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Sigrid Neumann-Leitão, Pedro A M C Melo, Ralf Schwamborn, Xiomara F G Diaz, Lucas G P Figueiredo, Andrea P Silva, Renata P S Campelo, Mauro de Melo Júnior, Nuno F A C Melo, Alejandro E S F Costa, Moacyr Araújo, Dóris R A Veleda, Rodrigo L Moura, Fabiano Thompson
At the mouth of the Amazon River, a widespread carbonate ecosystem exists below the river plume, generating a hard-bottom reef (∼9500 km2 ) that includes mainly large sponges but also rhodolith beds. The mesozooplankton associated with the pelagic realm over the reef formation was characterized, considering the estuarine plume and oceanic influence. Vertical hauls were carried out using a standard plankton net with 200 μm mesh size during September 2014. An indicator index was applied to express species importance as ecological indicators in community...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Komathy Munusamy, Jamuna Vadivelu, Sun Tee Tay
BACKGROUND: Biofilm is known to contribute to the antifungal resistance of Candida yeasts. Aureobasidin A (AbA), a cyclic depsipeptide targeting fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, has been shown to be effective against several Candida species. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate Candida biofilm growth morphology, its biomass, metabolic activity, and to determine the effects of AbA on the biofilm growth. METHODS: The biofilm forming ability of several clinical isolates of different Candida species from our culture collection was determined using established methods (crystal violet and XTT assays)...
March 12, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Shiyun Chi, Cuizhen Wei, Jinxiu Zheng, Jun Hu, Ming Li, Juxiang Hu
In this study, the Li River and the middle-lower reaches of the Shaying River in the Shaying River basin were selected for an investigation on the effects of floodgates on macroinvertebrate communities; additionally, the relationships among floodgates, macroinvertebrate communities and river longitudinal connectivity were explored. The Li and Shaying rivers had similar ratios of molluscs and scrapers, but their species compositions were significantly different. The water level fluctuations in the Li River were based on natural hydrological characteristics, and these were very different from the fluctuations in the reaches of the Shaying River that were divided by a serious of floodgates...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ian Hewson, Kalia S I Bistolas, Jason B Button, Elliot W Jackson
Decades of research have demonstrated the crucial importance of viruses in freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies have focused on the seasonal dynamics and potential hosts of RNA viruses. We surveyed microbial-sized (i.e. 5-0.2 μm) mixed community plankton transcriptomes for RNA viral genomes and investigated their distribution between microbial and macrobial plankton over a seasonal cycle across three temperate lakes by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). A total of 30 contigs bearing similarity to RNA viral genomes were recovered from a global assembly of 30 plankton RNA libraries...
2018: PloS One
Joshua D Sackett, Desiree C Huerta, Brittany R Kruger, Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Duane P Moser
Devils Hole is the sole natural habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). To establish a backup population, the Ash Meadows Fish Conservation Facility (AMFCF), a full-scale replica of the uppermost 6.7 m of Devils Hole, was constructed by management agencies in the mid-2010s. Despite rigorous efforts to mimic the bathymetric and physical details of the Devils Hole environment, the biogeochemistry and microbiology of the AMFCF refuge tank remain largely unaddressed. We evaluated water physicochemistry and employed Illumina DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries to evaluate planktonic and benthic bacterial and archaeal community composition within their respective physicochemical contexts in Devils Hole and AMFCF on the same day...
2018: PloS One
Leron Khalifa, Daniel Gelman, Mor Shlezinger, Axel Lionel Dessal, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
The deteriorating effectiveness of antibiotics is propelling researchers worldwide towards alternative techniques such as phage therapy: curing infectious diseases using viruses of bacteria called bacteriophages. In a previous paper, we isolated phage EFDG1, highly effective against both planktonic and biofilm cultures of one of the most challenging pathogenic species, the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Thus, it is a promising phage to be used in phage therapy. Further experimentation revealed the emergence of a mutant resistant to EFDG1 phage: EFDG1r ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fabrizio Bernardi Aubry, Francesco Marcello Falcieri, Jacopo Chiggiato, Alfredo Boldrin, Gian Marco Luna, Stefania Finotto, Elisa Camatti, Francesco Acri, Mauro Sclavo, Sandro Carniel, Lucia Bongiorni
Dense waters (DW) formation in shelf areas and their cascading off the shelf break play a major role in ventilating deep waters, thus potentially affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical cycles. However, whether DW flow across shelves may affect the composition and structure of plankton communities down to the seafloor and the particles transport over long distances has not been fully investigated. Following the 2012 north Adriatic Sea cold outbreak, DW masses were intercepted at ca. 460 km south the area of origin and compared to resident ones in term of plankton biomass partitioning (pico to micro size) and phytoplankton species composition...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arwa Abu Khweek, Amal O Amer
Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ) is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen and the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease, which is transmitted to humans via inhalation of contaminated water droplets. The bacterium is able to colonize a variety of man-made water systems such as cooling towers, spas, and dental lines and is widely distributed in multiple niches, including several species of protozoa In addition to survival in planktonic phase, L. pneumophila is able to survive and persist within multi-species biofilms that cover surfaces within water systems...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rüdiger Ortiz-Álvarez, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Lluís Camarero, Emilio O Casamayor, Jordi Catalan
A rich eukaryotic planktonic community exists in high-mountain lakes despite the diluted, oligotrophic and cold, harsh prevailing conditions. Attempts of an overarching appraisal have been traditionally hampered by observational limitations of small, colorless, and soft eukaryotes. We aimed to uncover the regional eukaryotic biodiversity of a mountain lakes district to obtain general conclusions on diversity patterns, dominance, geographic diversification, and food-web players common to oligotrophic worldwide distributed freshwater systems...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paweł Borowiecki, Patrycja Wińska, Maria Bretner, Małgorzata Gizińska, Mirosława Koronkiewicz, Monika Staniszewska
Three out of 16 newly synthesized 1,3-dimethylxanthine derivatives (proxyphylline analogues) exhibited consistencies between antifungal and anticancer properties. Proxyphylline possessing 1-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-2-yl (6) and polybrominated benzimidazole (41) or benzotriazole moiety (42) remained selectively cidal against Candida albicans (lg R ≥ 3 at conc. of 31, 36 and 20 μM, respectively) however not against normal mammalian Vero cell line in vitro (IC50  ≥ 280 μM) and Galleria mellonella in vivo...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
'Ale'alani Dudoit, Matthew Iacchei, Richard R Coleman, Michelle R Gaither, William E Browne, Brian W Bowen, Robert J Toonen
The banded coral shrimp, Stenopus hispidus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea) is a popular marine ornamental species with a circumtropical distribution. The planktonic larval stage lasts ∼120-253 days, indicating considerable dispersal potential, but few studies have investigated genetic connectivity on a global scale in marine invertebrates. To resolve patterns of divergence and phylogeography of S. hispidus , we surveyed 525 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from 198 individuals sampled at 10 locations across ∼27,000 km of the species range...
2018: PeerJ
Ewaldo Leitão, Kemal A Ger, Renata Panosso
Top-down grazer control of cyanobacteria is a controversial topic due to conflicting reports of success and failure as well as a bias toward studies in temperate climates with large generalist grazers like Daphnia . In the tropical lowland lakes of Brazil, calanoid copepods of the Notodiaptomus complex dominate zooplankton and co-exist in high abundance with permanent blooms of toxic cyanobacteria, raising questions for grazer effects on bloom dynamics (i.e., top-down control vs. facilitation of cyanobacterial dominance)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Valentina Filimonova, Marleen De Troch, Fernando Gonçalves, João C Marques, Sérgio M Marques, Ana M M Gonçalves, Frederik De Laender
Pesticides and metals are often used in agriculture and are therefore often simultaneously discharged to nearby estuarine and marine areas. The effects of this organic-inorganic chemical mixture on food quality of aquatic organisms are currently unknown. In this study we test if a mixture of copper (inorganic) and the herbicide Primextra® Gold TZ (organic) affects the quality of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the copepod Acartia tonsa - two key species that fuel the local food-web. We quantified quality (i...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ewelina Wieczorek, Dariusz T Mlynarczyk, Malgorzata Kucinska, Jolanta Dlugaszewska, Jaroslaw Piskorz, Lukasz Popenda, Wojciech Szczolko, Stefan Jurga, Marek Murias, Jadwiga Mielcarek, Tomasz Goslinski
5,7-Diaryl-substituted symmetrical diazepinoporphyrazine and tribenzodiazepinoporphyrazine were synthesized and characterized using UV-Vis, MS MALDI, and various NMR techniques. The expected photosensitizing potentials of these porphyrazines were evaluated by measuring their abilities to generate singlet oxygen in organic solvents and by comparing them with that of the recently obtained dendrimeric G1-type diazepinoporhyrazine. Absorbance and fluorescence measurements were performed to study the aggregation properties of the novel macrocycles...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Abimbola Allison, Edward Daniels, Shahid Chowdhury, Aliyar Fouladkhah
With recent improvements in the commercial feasibility of high pressure pasteurization units, the technology is gaining rapid acceptability across various sectors of food manufacturing, thus requiring extensive validation studies for effective adoption. Various times (1 min to 10 min) and intensity levels (0 MPa to 380 MPa) of elevated hydrostatic pressure were investigated for decontamination of mesophilic background microflora and inoculated Salmonella in orange juice. Results were analyzed by GLM procedure of SAS using Tukey- and Dunnett-adjusted ANOVA, additionally the Kmax and D-values were calculated using best-fitted (maximum R²) model obtained by GInaFit software...
March 9, 2018: Microorganisms
Emma K Wear, Elizabeth G Wilbanks, Craig E Nelson, Craig A Carlson
Primers targeting the 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA marker gene, used to characterize bacterial and archaeal communities, have recently been re-evaluated for marine planktonic habitats. To investigate whether primer selection affects the ecological interpretation of bacterioplankton populations and community dynamics, amplicon sequencing with four primer sets targeting several hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene was conducted on both mock communities constructed from cloned 16S rRNA genes and a time-series of DNA samples from the temperate coastal Santa Barbara Channel...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Amanda L Dawson, So Kawaguchi, Catherine K King, Kathy A Townsend, Robert King, Wilhelmina M Huston, Susan M Bengtson Nash
Microplastics (plastics <5 mm diameter) are at the forefront of current environmental pollution research, however, little is known about the degradation of microplastics through ingestion. Here, by exposing Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) to microplastics under acute static renewal conditions, we present evidence of physical size alteration of microplastics ingested by a planktonic crustacean. Ingested microplastics (31.5 µm) are fragmented into pieces less than 1 µm in diameter. Previous feeding studies have shown spherical microplastics either; pass unaffected through an organism and are excreted, or are sufficiently small for translocation to occur...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Silvia Serranti, Roberta Palmieri, Giuseppe Bonifazi, Andrés Cózar
An innovative approach, based on HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI), was developed in order to set up an efficient method to analyze marine microplastic litter. HSI was applied to samples collected by surface-trawling plankton nets from several parts of the world (i.e. Arctic, Mediterranean, South Atlantic and North Pacific). Reliable information on abundance, size, shape and polymer type for the whole ensemble of plastic particles in each sample was retrieved from single hyperspectral images. The simultaneous characterization of the polymeric composition of the plastic debris represents an important analytical advantage considering that this information, and even the validation of the plastic nature of the small debris, is a common flaw in the analysis of marine microplastic pollution...
March 5, 2018: Waste Management
Meng Wang, Yinguang Chen
Wastewater reuse for resolving water shortage is increasingly emphasized. The presence of DOM in wastewater is a main consideration for wastewater reuse. Therefore, systematic understanding of characteristic changes of DOM in different wastewater treatment processes is needed. As biotechnology together with disinfection operation has been used widely by WWTPs to treat wastewater, this review aims to introduce the recent advances in the effects of wastewater biological treatment and disinfection on the characteristics of DOM...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Edmilson Emanuel Monteiro Correia, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro, Lúcio Jackson Queiroz Chaves, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira Neto, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
BACKGROUND: As shown by recent researches, most of the clinically relevant fungi, including dermatophytes, form biofilms in vitro and in vivo, which may present antimicrobial tolerance favoring recurrent infections. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VCZ) and griseofulvin (GRI) against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum, in planktonic and biofilm growth...
March 8, 2018: Mycoses
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