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Marian L Miller, Aleksey Porollo, Susan Wert
Alveolar type II cells from seven mammalian species were examined for a protein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), which showed a multi-layered, repeating motif. Each motif, 100nm in width, comprised two parallel outer dense layers, a less dense central layer, and often 1-3 faint layers on either side of the latter. Outer layers showed periodicities at 3-4 densities/100nm of width, while layers on either side of the central layer showed 5-7 densities/100nm of width. RER membranes were ribosome-free when parallel to these layers, but showed 4 ribosomes per motif at the growing ends: one ribosome at each outer dense layer, and one on either side of the less dense central layer...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Joyce Jones, Xiangjie Sun, Yunho Jang, Sharmi Thor, Jessica A Belser, Natosha Zanders, Hannah M Creager, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Thomas J Stark, Rebecca Garten, Li-Mei Chen, John Barnes, Terrence M Tumpey, David E Wentworth, Taronna R Maines, C Todd Davis
Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Alberto J Leon, Viktoriya Borisevich, Nahal Boroumand, Robert Seymour, Rebecca Nusbaum, Olivier Escaffre, Luoling Xu, David J Kelvin, Barry Rockx
Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the presence of abundant viral shedding, animal-to-animal transmission did not occur...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hyeok-Il Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Kwang Min Yu, Min-Ah Yu, Ju Hwan Jung, Won-Suk Choi, Jin Jung Kwon, Su Jeong Ahn, Yun Hee Baek, Dam Van Lai, Ok-Jun Lee, Si-Wook Kim, Min-Suk Song, Sun-Woo Yoon, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, In-Pil Mo, Young Ki Choi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6) and A(H5N8) virus infections resulted in the culling of more than 37 million poultry in the Republic of Korea during the 2016/17 winter season. Here we characterize two representative viruses, A/Environment/Korea/W541/2016 [Em/W541(H5N6)] and A/Common Teal/Korea/W555/2017 [CT/W555(H5N8)], and evaluate their zoonotic potential in various animal models. Both Em/W541(H5N6) and CT /W555(H5N8) are novel reassortants derived from various gene pools of wild bird viruses present in migratory waterfowl arising from eastern China...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jozko Racnik, Tanja Svara, Marko Zadravec, Mitja Gombac, Maja Cemazar, Gregor Sersa, Natasa Tozon
Background: Mast cell tumour, sebaceous gland adenoma, and less common squamous papilloma are skin tumours in ferrets ( Mustela putorius furo ), and early excisional surgery is usually the treatment of choice. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy (ECT), a new, minimally invasive non-surgical method, as first treatment option of different types of ferret skin tumours located on surgically difficult sites. Materials and methods: A 5-year-old castrated male ferret with two cutaneous masses, presenting 4 months apart and a 7-year-old spayed female ferret with two cutaneous masses, that appeared simultaneously on two locations are presented...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
In-Won Lee, Young-Il Kim, Gyo-Jin Lim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Jae Si, Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Se Mi Kim, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Min-Suk Song, Young-Ki Choi
Recent canine influenza outbreaks have raised concerns about the generation of pathogenic variants that may pose a threat to public health. Here, we examine avian-like H3N2 canine influenza viruses (CIVs) isolated from 2009 to 2013 in South Korea from dogs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses are closely related to strains previously isolated from dogs in Korea and China. However, molecular characterization demonstrated non-synonymous mutations between the canine viruses, particularly in the putative H3 antigenic sites, NA stalk regions, and in the internal genes of the 2012-2013 isolates compared with the 2009 isolate...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Houshun Zhu, Andrew C Y Lee, Can Li, Winger W N Mak, Yetta Y Chen, Kwok-Hung Chan, Anna J X Zhang, Wai-Fong Fung, Rui-Qi Zhang, Yim-Fong Fung, Rosana W S Poon, Joy-Yan Lam, Sidney Tam, Ivan F N Hung, Honglin Chen, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Kelvin K W To
The 2017 Hong Kong influenza A(H3N2) summer season was unexpectedly severe. However, antigenic characterization of the 2017 circulating A(H3N2) viruses using ferret antisera did not show significant antigenic drift. We analyzed the hemagglutinin amino acid sequences of A(H3N2) virus circulating in Hong Kong in 2017, and found that viruses with hemagglutinin N121K substitution, which was rare before 2017, emerged rapidly and dominated in 2017 (52.4% of A[H3N2] virus in 2017 contains N121K substitution). Microneutralization assay using archived human sera collected from mid-2017 showed that the geometric mean microneutralization titer was 3...
March 6, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Vinayakumar Siragam, Gary Wong, Xiang-Guo Qiu
The family Filoviridae , which includes the genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus , contains some of the most pathogenic viruses in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), causing severe hemorrhagic fevers with high fatality rates. Small animal models against filoviruses using mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, and ferrets have been developed with the goal of screening candidate vaccines and antivirals, before testing in the gold standard NHP models. In this review, we summarize the different animal models used to understand filovirus pathogenesis, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model with respect to filovirus disease research...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Rita Czakó, Leatrice Vogel, Troy Sutton, Yumiko Matsuoka, Florian Krammer, Zhongying Chen, Hong Jin, Kanta Subbarao
The continued detection of zoonotic influenza infections, most notably due to the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 subtypes, underscores the need for pandemic preparedness. Decades of experience with live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) for the control of seasonal influenza support the safety and effectiveness of this vaccine platform. All LAIV candidates are derived from one of two licensed master donor viruses (MDVs), cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 or ca A/Leningrad/134/17/57. A number of LAIV candidates targeting avian H5 influenza viruses derived with each MDV have been evaluated in humans, but have differed in their infectivity and immunogenicity...
March 1, 2018: Vaccine
Bo Wang, Wen Li, Ji-Hua Zhou, Bei Li, Wei Zhang, Wei-Hong Yang, Hong Pan, Li-Xia Wang, C Thomas Bock, Zheng-Li Shi, Yun-Zhi Zhang, Xing-Lou Yang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the prototype of the family Hepeviridae and the causative agent of common acute viral hepatitis. Genetically diverse HEV-related viruses have been detected in a variety of mammals and some of them may have zoonotic potential. In this study, we tested 278 specimens collected from seven wild small mammal species in Yunnan province, China, for the presence and prevalence of orthohepevirus by broad-spectrum reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. HEV-related sequences were detected in two rodent species, including Chevrier's field mouse (Apodemus chevrieri, family Muridae) and Père David's vole (Eothenomys melanogaster, family Cricetidae), with the infection rates of 29...
March 2, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Jin Jung Kwon, Won-Suk Choi, Ju Hwan Jeong, Eun-Ha Kim, Ok-Jun Lee, Sun-Woo Yoon, Jungwon Hwang, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova, Young Ki Choi, Yun Hee Baek, Min-Suk Song
The resistance of influenza viruses to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs; i.e. oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir) can be associated with several NA substitutions, with differing effects on viral fitness. To identify novel molecular markers conferring multi-NAI resistance, the NA gene of oseltamivir-resistant (H275Y, N1 numbering) 2009 pandemic influenza [A(H1N1)pdm09] virus was enriched with random mutations. This randomly mutated viral library was propagated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells under zanamivir pressure and gave rise to additional changes within NA, including an I436N substitution located outside the NA enzyme active site...
March 2018: Journal of General Virology
Wenjie Peng, Kim M Bouwman, Ryan McBride, Oliver C Grant, Robert J Woods, Monique H Verheije, James C Paulson, Robert P de Vries
All human influenza pandemics have originated from avian influenza viruses. Although multiple changes are needed for an avian virus to be able to transmit between humans, binding to human-type receptors is essential. Several research groups have reported mutations in H5N1 viruses that exhibit specificity to human-type receptors and promote respiratory droplet transmission between ferrets. Upon detailed analysis we have found that these mutants exhibit significant differences in fine receptor specificity compared to human H1N1 and H3N2 and retain avian-type receptor binding...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Reem Khalil, Violeta Contreras-Ramirez, Jonathan B Levitt
We studied the postnatal refinement of feedforward (FF) projections from ferret V1 to multiple cortical targets during the period around eye opening. Our goal was to establish (a) whether the developmental refinement of FF projections parallels that of feedback (FB) cortical circuits, and (b) whether FF pathways from V1 to different target areas refine with a similar rate. We injected the tracer CTb into V1 of juvenile ferrets, and visualized the pattern of labeled axon terminals in extrastriate cortex. Bouton density of FF projections to target areas 18, 19, and 21 declined steadily from 4 to 8 weeks postnatal...
February 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Yann Ferret, Nicolas Boissel, Nathalie Helevaut, Jordan Madic, Olivier Nibourel, Alice Marceau-Renaut, Maxime Bucci, Sandrine Geffroy, Karine Celli-Lebras, Sylvie Castaigne, Xavier Thomas, Christine Terré, Hervé Dombret, Claude Preudhomme, Aline Renneville
Assessment of minimal residual disease has emerged as a powerful prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we investigated the potential of IDH1/2 mutations as targets for minimal residual disease assessment in acute myeloid leukemia, since these mutations collectively occur in 15-20% of acute myeloid leukemia and now represent druggable targets. We employed droplet digital PCR assays to quantify IDH1R132, IDH2R140, and IDH2R172 mutations on genomic DNA in 322 samples from 103 adult patients with primary IDH1/2 mutant acute myeloid leukemia and enrolled on Acute Leukemia French Association (ALFA) -0701 or -0702 clinical trials...
February 22, 2018: Haematologica
Sarah Cobey, Sigrid Gouma, Kaela Parkhouse, Benjamin S Chambers, Hildegund C Ertl, Kenneth E Schmader, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Timothy B Stockwell, Suman R Das, Emily Landon, Vera Tesic, Ilan Youngster, Benjamin A Pinsky, David E Wentworth, Scott E Hensley, Yonatan H Grad
Background: Influenza vaccination aims to prevent infection by influenza virus and reduce associated morbidity and mortality; however, vaccine effectiveness (VE) can be modest, especially for subtype A(H3N2). Low VE has been attributed to mismatches between the vaccine and circulating influenza strains and to the vaccine's elicitation of protective immunity in only a subset of the population. The low H3N2 VE in the 2012-2013 season was attributed to egg-adaptive mutations that created antigenic mismatch between the actual vaccine strain (IVR-165) and both the intended vaccine strain (A/Victoria/361/2011) and the predominant circulating strains (clades 3C...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jie Zhou, Jianjian Wei, Ka-Tim Choy, Sin Fun Sia, Dewi K Rowlands, Dan Yu, Chung-Yi Wu, William G Lindsley, Benjamin J Cowling, James McDevitt, Malik Peiris, Yuguo Li, Hui-Ling Yen
Epidemics and pandemics of influenza are characterized by rapid global spread mediated by non-mutually exclusive transmission modes. The relative significance between contact, droplet, and airborne transmission is yet to be defined, a knowledge gap for implementing evidence-based infection control measures. We devised a transmission chamber that separates virus-laden particles by size and determined the particle sizes mediating transmission of influenza among ferrets through the air. Ferret-to-ferret transmission was mediated by airborne particles larger than 1...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marie-Pierre Gomez-Berrada, Anne-Sophie Ficheux, Sandrine Rakotomalala, Sonia Guillou, Murièle Bellec, Dominique De Javel, Alain-Claude Roudot, Pierre-Jacques Ferret
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Logan Banadyga, Gary Wong, Xiangguo Qiu
The development of novel therapeutics and vaccines to treat or prevent disease caused by filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, depends on the availability of animal models that faithfully recapitulate clinical hallmarks of disease as it is observed in humans. In particular, small animal models (like mice and guinea pigs) are historically and frequently used for the primary evaluation of antiviral countermeasures, prior to testing in nonhuman primates, which represent the gold-standard filovirus animal model...
February 19, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Jillian S Davis, Susan H Williams
Broad similarities in the timing of jaw adductor activity driving jaw movements across distantly related and morphologically disparate species have led to the hypothesis that mammalian masticatory motor patterns are conserved. However, some quantitative analyses also suggest that masticatory motor patterns have evolved in concert with dietary and/or morphological specialization. Here, we assess this relationship in two closely related carnivoran species with divergent diets and morphology: carnivorous ferrets and frugivorous kinkajous...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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