-and-reveals-a-single-taxon-bacterial-bloom
#1
Christian Wurzbacher, Katrin Attermeyer, Marie Therese Kettner, Clara Flintrop, Norman Warthmann, Sabine Hilt, Hans-Peter Grossart, Michael T Monaghan
Most studies of aquatic plankton focus on either macroscopic or microbial communities, and on either eukaryotes or prokaryotes. This separation is primarily for methodological reasons, but can overlook potential interactions among groups. We tested whether DNA metabarcoding of unfractionated water samples with universal primers could be used to qualitatively and quantitatively study the temporal dynamics of the total plankton community in a shallow temperate lake. We found significant changes in the relative proportions of normalized sequence reads of eukaryotic and prokaryotic plankton communities over a three-month period in spring...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429538/finding-a-partner-in-the-ocean-molecular-and-evolutionary-bases-of-the-response-to-sexual-cues-in-a-planktonic-diatom
#2
Swaraj Basu, Shrikant Patil, Daniel Mapleson, Monia Teresa Russo, Laura Vitale, Cristina Fevola, Florian Maumus, Raffaella Casotti, Thomas Mock, Mario Caccamo, Marina Montresor, Remo Sanges, Maria Immacolata Ferrante
Microalgae play a major role as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Cell signalling regulates their interactions with the environment and other organisms, yet this process in phytoplankton is poorly defined. Using the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, we investigated the cell response to cues released during sexual reproduction, an event that demands strong regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. We sequenced the genome of P. multistriata and performed phylogenomic and transcriptomic analyses, which allowed the definition of gene gains and losses, horizontal gene transfers, conservation and evolutionary rate of sex-related genes...
April 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428853/coral-reef-mesopredators-switch-prey-shortening-food-chains-in-response-to-habitat-degradation
#3
Tessa N Hempson, Nicholas A J Graham, M Aaron MacNeil, David H Williamson, Geoffrey P Jones, Glenn R Almany
Diet specificity is likely to be the key predictor of a predator's vulnerability to changing habitat and prey conditions. Understanding the degree to which predatory coral reef fishes adjust or maintain prey choice, in response to declines in coral cover and changes in prey availability, is critical for predicting how they may respond to reef habitat degradation. Here, we use stable isotope analyses to characterize the trophic structure of predator-prey interactions on coral reefs of the Keppel Island Group on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425309/laboratory-tests-on-heat-treatment-of-ballast-water-using-engine-waste-heat
#4
Rajoo Balaji, Hing Lee Siang, Omar Yaakob, Kho King Koh, Faizul Amri Bin Adnan, Nasrudin Bin Ismail, Badruzzaman Bin Ahmad, Mohd Arif Bin Ismail, W B Wan Nik
Waste heat recovery from shipboard machineries could be a potential source for heat treatment of ballast water. Similar to a shipboard schematic arrangement, a laboratory-scale engine-heat exchanger set-up harvesting waste heat from jacket water and exhaust gases was erected to test the level of species' mortalities. Mortalities were also assessed under experimental conditions for cultured and natural plankton communities at laboratory level. Effect of pump impellers on species' mortalities were also tested...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423463/temperature-regulation-of-marine-heterotrophic-prokaryotes-increases-latitudinally-as-a-breach-between-bottom-up-and-top-down-controls
#5
Xosé Anxelu G Morán, Josep M Gasol, Massimo C Pernice, Jean-François Mangot, Ramon Massana, Elena Lara, Dolors Vaqué, Carlos M Duarte
Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4000 m depth)...
April 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422057/antifungal-and-anti-biofilm-activities-of-acetone-lichen-extracts-against-candida-albicans
#6
Marion Millot, Marion Girardot, Lucile Dutreix, Lengo Mambu, Christine Imbert
Candida albicans is a commensal coloniser of the human gastrointestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen, especially thanks to its capacity to form biofilms. This lifestyle is frequently involved in infections and increases the yeast resistance to antimicrobials and immune defenses. In this context, 38 lichen acetone extracts have been prepared and evaluated for their activity against C. albicans planktonic and sessile cells. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method...
April 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421166/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-interactions-between-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-spp
#7
REVIEW
An Hotterbeekx, Samir Kumar-Singh, Herman Goossens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar
The significance of polymicrobial infections is increasingly being recognized especially in a biofilm context wherein multiple bacterial species-including both potential pathogens and members of the commensal flora-communicate, cooperate, and compete with each other. Two important bacterial pathogens that have developed a complex network of evasion, counter-inhibition, and subjugation in their battle for space and nutrients are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Their strain- and environment-specific interactions, for instance in the cystic fibrosis lung or in wound infections, show severe competition that is generally linked to worse patient outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418636/defining-molecular-details-of-the-chemistry-of-biofilm-formation-by-raman-microspectroscopy
#8
Paul R Carey, Blake R Gibson, Jordan F Gibson, Michael E Greenberg, Hossein Heidari-Torkabadi, Marianne Pusztai-Carey, Sean T Weaver, Grant R Whitmer
Two protocols that allow for the comparison of Raman spectra of planktonic cells and biofilm formed from these cells in their growth phase have been developed. Planktonic cells are washed and flash-frozen in <1 min to reduce the time for metabolic changes during processing, prior to freeze-drying. Biofilm is formed by standing cells in 50 μL indentations in aluminum foil in an atmosphere of saturated water vapor for 24-48 h. The results for Escherichia coli type K12 cells, which do not readily form biofilm, are compared to those for Staphylococcus epidermidis cells, which prolifically synthesize biofilm...
April 19, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417524/biofilms-of-candida-spp-from-the-ocular-conjunctiva-of-horses-with-reduced-azole-susceptibility-a-complicating-factor-for-the-treatment-of-keratomycosis
#9
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Paula Vago Bittencourt, Débora de Souza Collares Castelo-Branco, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Lucas Pereira Alencar, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Mariana Pinheiro, Evilázio Fernandes Nogueira-Filho, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira-Neto, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the biofilm-forming ability of Candida spp. from the ocular conjunctiva of horses and to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of these biofilms. PROCEDURES: Initially, the biofilm-forming ability of 15 strains was assessed by crystal violet staining, which reveals the fungal biomass adhered to the polystyrene plates, and scanning electron microscopy. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin were initially determined against strains in planktonic form...
April 18, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417144/the-effect-of-reconstruction-works-on-planktonic-bacterial-diversity-of-a-unique-thermal-lake-revealed-by-cultivation-molecular-cloning-and-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Gergely Krett, Attila Szabó, Tamás Felföldi, Károly Márialigeti, Andrea K Borsodi
The aim of this study was to gain detailed information about the diversity of planktonic bacterial communities of a worldwide special peat bedded natural thermal spa lake, and to reveal the effect of a lake wall reconstruction work. To compare the efficiency of different methods used for analyzing bacterial diversity, cultivation, molecular cloning and pyrosequencing were applied simultaneously. Despite the almost unchanged physical-chemical parameters and cell count values of lake water, remarkable differences were observed in the planktonic bacterial community structures during and after the reconstruction by all applied microbiological approaches...
April 17, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414736/catchment-vegetation-and-temperature-mediating-trophic-interactions-and-production-in-plankton-communities
#11
Anders G Finstad, Erlend B Nilsen, Ditte K Hendrichsen, Niels Martin Schmidt
Climatic factors influence the interactions among trophic levels in an ecosystem in multiple ways. However, whereas most studies focus on single factors in isolation, mainly due to interrelation and correlation among drivers complicating interpretation and analyses, there are still only few studies on how multiple ecosystems respond to climate related factors at the same time. Here, we use a hierarchical Bayesian model with a bioenergetic predator-prey framework to study how different climatic factors affect trophic interactions and production in small Arctic lakes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414441/suppression-of-enteric-bacteria-by-bacteriophages-importance-of-phage-polyvalence-in-the-presence-of-soil-bacteria
#12
Pingfeng Yu, Jacques Mathieu, Yu Yang, Pedro J J Alvarez
Bacteriophages are widely recognized for their importance in microbial ecology and bacterial control. However, little is known about how phage polyvalence (i.e., broad host range) affects bacterial suppression and interspecies competition in environments harboring enteric pathogens and soil bacteria. Here we compare the efficacy of polyvalent phage PEf1 versus coliphage T4 in suppressing a model enteric bacterium (E. coli K-12) in mixtures with soil bacteria (Pseudomonas putida F1 and Bacillus subtilis 168)...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414081/photo-activated-elimination-of-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-in-planktonic-culture-comparison-of-photodynamic-therapy-versus-photothermal-therapy-method
#13
Reza Fekrazad, Farzaneh Khoei, Abbas Bahador, Neda Hakimiha
BACKGROUND: Periodontal pathogens are the main factors responsible for periodontal diseases and considering the limitations of conventional mechanical debridement, new treatment approaches are under investigation. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effects of two different systems of photodynamic and photothermal therapy on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans as the main pathogen involved in aggressive Periodontitis. METHODS: Cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were exposed to 662nm laser in presence of Radachlorin(®) photosensitizer (photodynamic group) or 810nm laser in presence of EmunDo(®) photosensitizer (photothermal group), then bacterial suspension of each well in the study groups were diluted and subcultured on the surface of Muller-Hinton agar plates...
April 13, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411217/transfer-potential-of-plasmids-encoding-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-from-poultry
#14
Solveig Sølverød Mo, Marianne Sunde, Hanna Karin Ilag, Solveig Langsrud, Even Heir
Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are widely distributed in Norwegian broiler production, and the majority harbour transferable IncK or IncI1 plasmids with blaCMY-2 Persistent occurrence in broiler farms may occur through survival of ESC-resistant E. coli in the farm environment, or by transfer and maintenance of resistance plasmids within a population of environmental bacteria with high survival abilities. The aim of this study was to determine the transferability of two successful blaCMY-2 carrying plasmids belonging to the incompatibility groups IncK and IncI1, into E...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411060/in%C3%A2-vitro-anti-candida-activity-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-against-fluconazole-resistant-strains-and-their-activity-against-biofilm-forming-isolates
#15
Rose Anny Costa Silva, Cecília Rocha da Silva, João Batista de Andrade Neto, Anderson Ramos da Silva, Rosana Sousa Campos, Letícia Serpa Sampaio, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires do Nascimento, Brenda da Silva Gaspar, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Maria Aparecida Alexandre Josino, Thalles Barbosa Grangeiro, Danielle Macedo Gaspar, David Freitas de Lucena, Manoel Odorico de Moraes, Bruno Coêlho Cavalcanti, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre Júnior
Recent research has shown broad antifungal activity of the classic antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This fact, combined with the increased cross-resistance frequency of the genre Candida regarding the main treatment today, fluconazole, requires the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In that context, this study aimed to assess the antifungal potential of fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine against fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. planktonic cells, as well as to assess the mechanism of action and the viability of biofilms treated with fluoxetine...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410436/ocean-acidification-effects-on-mesozooplankton-community-development-results-from-a-long-term-mesocosm-experiment
#16
María Algueró-Muñiz, Santiago Alvarez-Fernandez, Peter Thor, Lennart T Bach, Mario Esposito, Henriette G Horn, Ursula Ecker, Julia A F Langer, Jan Taucher, Arne M Malzahn, Ulf Riebesell, Maarten Boersma
Ocean acidification may affect zooplankton directly by decreasing in pH, as well as indirectly via trophic pathways, where changes in carbon availability or pH effects on primary producers may cascade up the food web thereby altering ecosystem functioning and community composition. Here, we present results from a mesocosm experiment carried out during 113 days in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak coast of Sweden, studying plankton responses to predicted end-of-century pCO2 levels. We did not observe any pCO2 effect on the diversity of the mesozooplankton community, but a positive pCO2 effect on the total mesozooplankton abundance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410367/nitric-oxide-charged-catheters-as-a-potential-strategy-for-prevention-of-hospital-acquired-infections
#17
David Margel, Mark Mizrahi, Gili Regev-Shoshani, Mary Ko, Maya Moshe, Rachel Ozalvo, Liat Shavit-Grievink, Jack Baniel, Daniel Kedar, Ofer Yossepowitch, David Lifshitz, Andrei Nadu, David Greenberg, Yossef Av-Gay
BACKGROUND: Catheter-Associated Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAI's) are caused by biofilm-forming bacteria. Using a novel approach, we generated anti-infective barrier on catheters by charging them with Nitric Oxide (NO), a naturally-produced gas molecule. NO is slowly released from the catheter upon contact with physiological fluids, and prevents bacterial colonization and biofilm formation onto catheter surfaces. AIMS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to assess the anti-infective properties of NO-charged catheters exposed to low concentration (up to 103 CFU/ml) of microbial cells in-vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408185/microplastic-ingestion-in-fish-larvae-in-the-western-english-channel
#18
Madeleine Steer, Matthew Cole, Richard C Thompson, Penelope K Lindeque
Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405399/strain-identification-and-quorum-sensing-inhibition-characterization-of-marine-derived-rhizobium-sp-nao1
#19
Hong Chang, Jin Zhou, Xiaoshan Zhu, Shenchen Yu, Lu Chen, Hui Jin, Zhonghua Cai
A novel strategy for combating pathogens is through the ongoing development and use of anti-quorum sensing (QS) treatments such as therapeutic bacteria or their anti-QS substances. Relatively little is known about the bacteria that inhabit the open ocean and of their potential anti-pathogenic attributes; thus, in an initiative to identify these types of therapeutic bacteria, planktonic microbes from the North Atlantic Ocean were collected, isolated, cultured and screened for anti-QS activity. Screening analysis identified one such strain, Rhizobium sp...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405383/a-new-apparatus-to-induce-lysis-of-planktonic-microbial-cells-by-shock-compression-cavitation-and-spray
#20
A Schiffer, M N Gardner, R H Lynn, V L Tagarielli
Experiments were conducted on an aqueous growth medium containing cultures of Escherichia coli (E. coli) XL1-Blue, to investigate, in a single experiment, the effect of two types of dynamic mechanical loading on cellular integrity. A bespoke shock tube was used to subject separate portions of a planktonic bacterial culture to two different loading sequences: (i) shock compression followed by cavitation, and (ii) shock compression followed by spray. The apparatus allows the generation of an adjustable loading shock wave of magnitude up to 300 MPa in a sterile laboratory environment...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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