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Plant biology

Renate Kristianslund, Marius Aursnes, Jørn E Tungen, Carl H Görbitz, Trond V Hansen
The two ar-bisabol sesquiterpenoids (+)-sielboldianin A (1) and (+)-sielboldianin B (2) were isolated from the stem bark of the plant Fraxinus sielboldiana and belong to a medicinally interesting class of natural products used in traditional Chinese medicine. Herein the total synthesis of the proposed structure of (+)-sielboldianin A (1) is reported using an organocatalyzed enantioselective bromolactonization protocol. X-ray analysis of a key intermediate together with specific rotation values and NOESY data of the synthesized product enabled the revision of the absolute configuration of the natural product (+)-sielboldianin A to (7 R,10 R)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Jian Zha, Mattheos A G Koffas
Microbial production of plant-derived natural products by engineered microorganisms has achieved great success thanks to large extend to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Anthocyanins, the water-soluble colored pigments found in terrestrial plants that are responsible for the red, blue and purple coloration of many flowers and fruits, are extensively used in food and cosmetics industry; however, their current supply heavily relies on complex extraction from plant-based materials. A promising alternative is their sustainable production in metabolically engineered microbes...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Ersilia Alexa, Corina Danciu, Isidora Radulov, Diana Obistioiu, Renata Maria Sumalan, Adriana Morar, Cristina Adriana Dehelean
The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical composition of Mentha  ×  piperita L. (MP) and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (LA) extracts in terms of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAs) content, in particular, caffeic (CA), p-cumaric (CU), ferulic (FE), and rosmarinic (RS) acids using LC-MS. Also, the in vitro antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and the antiproliferative activity against two cancerous cell lines (A375 and MDA-MB-231) using the MTT assay were tested. The extracts were prepared using aromatic water which resulted from the extraction of oils from plants as extraction medium, with/without acid...
2018: Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam)
Hak-Jae Kim, Chun-Geon Park, Rakesh Varghese, Ji Yeon Lee, YoungOck Kim, Gi-Ho Sung
The leaf of Aurea helianthus ( A. helianthus Jinhuakui) is popularly used in China traditional medicine, however, scientific evidence on its antioxidant properties rarely studied. In this study, biological activities of A. helianthus leave's 80% ethanol extract (AHL) were investigated. The measured total polyphenol and flavonoid content of AHL was 184.24 ± 5.01 mg GAE/g and 102.53 ± 0.98 mg NAR/g. AHL showed the highest α, α -diphenyl- β -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of 98...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Loveth O Linus, Shi-Lei Wang, Ning Shi, Christian Hanson, Yi-Tong Lu, Raphael N Alolga, Qun Liu, Reginald C Njokuocha, Lian-Wen Qi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Parinari kerstingii Engl. extract is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, bronchopneumonia, feverish pains, and breast cancer. However, there have not been any scientific reports regarding the medicinal properties of this plant, and no experiments have been done to ascertain the safety of the extract. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of Parinari kerstingii Engl. extracts as an herbal remedy and to investigate its anti-inflammatory potential in vivo...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
George P Lomonossoff
The discovery of a new class of pathogen, viruses, in the late 19th century, ushered in a period of study of the biochemical and structural properties of these entities in which plant viruses played a prominent role. This was, in large part, due to the relative ease with which sufficient quantities of material could be produced for such analyses. As analytical techniques became increasingly sensitive, similar studies could be performed on the viruses from other organisms. However, plant viruses continued to play an important role in the development of molecular biology, including the demonstration that RNA can be infectious, the determination of the genetic code, the mechanism by which viral RNAs are translated, and some of the early studies on gene silencing...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Taissa Silva de Oliveira, Santo Fabio Corsino, Daniele Di Trapani, Michele Torregrossa, Gaspare Viviani
Excess sludge minimization was studied in a MBR with pre-denitrification scheme. Sludge minimization, nitrogen removal performance and membrane fouling tendency were investigated in two configurations, characterized by a different position of the sludge retention reactor (SRR). In particular, the SRR was placed: i) in the return activated sludge line (Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor - ASSR configuration) and ii) in the mainstream between the anoxic and aerobic reactor (Anaerobic Main-Stream Reactor - AMSR configuration)...
March 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Luca Scotti, Salvatore Genovese, Tonino Bucciarelli, Filippo Martini, Francesco Epifano, Serena Fiorito, Francesca Preziuso, Vito Alessandro Taddeo
An efficient analytical strategy based on different extraction methods of biologically active naturally occurring oxyprenylated umbelliferone and ferulic acid derivatives 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, auraptene, umbelliprenin, boropinic acid, and 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid and quantification by UHPLC with spectrophotometric (UV/Vis) detection from Tea tree oil is reported. Absorption of the pure oil on Al2 O3 (Brockmann activity II) prior washing the resulting solid with MeOH and treatment of this latter with CH2 Cl2 resulted the best extraction methodology in terms of yields of oxyprenylated secondary metabolites...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Marika Ziesack, Nathan Rollins, Aashna Shah, Brendon Dusel, Gordon Webster, Pamela A Silver, Jeffrey C Way
Medium-chain fatty acids are commodity chemicals. Increasing and modifying the activity of thioesterases (TEs) on medium chain fatty acyl-ACP esters may enable high yield microbial production of these molecules. The plant Cuphea palustris harbors two distinct TEs: Cp FatB1 (C8 -specificity, lower activity) and Cp FatB2 (C14 -specificity, higher activity) with 78% sequence identity. We combined structural features from these two enzymes to create several chimeric TEs, some of which showed non-natural fatty acid production as measured by an enzymatic assay and GC-MS...
March 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Robert Huber, Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel, Thomas I Nathaniel, Sayali Gore, Udita Datta, Rohan Bhimani, Jules B Panksepp, Jaak Panksepp, Moira J van Staaden
Results of recent work from our labs and those of others have broadened perspectives on addiction beyond a human-specific, cognitive phenomenon. Addictive plant alkaloids are defensive compounds which have arisen to counter herbivory. With insects the true targets of the coevolutionary arms race, humans may be little more than collateral damage when impacted by 'human' drugs of abuse. The present paper summarizes recent contributions, with a primary focus on our own research in crayfish, where we characterize the behavioral and neural consequences resulting from chronic and acute exposure to psychostimulant and addictive drugs...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
María R Flores-Ocelotl, Nora H Rosas-Murrieta, Diego A Moreno, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Fabiola Domínguez, Gerardo Santos-López
BACKGROUND: Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Calea integrifolia and Caesalpinia pulcherrima are widely used all over the world for treatment of different illnesses. In Mexico, these plants are traditionally used to alleviate or counteract rheumatism and inflammatory muscle diseases. In the present study we evaluated the activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of these four plants, on the replication of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2). METHODS: Extraction process was carried out in a Soxtherm® system at 60, 85 and 120 °C; a chemical fractionation in silica gel chromatography was performed and compounds present in the active fractions were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn...
March 16, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Teresa Morales-Ruiz, Álvaro C Romero-Valenzuela, Vanessa M Vázquez-Grande, Teresa Roldán-Arjona, Rafael R Ariza, Dolores Córdoba-Cañero
Base excision repair (BER) is a major defense pathway against spontaneous DNA damage. This multistep process is initiated by DNA glycosylases that recognise and excise the damaged base, and proceeds by the concerted action of additional proteins that perform incision of the abasic site, gap filling and ligation. BER has been extensively studied in bacteria, yeasts and animals. Although knowledge of this pathway in land plants is increasing, there are no reports detecting BER in algae. We describe here an experimental in vitro system allowing the specific analysis of BER in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
March 5, 2018: DNA Repair
Keiko Fujita, Yoshinao Aoki, Shunji Suzuki
Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu is an indigenous cultivar in Japan and has several characteristics that distinguish it from European V. vinifera. In Japan, Koshu is the most popular cultivar for wine making. We report herein a cell culture established from Koshu for use as a system for the production of resveratrol and its derivatives. Grape cell culture YU-1 was developed from the apex tissues of Koshu. YU-1 growth was favorably compared with BY-2 growth, a standard cell line in plant cell biology. Stilbene production and stilbene synthesis gene expression in YU-1 were upregulated by UV-C irradiation...
March 15, 2018: Cytotechnology
Haseeb Khaliq, Zhong Juming, Peng Ke-Mei
Boron is an essential mineral that plays an important role in several biological processes. Boron is required for growth of plants, animals, and humans. There are increasing evidences of this nutrient showing a variety of pleiotropic effects, ranging from anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects to the modulation of different body systems. In the past few years, the trials showed disease-related polymorphisms of boron in different species, which has drawn attention of scientists to the significance of boron to health...
March 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Abinaya Manivannan, Jin-Hee Kim, Eun-Young Yang, Yul-Kyun Ahn, Eun-Su Lee, Sena Choi, Do-Sun Kim
Pepper is an economically important horticultural plant that has been widely used for its pungency and spicy taste in worldwide cuisines. Therefore, the domestication of pepper has been carried out since antiquity. Owing to meet the growing demand for pepper with high quality, organoleptic property, nutraceutical contents, and disease tolerance, genomics assisted breeding techniques can be incorporated to develop novel pepper varieties with desired traits. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches has reformed the plant breeding technology especially in the area of molecular marker assisted breeding...
2018: BioMed Research International
Camila Carlos, Huan Fan, Cameron R Currie
Deconstructing the intricate matrix of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin poses a major challenge in biofuel production. In diverse environments in nature, some microbial communities, are able to overcome plant biomass recalcitrance. Identifying key degraders of each component of plant cell wall can help improve biological degradation of plant feedstock. Here, we sequenced the metagenome of lignocellulose-adapted microbial consortia sub-cultured on xylan and alkali lignin media. We observed a drastic shift on community composition after sub-culturing, independently of the original consortia...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bo Zhang, Quanwei Yu, Guoqi Yan, Hubo Zhu, Xiang Yang Xu, Liang Zhu
To understand the seasonal variation of the activated sludge (AS) bacterial community and identify core microbes in different wastewater processing systems, seasonal AS samples were taken from every biological treatment unit within 4 full-scale wastewater treatment plants. These plants adopted A2/O, A/O and oxidation ditch processes and were active in the treatment of different types and sources of wastewater, some domestic and others industrial. The bacterial community composition was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing technology...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Congyan Wang, Kun Jiang, Jiawei Zhou, Bingde Wu
Soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities (SNB) can increase the level of available soil N via biological N-fixation to facilitate successful invasion of several invasive plant species (IPS). Meanwhile, landscape heterogeneity can greatly enhance regional invasibility and increase the chances of successful invasion of IPS. Thus, it is important to understand the soil micro-ecological mechanisms driving the successful invasion of IPS in heterogeneous landscapes. This study performed cross-site comparisons, via metagenomics, to comprehensively analyze the effects of Solidago canadensis invasion on SNB in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ekaterina M Savelieva, Vladimir E Oslovsky, Dmitry S Karlov, Nikolay N Kurochkin, Irina A Getman, Sergey N Lomin, Georgy V Sidorov, Sergey N Mikhailov, Dmitry I Osolodkin, Georgy A Romanov
Biological effects of hormones in both plants and animals are based on high-affinity interaction with cognate receptors resulting in their activation. The signal of cytokinins, classical plant hormones, is perceived in Arabidopsis by three homologous membrane receptors: AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1/AHK4. To study the cytokinin-receptor interaction, we used 25 derivatives of potent cytokinin N6 -benzyladenine (BA) with substituents in the purine heterocycle and/or in the side chain. The study was focused primarily on individual cytokinin receptors from Arabidopsis...
March 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Minkyu Park
Most annotations of large eukaryotic genomes initially find transposable elements (TEs) and other repeats, then mask them so that subsequent efforts can be concentrated on the annotation and study of non-TE genes. However, TEs often contribute to host biology, and their community biologies are of intrinsic interest. This review discusses the challenges, rationale and technologies for comprehensive TE annotation in the commonly giant genomes of animals and plants. Complete discovery of the TEs in a fully sequenced genome is laborious, but feasible, with current strategies in the hands of a careful researcher...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
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