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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166653/testing-the-applicability-of-a-benthic-foraminiferal-based-transfer-function-for-the-reconstruction-of-paleowater-depth-changes-in-rhodes-greece-during-the-early-pleistocene
#1
Yvonne Milker, Manuel F G Weinkauf, Jürgen Titschack, Andre Freiwald, Stefan Krüger, Frans J Jorissen, Gerhard Schmiedl
We present paleo-water depth reconstructions for the Pefka E section deposited on the island of Rhodes (Greece) during the early Pleistocene. For these reconstructions, a transfer function (TF) using modern benthic foraminifera surface samples from the Adriatic and Western Mediterranean Seas has been developed. The TF model gives an overall predictive accuracy of ~50 m over a water depth range of ~1200 m. Two separate TF models for shallower and deeper water depth ranges indicate a good predictive accuracy of 9 m for shallower water depths (0-200 m) but far less accuracy of 130 m for deeper water depths (200-1200 m) due to uneven sampling along the water depth gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166621/lifestyle-transitions-and-adaptive-pathogenesis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
REVIEW
Martina Valentini, Diego Gonzalez, Despoina Ai Mavridou, Alain Filloux
Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute and chronic infections are of great concern to human health, especially in hospital settings. It is currently assumed that P. aeruginosa has two antagonistic pathogenic strategies that parallel two different lifestyles; free-living cells are predominantly cytotoxic and induce an acute inflammatory reaction, while biofilm-forming communities cause refractory chronic infections. Recent findings suggest that the planktonic-to-sessile transition is a complex, reversible and overall dynamic differentiation process...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165338/action-of-monomeric-gemini-surfactants-on-free-cells-and-biofilm-of-asaia-lannensis
#3
Anna Koziróg, Dorota Kręgiel, Bogumił Brycki
We investigated the biological activity of surfactants based on quaternary ammonium compounds: gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide) (C6), synthesized by the reaction of N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylamine with 1,6-dibromohexane, and its monomeric analogue dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). The experiments were performed with bacteria Asaia lannensis, a common spoilage in the beverage industry. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using the tube standard two-fold dilution method...
November 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163441/antifungal-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-essential-oil-active-components-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-laurentii
#4
Poonam Kumari, Rutusmita Mishra, Neha Arora, Apurva Chatrath, Rashmi Gangwar, Partha Roy, Ramasare Prasad
Cryptococcosis is an emerging and recalcitrant systemic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. This invasive fungal infection is difficult to treat due to the ability of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus laurentii to form biofilms resistant to standard antifungal treatment. The toxicity concern of these drugs has stimulated the search for natural therapeutic alternatives. Essential oil and their active components (EO-ACs) have shown to possess the variety of biological and pharmacological properties...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163396/synergistic-antifungal-effect-of-fluconazole-combined-with-licofelone-against-resistant-candida-albicans
#5
Xinning Liu, Tao Li, Decai Wang, Yilei Yang, Wenwen Sun, Jianqiao Liu, Shujuan Sun
Candida albicans (C. albicans) is one of the important opportunistic fungal pathogens that is closely associated with disseminated or chronic infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the synergistic antifungal effect of licofelone, which is dual microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase/lipoxygenase (mPGES-1/LOX) inhibitor in combination with fluconazole against C. albicans. Here our results showed that licofelone (16 μg/mL) can synergistically work with fluconazole (1 μg/mL) against planktonic cells of fluconazole-resistant C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162713/capsular-polysaccharide-interferes-with-biofilm-formation-by-pasteurella-multocida-serogroup-a
#6
Briana Petruzzi, Robert E Briggs, W Edward Swords, Cristina De Castro, Antonio Molinaro, Thomas J Inzana
Pasteurella multocida is an important multihost animal and zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing respiratory and multisystemic diseases, bacteremia, and bite wound infections. The glycosaminoglycan capsule of P. multocida is an essential virulence factor that protects the bacterium from host defenses. However, chronic infections (such as swine atrophic rhinitis and the carrier state in birds and other animals) may be associated with biofilm formation, which has not been characterized in P. multocida Biofilm formation by clinical isolates was inversely related to capsule production and was confirmed with capsule-deficient mutants of highly encapsulated strains...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162075/the-antibiofilm-efficacy-of-nitric-oxide-on-soft-contact-lenses
#7
Dong Ju Kim, Joo-Hee Park, Marth Kim, Choul Yong Park
BACKGROUND: To investigate the antibiofilm efficacy of nitric oxide (NO) on soft contact lenses. METHODS: Nitrite (NO precursor) release from various concentrations (0-1000 μM) of sodium nitrite (NaNO2, NO donor) was measured by Griess Assay. Cell viability assay was performed using human corneal epithelial cell under various concentration (0-1000 μM) of NaNO2. Biofilm formation on soft contact lenses was achieved by adding Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the culture media...
November 21, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161512/trophodynamics-of-organic-pollutants-in-pelagic-and-benthic-food-webs-of-lake-dianchi-importance-of-ingested-sediment-as-uptake-route
#8
Senrong Fan, Beili Wang, Hang Liu, Shixiong Gao, Tong Li, Shuran Wang, Yong Liu, Xueqin Liu, Yi Wan
Habitat is of great importance in determining the trophic transfer of pollutants in freshwater ecosystems; however, the major factors influencing chemical trophodynamics in pelagic and benthic food webs remain unclear. This study investigated the levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and substituted PAHs (s-PAHs) in two plankton species, six invertebrate species, and ten fish species collected from Lake Dianchi in southern China. Relatively high concentrations of PAHs and s-PAHs were detected with total concentrations of 11...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161037/biodegradation-of-carbon-nanotube-polymer-nanocomposites-using-a-monoculture
#9
David G Goodwin, Iruhany Boyer, Thomas Devahif, Cong Gao, Benjamin Frank, Xier Lu, Leo Kuwama, Tucker B Gordon, JingJing Wang, James F Ranville, Edward J Bouwer, D Howard Fairbrother
The biodegradation rates of carbon nanotube (CNT)/ polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) containing poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) were investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a microorganism commonly found in the environment. CNT/PCL nanocomposite mass loss profiles revealed that the rate of PCL matrix biodegradation decreased systematically as the CNT loading increased from 0.1 to 10% w/w. Addition of even a low CNT loading (< 1% w/w) caused the CNT/PCL biodegradation rate constant to decrease by more than 50%...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160864/clonal-expansion-behind-a-marine-diatom-bloom
#10
Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Domenico D'Alelio, Maria Immacolata Ferrante, Mariano Santoro, Laura Vitale, Gabriele Procaccini, Marina Montresor
Genetic diversity is what selection acts on, thus shaping the adaptive potential of populations. We studied micro-evolutionary patterns of the key planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata at a long-term sampling site over 2 consecutive years by genotyping isolates with 22 microsatellite markers. We show that both sex and vegetative growth interplay in shaping intraspecific diversity. We document a brief but massive demographic and clonal expansion driven by strains of the same mating type. The analysis of an extended data set (6 years) indicates that the genetic fingerprint of P...
November 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159846/horizontal-and-vertical-distribution-of-sea-lice-larvae-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-in-and-around-salmon-farms-in-the-bay-of-fundy-canada
#11
E J Nelson, S M C Robinson, N Feindel, A Sterling, A Byrne, K Pee Ang
The sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is parasitic to salmonid species in the Northern Hemisphere and has become a widespread biological and economic problem for the salmon farming industry. A better understanding is needed of their spatial distribution and early life history to disrupt the life cycle of the sea louse. In this study, sea lice larval densities within salmon farms, between salmon farms and reference sites, and at various depths were quantified using both plankton pumps and plankton nets. Farm sites exhibited significantly higher densities than reference sites; however, these densities dropped an order of magnitude at a distance of 100 m from the cages...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158944/comparative-metagenomic-analysis-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-differentially-inoculated-swine-wastewater-fed-microbial-fuel-cells
#12
Irina V Khilyas, Anatoly A Sorokin, Larisa Kiseleva, David J W Simpson, V Fedorovich, Margarita R Sharipova, Mami Kainuma, Michael F Cohen, Igor Goryanin
Bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising new technologies for efficient removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters, including that generated from swine farming. We inoculated two pairs of laboratory-scale MFCs with sludge granules from a beer wastewater-treating anaerobic digester (IGBS) or from sludge taken from the bottom of a tank receiving swine wastewater (SS). The SS-inoculated MFC outperformed the IGBS-inoculated MFC with regard to COD and VFA removal and electricity production...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158560/field-sampling-marine-plankton-for-biodiscovery
#13
Richard Andre Ingebrigtsen, Espen Hansen, Jeanette Hammer Andersen, Hans Christian Eilertsen
Microalgae and plankton can be a rich source of bioactivity. However, induction of secondary metabolite production in lab conditions can be difficult. One simple way of bypassing this issue is to collect biomass in the field and screen for bioactivity. Therefore, bulk net samples from three areas along the coast of northern Norway and Spitsbergen were collected, extracted and fractionated. Biomass samples from a strain of a mass-cultivated diatom Porosira glacialis were used as a reference for comparison to field samples...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158517/disentangling-physical-and-biological-drivers-of-phytoplankton-dynamics-in-a-coastal-system
#14
Daniela Cianelli, Domenico D'Alelio, Marco Uttieri, Diana Sarno, Adriana Zingone, Enrico Zambianchi, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà
This proof-of-concept study integrates the surface currents measured by high-frequency coastal radars with plankton time-series data collected at a fixed sampling point from the Mediterranean Sea (MareChiara Long Term Ecological Research site in the Gulf of Naples) to characterize the spatial origin of phytoplankton assemblages and to scrutinize the processes ruling their dynamics. The phytoplankton community generally originated from the coastal waters whereby species succession was mainly regulated by biological factors (life-cycle processes, species-specific physiological performances and inter-specific interactions)...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155966/crustacean-larvae-vision-in-the-plankton
#15
Thomas W Cronin, Michael J Bok, Chan Lin
We review the visual systems of crustacean larvae, concentrating on the compound eyes of decapod and stomatopod larvae as well as the functional and behavioral aspects of their vision. Larval compound eyes of these macrurans are all built on fundamentally the same optical plan, the transparent apposition eye, which is eminently suitable for modification into the abundantly diverse optical systems of the adults. Many of these eyes contain a layer of reflective structures overlying the retina that produces a counterilluminating eyeshine, so they are unique in being camouflaged both by their transparency and by their reflection of light spectrally similar to background light to conceal the opaque retina...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153733/antibacterial-activity-of-endodontic-sealers-against-planktonic-bacteria-and-bacteria-in-biofilms
#16
Vasileios Kapralos, Andreas Koutroulis, Dag Ørstavik, Pia Titterud Sunde, Håkon Valen Rukke
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of 4 endodontic sealers against bacteria planktonic grown or in biofilms commonly detected from persistent and secondary endodontic infections. METHODS: The antibacterial activity of the sealers AH Plus, TotalFill BC sealer, RoekoSeal, and Guttaflow 2 was investigated for planktonic grown and 24-hour-old biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152915/standing-out-from-the-crowd-spotting-your-targets-in-a-mixed-plankton-sample
#17
Alice E Harada, Ronald S Burton
The diversity of marine organisms is staggering, and this fact is readily appreciated by microscopic examination of the contents of a plankton net after a short tow across the ocean surface. Although this diversity is beautiful, it can present a significant problem for those seeking to extract information about a single species of interest. Enumeration of the eggs and larvae of a specific target species can provide a quantitative window into reproductive dynamics that are of great use for fisheries stock assessment and management...
November 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150637/ml-proteins-from-mesorhizobium-loti-and-mucr-from-brucella-abortus-an-at-rich-core-dna-target-site-and-oligomerization-ability
#18
Ilaria Baglivo, Luciano Pirone, Emilia Maria Pedone, Joshua Edison Pitzer, Lidia Muscariello, Maria Michela Marino, Gaetano Malgieri, Andrea Freschi, Angela Chambery, Roy-Martin Roop Ii, Paolo Vincenzo Pedone
Mesorhizobium loti contains ten genes coding for proteins sharing high amino acid sequence identity with members of the Ros/MucR transcription factor family. Five of these Ros/MucR family members from Mesorhizobium loti (Ml proteins) have been recently structurally and functionally characterized demonstrating that Ml proteins are DNA-binding proteins. However, the DNA-binding studies were performed using the Ros DNA-binding site with the Ml proteins. Currently, there is no evidence as to when the Ml proteins are expressed during the Mesorhizobium lo ti life cycle as well as no information concerning their natural DNA-binding site...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149214/new-insights-on-the-species-specific-allelopathic-interactions-between-macrophytes-and-marine-hab-dinoflagellates
#19
Hela Ben Gharbia, Ons Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Philippe Cecchi, Estelle Masseret, Zouher Amzil, Fabienne Herve, Georges Rovillon, Habiba Nouri, Charaf M'Rabet, Douglas Couet, Habiba Zmerli Triki, Mohamed Laabir
Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa) and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis). The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147807/distinct-diversity-patterns-of-planctomycetes-associated-with-the-freshwater-macrophyte-nuphar-lutea-l-smith
#20
Anastasia A Ivanova, Dmitriy A Philippov, Irina S Kulichevskaya, Svetlana N Dedysh
Members of the phylum Planctomycetes were originally described as freshwater bacteria. Most recent studies, however, address planctomycete diversity in other environments colonized by these microorganisms, including marine and terrestrial ecosystems. This study was initiated in order to revisit the specific patterns of planctomycete diversity in freshwater habitats using cultivation-independent approaches. The specific focus was made on planctomycetes associated with Nuphar lutea (L.) Smith, an emergent macrophyte with floating leaves, which is widespread in the Holarctic...
November 17, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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