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Plant biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936443/antifungal-potential-of-marine-natural-products
#1
REVIEW
Ebaa M El-Hossary, Cheng Cheng, Mostafa M Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed Hamed, Knut Ohlsen, Ute Hentschel, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen
Fungal diseases represent an increasing threat to human health worldwide which in some cases might be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. However, only few antifungal drugs are currently available for the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections. Furthermore, plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens represent a worldwide economic problem for the agriculture industry. The marine environment continues to provide structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936412/contribution-of-cellular-autolysis-to-tissular-functions-during-plant-development
#2
REVIEW
Sacha Escamez, Hannele Tuominen
Plant development requires specific cells to be eliminated in a predictable and genetically regulated manner referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). However, the target cells do not merely die but they also undergo autolysis to degrade their cellular corpses. Recent progress in understanding developmental cell elimination suggests that distinct proteins execute PCD sensu stricto and autolysis. In addition, cell death alone and cell dismantlement can fulfill different functions. Hence, it appears biologically meaningful to distinguish between the modules of PCD and autolysis during plant development...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936097/petmbase-a-database-of-plant-endogenous-target-mimics-etms
#3
Gökhan Karakülah, Kuaybe Yücebilgili Kurtoğlu, Turgay Unver
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small endogenous RNA molecules, which regulate target gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Besides, miRNA activity can be controlled by a newly discovered regulatory mechanism called endogenous target mimicry (eTM). In target mimicry, eTMs bind to the corresponding miRNAs to block the binding of specific transcript leading to increase mRNA expression. Thus, miRNA-eTM-target-mRNA regulation modules involving a wide range of biological processes; an increasing need for a comprehensive eTM database arose...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934866/chickpea-transcription-factor-catlp1-interacts-with-protein-kinases-modulates-ros-accumulation-and-promotes-aba-mediated-stomatal-closure
#4
Vijay Wardhan, Aarti Pandey, Subhra Chakraborty, Niranjan Chakraborty
Tubby and Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), in mammals, play critical roles in neural development, while its function in plants is largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that the chickpea TLP, CaTLP1, participates in osmotic stress response and might be associated with ABA-dependent network. However, how CaTLP1 is connected to ABA signaling remains unclear. The CaTLP1 was found to be engaged in ABA-mediated gene expression and stomatal closure. Complementation of the yeast yap1 mutant with CaTLP1 revealed its role in ROS scavenging...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933577/environmental-and-health-impacts-of-effluents-from-textile-industries-in-ethiopia-the-case-of-gelan-and-dukem-oromia-regional-state
#5
Diriba Dadi, Till Stellmacher, Feyera Senbeta, Steven Van Passel, Hossein Azadi
This study focuses on four textile industries (DH-GEDA, NOYA, ALMHADI, and ALSAR) established between 2005 and 2008 in the peri-urban areas of Dukem and Gelan. The objectives of the study were to generate baseline information regarding the concentration levels of selected pollutants and to analyze their effects on biophysical environments. This study also attempts to explore the level of exposure that humans and livestock have to polluted effluents and the effects thereof. The findings of this study are based on data empirically collected from two sources: laboratory analysis of sample effluents from the four selected textile plants and quantitative as well as qualitative socioeconomic data collection...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933076/overexpression-of-tanac2d-displays-opposite-responses-to-abiotic-stresses-between-seedling-and-mature-stage-of-transgenic-arabidopsis
#6
Quanjun Huang, Yan Wang
Environmental stresses frequently affect plant growth and development, and many genes have been found to be induced by unfavorable environmental conditions. Here, we reported the biological functions of TaNAC2D, a stress-related NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) gene from wheat. TaNAC2D showed transcriptional activator activity in yeast. TaNAC2D-GFP fusion protein was localized in the nucleus of wheat mesophyll protoplasts. TaNAC2D transcript abundance was significantly induced by NaCl, PEG6000, and abscisic acid (ABA) at seedling stage, and repressed by NaCl and PEG6000 at mature plant stage...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933037/blad-containing-oligomer-fungicidal-activity-on-human-pathogenic-yeasts-from-the-outside-to-the-inside-of-the-target-cell
#7
Ana M Pinheiro, Alexandra Carreira, Filipe Rollo, Rui Fernandes, Ricardo B Ferreira, Sara A Monteiro
Blad polypeptide comprises residues 109-281 of Lupinus albus β-conglutin precursor. It occurs naturally as a major subunit of an edible, 210 kDa oligomer which accumulates to high levels, exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus seedlings between the 4th and 14th day after the onset of germination. Blad-containing oligomer (BCO) exhibits a potent and broad spectrum fungicide activity toward plant pathogens and is now on sale in the US under the tradename Fracture(TM). In this work we demonstrate its antifungal activity toward human pathogens and provide some insights on its mode of action...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932939/plant-defense-and-herbivore-counter-defense-benzoxazinoids-and-insect-herbivores
#8
REVIEW
Felipe C Wouters, Blair Blanchette, Jonathan Gershenzon, Daniel G Vassão
Benzoxazinoids are a class of indole-derived plant chemical defenses comprising compounds with a 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one skeleton and their derivatives. These phytochemicals are widespread in grasses, including important cereal crops such as maize, wheat and rye, as well as a few dicot species, and display a wide range of antifeedant, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and allelopathic activities. Although their overall effects against insect herbivores are frequently reported, much less is known about how their modes of action specifically influence insect physiology...
2016: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932929/a-systematic-florula-of-a-disturbed-urban-habitat-pavements-of-sheffield-england
#9
Oliver L Pescott
BACKGROUND: Human settlements are of increasing interest to ecologists, a fact demonstrated by the recent cluster of book-length treatments of the topic (Forman 2008, McDonnell et al. 2009, Gaston 2010, Niemelä et al. 2011, Wilson 2011, Forman 2014). The natural world as a fascinating feature of towns and cities has a much longer history (e.g. Fitter 1945), and has also played a strong part in local biological conservation in some countries over the late 20th Century (Goode 2014​)...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932477/moss-produced-glycosylation-optimized-human-factor-h-for-therapeutic-application-in-complement-disorders
#10
Stefan Michelfelder, Juliana Parsons, Lennard L Bohlender, Sebastian N W Hoernstein, Holger Niederkrüger, Andreas Busch, Nicola Krieghoff, Jonas Koch, Benjamin Fode, Andreas Schaaf, Thomas Frischmuth, Martin Pohl, Peter F Zipfel, Ralf Reski, Eva L Decker, Karsten Häffner
Genetic defects in complement regulatory proteins can lead to severe renal diseases, including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and C3 glomerulopathies, and age-related macular degeneration. The majority of the mutations found in patients with these diseases affect the glycoprotein complement factor H, the main regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation. Therapeutic options are limited, and novel treatments, specifically those targeting alternative pathway activation, are highly desirable...
December 8, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931939/ex-situ-biogas-upgrading-and-enhancement-in-different-reactor-systems
#11
Panagiotis G Kougias, Laura Treu, Daniela Peñailillo Benavente, Kanokwan Boe, Stefano Campanaro, Irini Angelidaki
Biogas upgrading is envisioned as a key process for clean energy production. The current study evaluates the efficiency of different reactor configurations for ex-situ biogas upgrading and enhancement, in which externally provided hydrogen and carbon dioxide were biologically converted to methane by the action of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The methane content in the output gas of the most efficient configuration was >98%, allowing its exploitation as substitute to natural gas. Additionally, use of digestate from biogas plants as a cost efficient method to provide all the necessary nutrients for microbial growth was successful...
December 2, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931683/in-silico-pass-analysis-and-determination-of-antimycobacterial-antifungal-and-antioxidant-efficacies-of-maslinic-acid-in-an-extract-rich-in-pentacyclic-triterpenoids
#12
Prasad G Jamkhande, Shahbaz K Pathan, Shailesh J Wadher
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Microbial infections such as tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Plant-derived phytochemicals have a long history of providing much-needed novel therapeutics. Triterpenoids are among the prominent phytochemicals that possess numerous biological activities. Among them is maslinic acid (MA), a biologically active olean-type pentacyclic triterpenoid. In search of a novel antimicrobial agent, we aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of MA. METHODS: Antibacterial and antifungal activity was evaluated through the agar well diffusion method...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931389/effects-of-pollution-on-marine-organisms
#13
Alan J Mearns, Donald J Reish, Philip S Oshida, Ann Michelle Morrison, Mary Ann Rempel-Hester, Courtney Arthur, Nicolle Rutherford, Rachel Pryor
This review covers selected 2015 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931370/gaseous-emissions-from-wastewater-facilities
#14
Sock-Hoon Koh, Andrew R Shaw
A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to gaseous emissions from wastewater facilities is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: odorant emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from WWTPs; gaseous emissions from wastewater collection systems; physiochemical odor/emissions control methods; biological odor/emissions control methods; odor characterization/monitoring; and odor impacts/ risk assessments.
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931287/ttf1-nps-induce-ers-mediated-apoptosis-and-inhibit-human-hepatoma-cell-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Bin Xiao, Chao Liu, Bing-Tong Liu, Xuan Zhang, Rong-Rong Liu, Xue-Wu Zhang
Previous studies have shown that 5,2,4-trihydroxy-6,7,5-trimethoxyflavone (TTF1) is the primary anticancer constituent of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Sorbaria sorbifolia (SS), which has been applied to treat cancer in China. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects and biological mechanisms of small-molecule TTF1 nanoparticles (TTF1-NPs). The effects of TTF1-NPs on cell growth and apoptosis were investigated using human hepatoma cells. The molecular changes associated with the effects of TTF1-NPs were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis...
May 2016: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930998/fate-and-ecotoxicological-impact-of-new-generation-herbicides-from-the-triketone-family-an-overview-to-assess-the-environmental-risks
#16
REVIEW
E Dumas, M Giraudo, E Goujon, M Halma, E Knhili, M Stauffert, I Batisson, P Besse-Hoggan, J Bohatier, P Bouchard, H Celle-Jeanton, M Costa Gomes, F Delbac, C Forano, P Goupil, N Guix, P Husson, G Ledoigt, C Mallet, C Mousty, V Prévot, C Richard, S Sarraute
Triketones, derived chemically from a natural phytotoxin (leptospermone), are a good example of allelochemicals as lead molecules for the development of new herbicides. Targeting a new and key enzyme involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, these latest-generation herbicides (sulcotrione, mesotrione and tembotrione) were designed to be eco-friendly and commercialized fifteen-twenty years ago. The mechanisms controlling their fate in different ecological niches as well as their toxicity and impact on different organisms or ecosystems are still under investigation...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929111/oxylipins-produced-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-promote-biofilm-formation-and-virulence
#17
Eriel Martínez, Javier Campos-Gómez
The oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids by dioxygenases occurs in all kingdoms of life and produces physiologically important lipids called oxylipins. The biological roles of oxylipins have been extensively studied in animals, plants, algae and fungi, but remain largely unidentified in prokaryotes. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays a diol synthase activity that transforms several monounsaturated fatty acids into mono- and di-hydroxylated derivatives. Here we show that oxylipins derived from this activity inhibit flagellum-driven motility and upregulate type IV pilus-dependent twitching motility of P...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928908/striking-against-bioterrorism-with-advanced-proteomics-and-reference-methods
#18
Jean Armengaud
The intentional use by terrorists of biological toxins as weapons has been of great concern for many years. Amongst the numerous toxins produced by plants, animals, algae, fungi and bacteria, ricin is one of the most scrutinized by the media because it has already been used in biocrimes and acts of bioterrorism. Improving the analytical toolbox of national authorities to monitor these potential bioweapons all at once is of the utmost interest. Tandem mass spectrometry allows their absolute quantitation and exhibits advantageous sensitivity, discriminative power, multiplexing possibilities, and speed...
December 8, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928425/synthesis-of-acyl-oleanolic-acid-uracil-conjugates-and-their-anti-tumor-activity
#19
Wei-Bin Mo, Chun-Hua Su, Jia-Yan Huang, Jun Liu, Zhen-Feng Chen, Ke-Guang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Oleanolic acid, which can be isolated from many foods and medicinal plants, has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. It has been found that the acylation of the hydroxyl groups of the A-ring in the triterpene skeleton of oleanolic acid could be favorable for biological activities. The pyrimidinyl group has been constructed in many new compounds in various anti-tumor studies. RESULTS: Five acyl oleanolic acid-uracil conjugates were synthesized...
2016: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928043/understanding-the-value-of-plant-diversity-for-ecosystem-functioning-through-niche-theory
#20
REVIEW
Lindsay A Turnbull, Forest Isbell, Drew W Purves, Michel Loreau, Andy Hector
Biodiversity experiments have generated robust empirical results supporting the hypothesis that ecosystems function better when they contain more species. Given that ecosystems provide services that are valued by humans, this inevitably suggests that the loss of species from natural ecosystems could diminish their value. This raises two important questions. First, will experimental results translate into the real world, where species are being lost at an alarming rate? And second, what are the benefits and pitfalls of such valuation exercises? We argue that the empirical results obtained in experiments are entirely consistent with well-established theories of species coexistence...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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