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Nicole Navratil
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October 20, 2016: Lab Animal
Lei Tong, Yang Xie, Hongbo Yu
Experiments on the adult visual cortex of cats, ferrets and monkeys have revealed organized spatial relationships between multiple feature maps which can also be reproduced by the Kohonen and elastic net self-organization models. However, attempts to apply these models to simulate the temporal kinetics of monocular deprivation during the critical period, and their effects on the spatial arrangement of feature maps, have led to conflicting results. In this study, we performed monocular deprivation (MD) and chronic imaging in the ferret visual cortex during the critical period of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Amy Hammond-Kenny, Victoria M Bajo, Andrew J King, Fernando R Nodal
Enhanced detection and discrimination, along with faster reaction times, are the most typical behavioural manifestations of the brain's capacity to integrate multisensory signals arising from the same object. In this study, we examined whether multisensory behavioural gains are observable across different components of the localization response that are potentially under the command of distinct brain regions. We measured the ability of ferrets to localize unisensory (auditory or visual) and spatiotemporally coincident auditory-visual stimuli of different durations that were presented from one of seven locations spanning the frontal hemifield...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Louisa L Y Chan, Christine T H Bui, Chris K P Mok, Mandy M T Ng, John M Nicholls, J S Malik Peiris, Michael C W Chan, Renee W Y Chan
Novel avian H7N9 virus emerged in China in 2013 resulting in a case fatality rate of around 39% and continues to pose zoonotic and pandemic risk. Amino acid substitutions in PB2 protein were shown to influence the pathogenicity and transmissibility of H7N9 following experimental infection of ferrets and mice. In this study, we evaluated the role of amino acid substitution PB2-627K or compensatory changes at PB2-591K and PB2-701N, on the tropism and replication competence of H7N9 viruses for human and swine respiratory tracts using ex vivo organ explant cultures...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yulin Zhang, Wanyun Gong, Hang Zeng, Ling Wang
Comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of multiple hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates has revealed extensive genomic diversity among them. Recently, a variety of genetically distinct HEV variants have also been isolated and identified from large numbers of animal species, including birds, rabbits, rats, ferrets, bats, cutthroat trout, and camels, among others. Furthermore, it has been reported that recombination in HEV genomes takes place in animals and in human patients. Also, chronic HEV infection in immunocompromised individuals has revealed the presence of viral strains carrying insertions from human genes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jason D Marshall, Darren S Heeke, Eileen Rao, Sean K Maynard, David Hornigold, Christopher McCrae, Neil Fraser, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Li Yu, Nicola Williams, Sarah King, Martin E Cooper, Adeline M Hajjar, Jennifer C Woo
The best-characterized Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its chemically modified and detoxified variant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Although both molecules are active for human TLR4, they demonstrate a potency preference for mouse TLR4 based on data from transfected cell lines and primary cells of both species. After a high throughput screening process of small molecule libraries, we have discovered a new class of TLR4 agonist with a species preference profile differing from MPL...
2016: PloS One
Kenzo Yonemitsu, Yutaka Terada, Ryusei Kuwata, Dung Nguyen, Nobuyuki Shiranaga, Satomi Tono, Tomoka Matsukane, Mayumi Yokoyama, Kazuo Suzuki, Hiroshi Shimoda, Ai Takano, Masahiko Muto, Ken Maeda
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, a food- and water-borne disease. In developed countries, consumption of meats from pigs, wild boars and deer is a major source of infection. Although HEV and HEV-related viruses have been detected in many animal species, their zoonotic potential and prevalence has not been completely understood. To detect anti-HEV antibody in mammalian species, a simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established using extract from cells expressing HEV capsid protein and protein A/G as an antigen and a reagent for detection of antibody...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Zhi-Quan Wang, Xue-Jun Jiang, Guang-Yu Zhang, Ming Chen, Chuan-Feng Tong, Dong Zhang
This research is to explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine Ginseng-spikenard heart-nourishing capsule on the inactivation of c-type Kv1.4 channels (Kv1.4∆N) in Xenopus laevis oocytes with two-electrode voltageclamp technique. Defolliculated oocytes (stage V-VI) were injected with transcribed cRNAs of ferret Kv1.4δN channels. During recording, oocytes were continuously perfused with ND96 solution (control group) and solution prepared from Ginseng-spikenard heart-nourishing capsule (experimental group)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski, Veronika von Messling
Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches...
October 11, 2016: Viruses
S Vamsee Raju, Hyunki Kim, Stephen A Byzek, Li Ping Tang, John E Trombley, Patricia Jackson, Lawrence Rasmussen, J Michael Wells, Emily Falk Libby, Erik Dohm, Lindy Winter, Sharon L Samuel, Kurt R Zinn, J Edwin Blalock, Trenton R Schoeb, Mark T Dransfield, Steven M Rowe
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US. The majority of COPD patients have symptoms of chronic bronchitis, which lacks specific therapies. A major impediment to therapeutic development has been the absence of animal models that recapitulate key clinical and pathologic features of human disease. Ferrets are well suited for the investigation of the significance of respiratory diseases, given prior data indicating similarities to human airway physiology and submucosal gland distribution...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
P Verma, A Nosrat, J R Kim, J B Price, P Wang, E Bair, H H Xu, A F Fouad
It is not known to what extent residual infection may interfere with the success of pulp regeneration procedures. The aim of this study was to determine, radiographically and histologically, the effect of residual bacteria on the outcome of pulp regeneration mediated by a tissue-engineered construct as compared with traditional revascularization. Periapical lesions were induced in 24 canine teeth of 6 ferrets. After disinfection with 1.25% NaOCl and triple antibiotic paste, ferret dental pulp stem cells, encapsulated in a hydrogel scaffold, were injected into half the experimental teeth...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Zengbing Lu, Chi-Kong Yeung, Ge Lin, David T W Yew, P L R Andrews, John A Rudd
BACKGROUND: GLP-1 receptor agonists are utilised for the treatment of Type-2 diabetes but can be associated with undesirable effects of nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of GLP-1 receptors in mechanisms of emesis, behaviours indicative of nausea (BIN) and food intake in the ferret. RESULTS: Exendin-4 (10 and 30nmol, i.c.v.) induced emesis, inhibited food intake, and increased the frequency of BIN. Increases in c-Fos in the brainstem, midbrain and forebrain occurred in animals exhibiting emesis; no activation of the brainstem occurred in animals not vomiting...
September 14, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Xiangjie Sun, Jessica A Belser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Hui Zeng, Amanda Lewis, Wun-Ju Shieh, Terrence M Tumpey, Taronna R Maines
: Avian influenza A H7 viruses have caused multiple outbreaks in domestic poultry throughout North America, resulting in occasional human infections in close contact. In early 2016, the presence of H7N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and closely related H7N8 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses were confirmed in commercial turkey farms in Indiana. These H7N8 viruses represent the first isolation of this subtype in domestic poultry in North America, with their virulence in mammalian hosts and the potential risk for human infection largely unknown...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Alexandre Caron, Emmanuel Chazard, Joris Muller, Renaud Perichon, Laurie Ferret, Vassilis Koutkias, Régis Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste Beuscart, Grégoire Ficheur
BACKGROUND: The significant risk of adverse events following medical procedures supports a clinical epidemiological approach based on the analyses of collections of electronic medical records. Data analytical tools might help clinical epidemiologists develop more appropriate case-crossover designs for monitoring patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess the methodological quality of an interactive tool for use by clinical epidemiologists to systematically design case-crossover analyses of large electronic medical records databases...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Gunnveig Grodeland, Agnete Brunsvik Fredriksen, Geir Åge Løset, Elisabeth Vikse, Lars Fugger, Bjarne Bogen
It has been difficult to translate promising results from DNA vaccination in mice to larger animals and humans. Previously, DNA vaccines encoding proteins that target Ag to MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules on APCs have been shown to induce rapid, enhanced, and long-lasting Ag-specific Ab titers in mice. In this study, we describe two novel DNA vaccines that as proteins target HLA class II (HLA-II) molecules. These vaccine proteins cross-react with MHC-II molecules in several species of larger mammals. When tested in ferrets and pigs, a single DNA delivery with low doses of the HLA-II-targeted vaccines resulted in rapid and increased Ab responses...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Peter Pushko, Xiangjie Sun, Irina Tretyakova, Rachmat Hidajat, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Jessica A Belser, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey
Avian-origin influenza represents a global public health concern. In 2013, the H10N8 virus caused documented human infections for the first time. Currently, there is no approved vaccine against H10 influenza. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising vaccine approach. In this study, we evaluated H10 VLPs containing hemagglutinin from H10N8 virus as an experimental vaccine in a ferret challenge model. In addition, we evaluated quadri-subtype VLPs co-localizing H5, H7, H9 and H10 subtypes...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
John A Rudd, Man P Ngan, Zengbing Lu, Guy A Higgins, Claudio Giuliano, Emanuela Lovati, Claudio Pietra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed emesis involves the activation of multiple pathways, with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) playing a major role in the initial response. Substance P tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists can reduce emesis induced by disparate emetic challenges and therefore have a clinical utility as broad inhibitory anti-emetic drugs. In the present studies, we investigate the broad inhibitory anti-emetic profile of a relatively new NK1 receptor antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination with the long acting 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, palonosetron, for a potential to reduce emesis in ferrets and shrews...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Henju Marjuki, Vasiliy P Mishin, Ning Chai, Man-Wah Tan, Elizabeth M Newton, John Tegeris, Karl Erlandson, Melissa Willis, Joyce Jones, Todd Davis, James Stevens, Larisa V Gubareva
: The pandemic threat posed by emerging zoonotic influenza A viruses necessitate development of antiviral agents effective against various antigenic subtypes. Human monoclonal antibody (hmAb) targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) stalk offers a promising approach to control influenza virus infections. Here we investigated the ability of hmAb 81.39a to inhibit in vitro replication of human and zoonotic viruses, representing 16 HA subtypes. The majority of viruses were effectively neutralized by 81...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
Zhuo-Teng Yu, N Nanda Nanthakumar, David S Newburg
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea worldwide; young children are most susceptible. Binding of virulent C. jejuni to the intestinal mucosa is inhibited ex vivo by α1,2-fucosylated carbohydrate moieties, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOSs). OBJECTIVE: The simplest α1,2-fucosylated HMOS structure, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), can be predominant at ≤5 g/L milk. Although 2'-FL inhibits C. jejuni binding ex vivo and in vivo, the effects of 2'FL on the cell invasion central to C...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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