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Global active stretching

Vicent Pelechano, Paula Alepuz
eIF5A is an essential protein involved in protein synthesis, cell proliferation and animal development. High eIF5A expression is observed in many tumor types and has been linked to cancer metastasis. Recent studies have shown that eIF5A facilitates the translation elongation of stretches of consecutive prolines. Activated eIF5A binds to the empty E-site of stalled ribosomes, where it is thought to interact with the peptidyl-tRNA situated at the P-site. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of ribosome stalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A depleted cells using 5Pseq...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Thaddaeus Kwan, Candace L Floyd, Jason Patel, Amanda Mohaimany-Aponte, Peter H King
We recently showed that the RNA regulator, HuR, is translocated to the cytoplasm in astrocytes in the acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI), consistent with its activation. HuR positively modulates expression of many pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-12, which are present at high levels in the early phase of SCI and exacerbate tissue damage. Knockdown of HuR in astrocytes blunts expression of these factors in an in vitro stretch injury model of CNS trauma. In this report, we further investigate the impact of HuR in early SCI using a mouse model in which human HuR is transgenically expressed in astrocytes...
May 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Huijuan Yin, Jacopo M Fontana, Johan Solandt, Johnny Israelsson Jussi, Hao Xu, Hjalmar Brismar, Ying Fu
While adverse effects of nanoparticles on lung health have previously been proposed, few studies have addressed the direct effects of nanoparticle exposure on the airway epithelium. In this work, we examine the response of the pulmonary airway to nanoparticles by measuring intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in the Calu-3 epithelial layer stimulated by 3-mercaptopropionic-acid (3MPA) coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots (QDs). Simultaneous transient transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) decrease and global [Ca(2+)]i increase in Calu-3 epithelial layer, accompanied by cell displacements, contraction, and expansion, were observed under QD deposition...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Mohamed Frikha, Mohammad S Derbel, Nesrine Chaâri, Adnene Gharbi, Karim Chamari
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of stretching procedures on global coordination and accuracy in instep soccer kicks achieved in different stress conditions. Twenty male young soccer players completed the global coordination test (GC), the instep kicking accuracy test in free (FKA) and in time-pressure (TPKA) conditions, either after static (SS), dynamic (DS), ballistic (BS) or no-stretching (CTR) protocols, on nonconsecutive days and in a randomized order. After performing a 5min standardized intensity jogging (70% of MAV), followed by stretching exercises for 10min, each participant completed, successively, the GC, FKA and TPKA tests...
April 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
Júlia Caetano Martins, Larissa Tavares Aguiar, Sylvie Nadeau, Aline Alvim Scianni, Luci Fuscaldi Teixeira-Salmela, Christina Danielli Coelho De Morais Faria
Background: The majority of people after stroke demonstrate mobility limitations, which may reduce their physical activity levels. Task-specific training has shown to be an effective intervention to improve mobility in individuals with stroke, however, little is known about the impact of this intervention on levels of physical activity. Objectives: The main objective will be to investigate the efficacy of a task-specific training, focused on both upper and lower limbs, in improving physical activity levels and mobility in individuals with stroke...
March 23, 2017: Physical Therapy
Kyle Bruun, Jordan R Beach, Sarah M Heissler, Kirsten Remmert, James R Sellers, John A Hammer
The peri-centrosomal localization and morphology of the Golgi apparatus depends largely on the microtubule cytoskeleton and the microtubule motor protein dynein. Recent studies proposed that myosin 18Aα (M18Aα) also contributes to Golgi morphology by binding the Golgi protein GOLPH3 and walking along adjacent actin filaments to stretch the Golgi into its classic ribbon structure. Biochemical analyses have shown, however, that M18A is not an actin-activated ATPase and lacks motor activity. Our goal, therefore, was to define the precise molecular mechanism by which M18Aα determines Golgi morphology...
March 22, 2017: Cytoskeleton
George R Sutherland
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a complex phenomenon, occurring either in apparently normal individuals or in those where there is a recognized underlying cardiac abnormality. In both groups, the lethal arrhythmia has frequently been related to the physiologic trigger of either exercise or stress. Prior research into SCD has focused mainly on a combination of identifying either vulnerable myocardial substrates; pharmacological approaches to altering electrical activation/repolarisation in substrates; or the suppression of induced lethal arrhythmias with implantable defibrillators...
January 29, 2017: European Heart Journal
Franziska Wienholz, Wim Vermeulen, Jurgen A Marteijn
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) comprises two damage recognition pathways: global genome NER (GG-NER) and transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER), which remove a wide variety of helix-distorting lesions including UV-induced damage. During NER, a short stretch of single-stranded DNA containing damage is excised and the resulting gap is filled by DNA synthesis in a process called unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). UDS is measured by quantifying the incorporation of nucleotide analogues into repair patches to provide a measure of NER activity...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Minsang Shin
Secretion of effector proteins in Enteropathogeneic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is mediated by a specialized type III secretion system, components of which are encoded in the LEE operons 1 to 5. H-NS, a global repressor in E. coli, silences the expression of LEE operons. Ler, a master regulator in LEE operons, shares 24% amnio acid identity and 44% amino acid similarity to H-NS. Interestingly, rather than a gene silencer, its main role has been characterized as an antagonizing protein that relieves H-NS-mediated transcriptional silencing...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Keiko Nonomura, Seung-Hyun Woo, Rui B Chang, Astrid Gillich, Zhaozhu Qiu, Allain G Francisco, Sanjeev S Ranade, Stephen D Liberles, Ardem Patapoutian
Respiratory dysfunction is a notorious cause of perinatal mortality in infants and sleep apnoea in adults, but the mechanisms of respiratory control are not clearly understood. Mechanical signals transduced by airway-innervating sensory neurons control respiration; however, the physiological significance and molecular mechanisms of these signals remain obscured. Here we show that global and sensory neuron-specific ablation of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 causes respiratory distress and death in newborn mice...
January 12, 2017: Nature
Matthew B Cooke, Carrie Nix, Lori Greenwood, Mike Greenwood
The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes as well as weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between three recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15±3.53yrs, 75.75±11.91kg, 180.52±7.3cm) were randomly matched by VO2 peak (53...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Joseph A Korn, Daniel P Tabor, Edwin L Sibert, Timothy S Zwier
An important initial step in the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels is the abstraction of hydrogen from alkylbenzenes to form resonance-stabilized alkyl benzyl radicals. This work uses, for the first time, double resonance spectroscopy methods to explore the conformation-specific vibronic and infrared spectroscopy of the α-ethylbenzyl (αEtBz) and α-propylbenzyl (αPrBz) radicals. Local mode Hamiltonian modeling enables assignment of the alkyl CH stretch IR spectra, accounting for Fermi resonance that complicates aliphatic alkyl CH stretch IR spectroscopy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Kwangseok Hong, Guiling Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Zhe Sun, Yan Yang, Philip S Clifford, Michael J Davis, Gerald A Meininger, Michael A Hill
KEY POINTS: Candesartan, an inverse agonist of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1 R), causes a concentration-dependent inhibition of pressure-dependent myogenic tone consistent with previous reports of mechanosensitivity of this G protein-coupled receptor. Mechanoactivation of the AT1 R occurs independently of local angiotensin II production and the type 2 angiotensin receptor. Mechanoactivation of the AT1 R stimulates actin polymerization by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism, but independently of a change in intracellular Ca(2+) ...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Gwen Palmer, Timothy James Hibberd, Tiina Roose, Simon Jh Brookes, Mark Taylor
Mechanosensory neurons detect physical events in the local environments of the tissues that they innervate. Studies of mechanosensitivity of neurons or nerve endings in the gut have related their firing to strain, wall tension or pressure. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a technique from materials engineering that can be adapted to measure the local physical environments of afferent neurons at high resolution. Flat sheet preparations of guinea pig distal colon were set up with arrays of tissue markers, in vitro...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Adrian Wong, Alexander Y L Lau, Eugene Lo, Michael Tang, Zhaolu Wang, Wenyan Liu, Nicole Tanner, Natalie Chau, Lorraine Law, Lin Shi, Winnie C W Chu, Jie Yang, Yun-Yun Xiong, Bonnie Y K Lam, Lisa Au, Anne Y Y Chan, Yannie Soo, Thomas W H Leung, Lawrence K S Wong, Linda C W Lam, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND: Leisure activity participation has been shown to lower risks of cognitive decline in non-stroke populations. However, effects of leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of dementia after stroke are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of recent past leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of incident dementia after stroke. METHODS: Hospital-based, retrospective cohort study...
2016: PloS One
Adriano A Bordalo, Kashane Chalermwat, Catarina Teixeira
Estuarine ecosystems in SE Asia have been poorly studied when compared to other tropical environments. Important gaps exist particularly in the understanding of their biogeochemical function and contribution to global change. In this work we looked into N-turnover in the water column and sediments of the Bangpakong estuary (13°N). A seasonal sampling program was performed along the salinity gradient covering different stretches of the estuary (68km). Key physical and chemical characteristics were also monitored in order to unravel possible environmental controls...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Monica Unsgaard-Tøndel, Ottar Vasseljen, Astrid Woodhouse, Siv Morkved
BACKGROUND: Specific stabilizing exercises activating deep local muscles in coordination with global muscles are recommended in the treatment of pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. Some studies have suggested that recruitment of the deepest abdominal muscle, transversus abdominis, is crucial in the development and improvement of lumbopelvic pain. OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study aimed to describe the development of pain, disability and transversus abdominis recruitment before, during and after an individually designed intervention including an exercise program for women with persisting lumbopelvic pain after delivery...
September 1, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Jessica Charlet, Christopher E Duymich, Fides D Lay, Kamilla Mundbjerg, Karina Dalsgaard Sørensen, Gangning Liang, Peter A Jones
The role of cytosine methylation in the structure and function of enhancers is not well understood. In this study, we investigate the role of DNA methylation at enhancers by comparing the epigenomes of the HCT116 cell line and its highly demethylated derivative, DKO1. Unlike promoters, a portion of regular and super- or stretch enhancers show active H3K27ac marks co-existing with extensive DNA methylation, demonstrating the unexpected presence of bivalent chromatin in both cultured and uncultured cells. Furthermore, our findings also show that bivalent regions have fewer nucleosome-depleted regions and transcription factor-binding sites than monovalent regions...
May 5, 2016: Molecular Cell
Geok-Lin Chua, Suet-Mien Tan, Surajit Bhattacharjya
Kindlins-1,2 and 3 are FERM domain-containing cytosolic proteins involved in the activation and regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Apart from binding to integrin β cytosolic tails, kindlins and the well characterized integrin-activator talin bind membrane phospholipids. The ubiquitin-like F1 sub-domain of the FERM domain of talin contains a short loop that binds to the lipid membrane. By contrast, the F1 sub-domain of kindlins contains a long loop demonstrated binding to the membrane. Here, we report structural characterization and lipid interactions of the 83-residue F1 loop of kindlin-3 using NMR and optical spectroscopy methods...
2016: PloS One
Nathalie A Vikulova, Leonid B Katsnelson, Alexander G Kursanov, Olga Solovyova, Vladimir S Markhasin
We utilized our earlier developed 1D mathematical model of the heart muscle strand to study contribution of the bilateral interactions between excitation and contraction on the cellular and tissue levels to the local and global myocardium function. Numerical experiments on the model showed that an initially uniform strand, formed on the inherently identical cells, became functionally heterogeneous due to the asynchronous excitation via the electrical wave spread. Mechanical interactions between the cells and the mechano-electric feedback beat-to-beat affect the functional characteristics of coupled cardiomyocytes further, adjusting their electrical and mechanical heterogeneity to the activation timing...
August 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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