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Plant biology

Laurent Kamel, Michelle Keller-Pearson, Christophe Roux, Jean-Michel Ané
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the vast majority of land plants, providing mutual nutritional benefits and protecting hosts against biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress was made recently in our understanding of the genomic organization, the obligate requirements, and the sexual nature of these fungi through the release and subsequent mining of genome sequences. Genomic and genetic approaches also improved our understanding of the signal repertoire used by AM fungi and their plant hosts to recognize each other for the initiation and maintenance of this association...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
Pedro Jordano
Species-specific traits constrain the ways organisms interact in nature. Some pairwise interactions among coexisting species simply do not occur; they are impossible to observe despite the fact that partners coexist in the same place. The author discusses these 'forbidden links' of species interaction networks. Photo: a sphingid moth, Manduca sexta visiting a flower of Tocoyena formosa (Rubiaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado; tongue and corolla tube lengths approximately 100 mm. Courtesy of Felipe Amorim. Sazatornil, F...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Gahee Min, Sae-Kwang Ku, Mi Seon Park, Tae-Joo Park, Hyun-Shik Lee, Jong-Sup Bae
A certain nucleosomal protein-high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)-has recently been established as a late mediator of sepsis, with a relatively wide therapeutic window for pharmacological intervention. Pelargonidin (PEL) is a well-known red pigment found in plants; it has important biological activities that are potentially beneficial for human health. In the present study, we investigated whether PEL can modulate HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in mice...
October 24, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Donna M Bond, Nick W Albert, Robyn H Lee, Gareth B Gillard, Chris M Brown, Roger P Hellens, Richard C Macknight
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors (TFs) coordinate precise gene expression patterns that give rise to distinct phenotypic outputs. The identification of genes and transcriptional networks regulated by a TF often requires stable transformation and expression changes in plant cells. However, the production of stable transformants can be slow and laborious with no guarantee of success. Furthermore, transgenic plants overexpressing a TF of interest can present pleiotropic phenotypes and/or result in a high number of indirect gene expression changes...
2016: Plant Methods
David S Domozych, Zoë A Popper, Iben Sørensen
Charophytes are the group of green algae whose ancestral lineage gave rise to land plants in what resulted in a profoundly transformative event in the natural history of the planet. Extant charophytes exhibit many features that are similar to those found in land plants and their relatively simple phenotypes make them efficacious organisms for the study of many fundamental biological phenomena. Several taxa including Micrasterias, Penium, Chara, and Coleochaete are valuable model organisms for the study of cell biology, development, physiology and ecology of plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pooja Negi, Archana N Rai, Penna Suprasanna
The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original 'Controlling Element' hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qili Zhu, Ling Sun, Jiajie Lian, Xuli Gao, Lei Zhao, Mingyu Ding, Jing Li, Yuancun Liang
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an important phospholipid hydrolase that plays critical roles in various biological processes in eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the functions of PLC in morphogenesis and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum, deletion mutants were constructed of all six FgPLC genes identified in this study. Deletion of FgPLC1, but not the other five FgPLC genes, affected hyphal growth and conidiation. The FgPLC1 deletion mutant (Δplc1) also was defective in conidium germination and germ tube growth...
October 21, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Cristian Torres-Díaz, Jorge Gallardo-Cerda, Paris Lavin, Rómulo Oses, Fernando Carrasco-Urra, Cristian Atala, Ian S Acuña-Rodríguez, Peter Convey, Marco A Molina-Montenegro
Most climate and environmental change models predict significant increases in temperature and precipitation by the end of the 21st Century, for which the current functional output of certain symbioses may also be altered. In this context we address the following questions: 1) How the expected changes in abiotic factors (temperature, and water) differentially affect the ecophysiological performance of the plant Colobanthus quitensis? and 2) Will this environmental change indirectly affect C. quitensis photochemical performance and biomass accumulation by modifying its association with fungal endophytes? Plants of C...
2016: PloS One
Keiichi Mochida, Tetsuya Sakurai, Hikaru Seki, Takuhiro Yoshida, Kotaro Takahagi, Satoru Sawai, Hiroshi Uchiyama, Toshiya Muranaka, Kazuki Saito
Chinese liquorice/licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a leguminous plant species whose roots and rhizomes have been widely used as a herbal medicine and natural sweetener. Whole-genome sequencing is essential for gene discovery studies and molecular breeding in liquorice. Here, we report a draft assembly of the approximately 379-Mb whole-genome sequence of strain 308-19 of G. uralensis; this assembly contains 34 445 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses suggested well-conserved genomic components and collinearity of gene loci (synteny) between the genome of liquorice and those of other legumes such as Medicago and chickpea...
October 24, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Nadja Förster, Inga Mewis, Hansruedi Glatt, Michael Haack, Regina Brigelius-Flohé, Monika Schreiner, Christian Ulrichs
Leaves of Moringa oleifera are used by tribes as biological cancer medicine. Scientific investigations with M. oleifera conducted so far have almost exclusively used total plant extracts. Studies on the activity of single compounds are missing. Therefore, the biological effects of the two main aromatic multi-glycosylated glucosinolates of M. oleifera were investigated in the present study. The cytotoxic effects of M. oleifera glucosinolates were identified for HepG2 cells (NRU assay), for V79-MZ cells (HPRT assay, SCE assay), and for two Salmonella typhimurium strains (Ames test)...
October 24, 2016: Food & Function
Katsumi Sakata, Toshiyuki Saito, Hajime Ohyanagi, Jun Okumura, Kentaro Ishige, Harukazu Suzuki, Takuji Nakamura, Setsuko Komatsu
Soybean (Glycine max) is sensitive to flooding stress, and flood damage at the seedling stage is a barrier to growth. We constructed two mathematical models of the soybean metabolic network, a control model and a flooded model, from metabolic profiles in soybean plants. We simulated the metabolic profiles with perturbations before and after the flooding stimulus using the two models. We measured the variation of state that the system could maintain from a state-space description of the simulated profiles. The results showed a loss of variation of state during the flooding response in the soybean plants...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bartosz Tylkowski, Martyna Nowak, Irene Tsibranska, Anna Trojanowska, Łukasz Marciniak, Ricard Garcia Valls, Tania Gumi, Marta Giamberini, Renata Jastrząb
BACKGROUND: This review aims to present the relevant background information and current research status in concentration of polyphenols using membrane technologies. The potential implementation of membrane separation to bioactive compounds like soluble phenolics from aqueous and organic solvent solutions is gaining increasing interest in the recent years. This review does not pretend to cover the abundant published literature on the subject, but to be representative for the observed tendencies in membrane processes applications for concentration of polyphenols derived from natural products...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sarvenaz Sabouri-Rad, Sara Sabouri-Rad, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
Ginseng has gained fame as one of the most popular herbs originating from Eastern countries. Among different species which are known as ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Korean or Asian ginseng) is the most frequently used one. Ginsenosides have been proposed to account for most of the biological activities of ginseng. The widely appreciated health-promoting effect of ginseng pertains to the beneficial effects of this plant against immune, cardiovascular and sexual diseases and cancer. In addition, there are some new aspects of the pharmacological activity of this plant which justify its use in dermatologic diseases...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Marcello Locatelli, Gokhan Zengin, Ahmet Uysal, Simone Carradori, Elisa De Luca, Giuseppe Bellagamba, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Irina Lazarova
The current study was carried out to evaluate multicomponent pattern, biological and enzymatic activities of seven Asphodeline taxa root extracts as useful ingredients, due to the fact that these plants are commonly used as traditional food supplements in Turkish regions. The extracts were characterized for free anthraquinones and phenolics to obtain a specific chemical fingerprint useful for quality control. These analyzes were coupled to biological and enzymatic activities in order to obtain comprehensive information of the natural product...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Teddy Stephen Ehianeta, Stéphane Laval, Biao Yu
Mangiferin (2C-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone) is a xanthone C-glycoside occurring in many plant species. Composed of a glucose unit C1→2 linked to a 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone aglycone, mangiferin exhibits a wide range of biological activities, which recently renewed its interest as a potential pharmacophore. Mangiferin is mainly isolated after extraction procedures from natural sources alongside with its isoforms isomangiferin, homomangiferin, and neomangiferin. However, enzymatic and chemical approaches have been developed to access these phytochemicals, which address the challenging construction of the C-glycosidic linkage...
September 10, 2016: BioFactors
Hardik Ghelani, Maunik Chapala, Pinakin Jadav
Acorus calamus is a plant commonly used as a traditional herbal medicine and possesses the wide range of pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities of an ethanolic extract of Acorus calamus L. (Family: Araceae) rhizome (EEAC). For diuretic activity, three doses of EEAC (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) were studied, and measurement of the urinary volume and electrolytes (Na(+) and K(+)) concentration were taken as evaluation parameters. On the other hand, ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis (0...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Héctor Cervera, Santiago F Elena
A long-standing observation in evolutionary virology is that RNA virus populations are highly polymorphic, composed by a mixture of genotypes whose abundances in the population depend on complex interaction between fitness differences, mutational coupling and genetic drift. It was shown long ago, though in cell cultures, that most of these genotypes had lower fitness than the population they belong, an observation that explained why single-virion passages turned on Muller's ratchet while very large population passages resulted in fitness increases in novel environments...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Elisete P Rodrigues, Cleiton de Paula Soares, Patrícia G Galvão, Eddie L Imada, Jean L Simões-Araújo, Luc F M Rouws, André L M de Oliveira, Márcia S Vidal, José I Baldani
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hui-Li Tan, Kok-Gan Chan, Priyia Pusparajah, Acharaporn Duangjai, Surasak Saokaew, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Learn-Han Lee, Bey-Hing Goh
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. Rhizoma coptidis (RC), known as Huang Lian in China, is the dried rhizome of medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, such as Coptis chinensis Franch, C. deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao, and C. teeta Wall which has been used by Chinese medicinal physicians for more than 2000 years. In China, RC is a common component in traditional medicines used to treat CVD associated problems including obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and disorders of lipid metabolism...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Le Zhang, Yunshan Zhao, Zhipeng A Wang, Kunhua Wei, Bin Qiu, Chunhong Zhang, QiYan Wang-Müller, Minhui Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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