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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208721/evolution-and-divergence-of-h3n8-equine-influenza-viruses-circulating-in-the-united-kingdom-from-2013-to-2015
#1
Adam Rash, Rachel Morton, Alana Woodward, Olivia Maes, John McCauley, Neil Bryant, Debra Elton
Equine influenza viruses (EIV) are a major cause of acute respiratory disease in horses worldwide and occasionally also affect vaccinated animals. Like other influenza A viruses, they undergo antigenic drift, highlighting the importance of both surveillance and virus characterisation in order for vaccine strains to be kept up to date. The aim of the work reported here was to monitor the genetic and antigenic changes occurring in EIV circulating in the UK from 2013 to 2015 and to identify any evidence of vaccine breakdown in the field...
February 8, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195559/selection-of-multi-drug-resistant-influenza-a-and-b-viruses-under-zanamivir-pressure-and-their-replication-fitness-in-ferrets
#2
Ding Yuan Oh, Jacqueline Panozzo, Sophie Vitesnik, Rubaiyea Farrukee, David Piedrafita, Jennifer Mosse, Aeron C Hurt
BACKGROUND: Intravenous zanamivir has been used to treat patients with severe influenza. Because the majority of cases (including immunocompromised patients) require the drug for an extended period of treatment, there is a higher risk that the virus will develop resistance. Therefore, knowing the possible amino acid substitutions that may arise in recently circulating influenza strains under prolonged zanamivir exposure and their impact on antiviral susceptibility is important. METHODS: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B virus were serially passaged under increasing zanamivir pressure in vitro...
February 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192418/defining-the-antibody-cross-reactome-directed-against-the-influenza-virus-surface-glycoproteins
#3
Raffael Nachbagauer, Angela Choi, Ariana Hirsh, Irina Margine, Sayaka Iida, Aldo Barrera, Marcela Ferres, Randy A Albrecht, Adolfo García-Sastre, Nicole M Bouvier, Kimihito Ito, Rafael A Medina, Peter Palese, Florian Krammer
Infection with influenza virus induces antibodies to the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, and these responses can be broadly protective. To assess the breadth and magnitude of antibody responses, we sequentially infected mice, guinea pigs and ferrets with divergent H1N1 or H3N2 subtypes of influenza virus. We measured antibody responses by ELISA of an extensive panel of recombinant glycoproteins representing the viral diversity in nature. Guinea pigs developed high titers of broadly cross-reactive antibodies; mice and ferrets exhibited narrower humoral responses...
February 13, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182052/study-of-nuclear-morphometry-on-cytology-specimens-of-benign-and-malignant-breast-lesions-a-study-of-122-cases
#4
Anamika Kashyap, Manjula Jain, Shailaja Shukla, Manoj Andley
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has emerged as a leading site of cancer among women in India. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been routinely applied in assessment of breast lesions. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is subjective with a "gray zone" of 6.9-20%. Quantitative evaluation of nuclear size, shape, texture, and density parameters by morphometry can be of diagnostic help in breast tumor. AIMS: To apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates and assess its role in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions with derivation of suitable cut-off values between the two groups...
January 2017: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177288/novel-urease-negative-helicobacter-sp-h-enhydrae-sp-nov-isolated-from-inflamed-gastric-tissue-of-southern-sea-otters
#5
Zeli Shen, Francesca Batac, Anthony Mannion, Melissa A Miller, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Calvin Ho, Sean Manning, Bruce J Paster, James G Fox
A total of 31 sea otters Enhydra lutris nereis found dead or moribund (and then euthanized) were necropsied in California, USA. Stomach biopsies were collected and transected with equal portions frozen or placed in formalin and analyzed histologically and screened for Helicobacter spp. in gastric tissue. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from 9 sea otters (29%); 58% (18 of 31) animals were positive for helicobacter by PCR. The Helicobacter sp. was catalase- and oxidase-positive and urease-negative. By electron microscopy, the Helicobacter sp...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160308/invasive-histiocytic-sarcoma-of-the-lumbar-spine-in-a-ferret-mustela-putorius-furo
#6
M Warschau, M Hoffmann, P Dziallas, F Hansmann, W Baumgärtner, R Mischke, S Cichowski, M Fehr
This report describes the history, clinical examination and histopathology of a histiocytic sarcoma in a domestic ferret. Clinical signs were acute paraplegia and dysuria. Physical examination revealed a firm, smooth, touch-sensitive mass in and around the lumbar vertebral column. Neurologic examination was consistent with a lesion between spinal cord segments T3 and L3. Magnetic resonance images revealed bone lesions of L2 and L3 combined with compression of the spinal cord due to a homogenous, isointense mass that was diagnosed as a malignant round cell tumour and the ferret was euthanased...
February 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148801/inactivated-recombinant-rabies-viruses-displaying-the-canine-distemper-virus-glycoproteins-induce-protective-immunity-against-both-pathogens
#7
Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski, Andrew Hudacek, Bevan Sawatsky, Beate Krämer, Yin Xiangping, Matthias J Schnell, Veronika von Messling
: The development of multivalent vaccines is an attractive methodology for the simultaneous prevention of several infectious diseases in vulnerable populations. Canine distemper (CDV) and rabies (RABV) viruses both cause lethal disease in wild and domestic carnivores. While RABV vaccines are inactivated, the live-attenuated CDV vaccines retain residual virulence for highly susceptible wild life species. In the current study, we have developed recombinant bivalent vaccine candidates based on recombinant vaccine strain rabies virus particles, which concurrently display the protective CDV and RABV glycoprotein antigens...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124415/experimental-hendra-virus-infection-of-dogs-virus-replication-shedding-and-potential-for-transmission
#8
D J Middleton, S Riddell, R Klein, R Arkinstall, J Haining, L Frazer, C Mottley, R Evans, D Johnson, J Pallister
OBJECTIVE: Characterisation of experimental Hendra virus (HeV) infection in dogs and assessment of associated transmission risk. METHODS: Beagle dogs were exposed oronasally to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands or to blood collected from HeV-infected ferrets. Ferrets were exposed to oral fluids collected from dogs after canine exposure to HeV. Observations made and samples tested post-exposure were used to assess the clinical course and replication sites of HeV in dogs, the infectivity for ferrets of canine oral fluids and features of HeV infection in dogs following contact with infective blood...
January 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115346/targeting-alpha-toxin-to-mitigate-its-lethal-toxicity-in-ferret-and-rabbit-models-of-staphylococcus-aureus-necrotizing-pneumonia
#9
Binh An Diep, Jamese J Hillard, Vien T M Le, Christine Tkaczyk, Hoan N Le, Vuvi G Tran, Renee L Rao, Etyene Castro Dip, Eliane P Pereira-Franchi, Paulyn Cha, Scott Jacobson, Rosemary Broome, Lily I Cheng, William Weiss, Laszlo Prokai, Vien Nguyen, C Ken Stover, Bret R Sellman
The role broad spectrum antibiotics play in the spread of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with their effect on the healthy microbiome have led to advances in pathogen specific approaches for the prevention or treatment of serious bacterial infections. One approach in clinical testing is passive immunization with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting alpha toxin for the prevention or treatment of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Passive immunization with the human anti-alpha toxin mAb, MEDI4893* has been shown to improve disease outcome in murine S...
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115029/maternal-short-chain-fructo-oligosaccharide-supplementation-increases-intestinal-cytokine-secretion-goblet-cell-number-butyrate-concentration-and-lawsonia-intracellularis-humoral-vaccine-response-in-weaned-pigs
#10
Cindy Le Bourgot, Laurence Le Normand, Michèle Formal, Frédérique Respondek, Sophie Blat, Emmanuelle Apper, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron
Prebiotic supplementation modulates immune system development and function. However, less is known about the effects of maternal prebiotic consumption on offspring intestinal defences and immune system responsiveness. We investigated the effects of maternal short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS) supplementation on mucin-secreting cells, ileal secretory IgA and cytokine secretion of weaned offspring and their humoral response to an oral vaccine against obligate intracellular Lawsonia intracellularis. Sows were fed a control diet (CTRL) or scFOS-supplemented diet during the last third of gestation and throughout lactation...
January 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099489/acute-inactivation-of-primary-auditory-cortex-causes-a-sound-localisation-deficit-in-ferrets
#11
Katherine C Wood, Stephen M Town, Huriye Atilgan, Gareth P Jones, Jennifer K Bizley
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of acute inactivation of brain areas by cooling in the behaving ferret and to demonstrate that cooling auditory cortex produced a localisation deficit that was specific to auditory stimuli. The effect of cooling on neural activity was measured in anesthetized ferret cortex. The behavioural effect of cooling was determined in a benchmark sound localisation task in which inactivation of primary auditory cortex (A1) is known to impair performance. Cooling strongly suppressed the spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing rates of cortical neurons when the cooling loop was held at temperatures below 10°C, and this suppression was reversed when the cortical temperature recovered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098524/swine-influenza-virus-h1n2-characterization-and-transmission-in-ferrets-chile
#12
Nicolás Bravo-Vasquez, Erik A Karlsson, Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm, Victoria Meliopoulos, Bryan Kaplan, Shauna Marvin, Valerie Cortez, Pamela Freiden, Melinda A Beck, Christopher Hamilton-West, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069921/visual-stimulus-speed-does-not-influence-the-rapid-emergence-of-direction-selectivity-in-ferret-visual-cortex
#13
Neil J Ritter, Nora M Anderson, Stephen D Van Hooser
Sensory experience is necessary for the development of some receptive field properties of neurons in primary sensory cortical areas. However, it remains unclear whether the parameters of an individual animal's experience play an instructive role and influence the tuning parameters of cortical sensory neurons as selectivity emerges, or rather whether experience merely permits the completion of processes that are fully seeded at the onset of experience. Here we have examined whether the speed of visual stimuli that are presented to visually naive ferrets can influence the parameters of speed tuning and direction selectivity in cortical neurons...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040019/relative-salience-of-spectral-and-temporal-features-in-auditory-long-term-memory
#14
Pingbo Yin, Shihab A Shamma, Jonathan B Fritz
In order to explore the representation of sound features in auditory long-term memory, two groups of ferrets were trained on Go vs Nogo, 3-zone classification tasks. The sound stimuli differed primarily along the spectral and temporal dimensions. In Group 1, two ferrets were trained to (i) classify tones based on their frequency (Tone-task), and subsequently learned to (ii) classify white noise based on its amplitude modulation rate (AM-task). In Group 2, two ferrets were trained to classify tones based on correlated combinations of their frequency and AM rate (AM-Tone task)...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038412/enhanced-virulence-of-clade-2-3-2-1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-viruses-in-ferrets
#15
Melissa B Pearce, Claudia Pappas, Kortney M Gustin, C Todd Davis, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, David E Swayne, Taronna R Maines, Jessica A Belser, Terrence M Tumpey
Sporadic avian to human transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses necessitates the analysis of currently circulating and evolving clades to assess their potential risk. Following the spread and sustained circulation of clade 2 viruses across multiple continents, numerous subclades and genotypes have been described. To better understand the pathogenesis associated with the continued diversification of clade 2A(H5N1) influenza viruses, we investigated the relative virulence of eleven human and poultry isolates collected from 2006 to 2013 by determining their ability to cause disease in the ferret model...
February 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034455/proliferative-enteropathy-caused-by-lawsonia-intracellularis-in-chickens
#16
T Ohta, K Kimura, K Katsuda, H Kobayashi, O Mikami, M Haritani, T Onodera
Proliferative enteropathy (PE) is an infectious disease caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (Li), an obligate intracellular bacterium. PE is endemic in swine herds and has been reported in a variety of mammals including horses, hamsters, rabbits, rats, guinea pigs, ferrets, foxes, dogs, sheep, deer and non-human primates. Avian cases are reported only in ratite birds, including emus and ostriches. Some studies show an absence of Lawsonia spp. infection in chickens. In this study, we performed morphological and bacteriological examinations on the intestines of two broiler chickens that had been condemned at a poultry slaughter plant in Japan due to intestinal haemorrhage, which was a result of focal coccidial enteritis...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017661/recent-h3n2-viruses-have-evolved-specificity-for-extended-branched-human-type-receptors-conferring-potential-for-increased-avidity
#17
Wenjie Peng, Robert P de Vries, Oliver C Grant, Andrew J Thompson, Ryan McBride, Buyankhishig Tsogtbaatar, Peter S Lee, Nahid Razi, Ian A Wilson, Robert J Woods, James C Paulson
Human and avian influenza viruses recognize different sialic acid-containing receptors, referred to as human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal) and avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal), respectively. This presents a species barrier for aerosol droplet transmission of avian viruses in humans and ferrets. Recent reports have suggested that current human H3N2 viruses no longer have strict specificity toward human-type receptors. Using an influenza receptor glycan microarray with extended airway glycans, we find that H3N2 viruses have in fact maintained human-type specificity, but they have evolved preference for a subset of receptors comprising branched glycans with extended poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (poly-LacNAc) chains, a specificity shared with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (Cal/04) hemagglutinin...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003481/shifting-clade-distribution-reassortment-and-emergence-of-new-subtypes-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5-viruses-collected-in-vietnamese-poultry-from-2012-to-2015
#18
Diep T Nguyen, Yunho Jang, Tho D Nguyen, Joyce Jones, Samuel S Shepard, Hua Yang, Nancy Gerloff, Thomas Fabrizio, Long V Nguyen, Ken Inui, Genyan Yang, Adrian Creanga, Li Wang, Duong T Mai, Sharmi Thor, James Stevens, Thanh L To, David E Wentworth, Tung Nguyen, Dong V Pham, Juliet E Bryant, C Todd Davis
: Whole genome sequences of representative highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5) viruses from Vietnam were generated, comprising samples from poultry outbreaks and active market surveillance collected from January 2012 to August 2015. Six hemagglutinin gene clades were characterized. Clade 1.1.2 was predominant in southern Mekong provinces throughout 2012 and 2013, but gradually disappeared and was not detected after April 2014. Clade 2.3.2.1c viruses spread rapidly during 2012 and were detected in the south and center of the country...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997342/evaluation-of-a-candidate-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-prepared-in-changchun-bcht-china-for-safety-and-efficacy-in-ferrets
#19
Zhenwei Shen, Richard A Bowen, Peng Ge, Jinfei Yu, Yanjie Shen, Wei Kong, Chunlai Jiang, Jinchang Wu, Changlin Zhu, Yanjun Xu, Wei Wei, Larisa Rudenko, Irina Kiseleva, Fei Xu
We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) product in ferrets. The BCHT LAIV product was significantly less virulent than wild-type H1N1 virus, when evaluated by comparing virus shedding and histopathologic lesions. The data indicated strong evidence for an attenuated phenotype of LAIV. Furthermore, the vaccine induced robust humoral immune responses in seronegative ferrets, and protected ferrets against development of fever, weight loss and turbinate inflammatory lesions after challenging with H3N2 wide-type influenza virus...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983773/exploiting-interspecific-olfactory-communication-to-monitor-predators
#20
Patrick M Garvey, Alistair S Glen, Mick N Clout, Sarah V Wyse, Margaret Nichols, Roger P Pech
Olfaction is the primary sense of many mammals and subordinate predators use this sense to detect dominant species, thereby reducing the risk of an encounter and facilitating coexistence. Chemical signals can act as repellents or attractants and may therefore have applications for wildlife management. We devised a field experiment to investigate whether dominant predator (ferret Mustela furo) body odor would alter the behavior of three common mesopredators: stoats (Mustela erminea), hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), and ship rats (Rattus rattus)...
December 16, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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