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Global active stretching

Kwangseok Hong, Guiling Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Zhe Sun, Yan Yang, Philip S Clifford, Michael J Davis, Gerald A Meininger, Michael A Hill
KEY POINTS: Candesartan, an inverse agonist of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1 R), causes a concentration-dependent inhibition of pressure-dependent myogenic tone consistent with previous reports of mechanosensitivity of this G protein-coupled receptor. Mechanoactivation of the AT1 R occurs independently of local angiotensin II production and the type 2 angiotensin receptor. Mechanoactivation of the AT1 R stimulates actin polymerization by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism, but independently of a change in intracellular Ca(2+) ...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Gwen Palmer, Timothy James Hibberd, Tiina Roose, Simon Jh Brookes, Mark Taylor
Mechanosensory neurons detect physical events in the local environments of the tissues that they innervate. Studies of mechanosensitivity of neurons or nerve endings in the gut have related their firing to strain, wall tension or pressure. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a technique from materials engineering that can be adapted to measure the local physical environments of afferent neurons at high resolution. Flat sheet preparations of guinea pig distal colon were set up with arrays of tissue markers, in vitro...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Adrian Wong, Alexander Y L Lau, Eugene Lo, Michael Tang, Zhaolu Wang, Wenyan Liu, Nicole Tanner, Natalie Chau, Lorraine Law, Lin Shi, Winnie C W Chu, Jie Yang, Yun-Yun Xiong, Bonnie Y K Lam, Lisa Au, Anne Y Y Chan, Yannie Soo, Thomas W H Leung, Lawrence K S Wong, Linda C W Lam, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND: Leisure activity participation has been shown to lower risks of cognitive decline in non-stroke populations. However, effects of leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of dementia after stroke are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of recent past leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of incident dementia after stroke. METHODS: Hospital-based, retrospective cohort study...
2016: PloS One
Adriano A Bordalo, Kashane Chalermwat, Catarina Teixeira
Estuarine ecosystems in SE Asia have been poorly studied when compared to other tropical environments. Important gaps exist particularly in the understanding of their biogeochemical function and contribution to global change. In this work we looked into N-turnover in the water column and sediments of the Bangpakong estuary (13°N). A seasonal sampling program was performed along the salinity gradient covering different stretches of the estuary (68km). Key physical and chemical characteristics were also monitored in order to unravel possible environmental controls...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Monica Unsgaard-Tøndel, Ottar Vasseljen, Astrid Woodhouse, Siv Morkved
BACKGROUND: Specific stabilizing exercises activating deep local muscles in coordination with global muscles are recommended in the treatment of pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. Some studies have suggested that recruitment of the deepest abdominal muscle, transversus abdominis, is crucial in the development and improvement of lumbopelvic pain. OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study aimed to describe the development of pain, disability and transversus abdominis recruitment before, during and after an individually designed intervention including an exercise program for women with persisting lumbopelvic pain after delivery...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Jessica Charlet, Christopher E Duymich, Fides D Lay, Kamilla Mundbjerg, Karina Dalsgaard Sørensen, Gangning Liang, Peter A Jones
The role of cytosine methylation in the structure and function of enhancers is not well understood. In this study, we investigate the role of DNA methylation at enhancers by comparing the epigenomes of the HCT116 cell line and its highly demethylated derivative, DKO1. Unlike promoters, a portion of regular and super- or stretch enhancers show active H3K27ac marks co-existing with extensive DNA methylation, demonstrating the unexpected presence of bivalent chromatin in both cultured and uncultured cells. Furthermore, our findings also show that bivalent regions have fewer nucleosome-depleted regions and transcription factor-binding sites than monovalent regions...
May 5, 2016: Molecular Cell
Geok-Lin Chua, Suet-Mien Tan, Surajit Bhattacharjya
Kindlins-1,2 and 3 are FERM domain-containing cytosolic proteins involved in the activation and regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Apart from binding to integrin β cytosolic tails, kindlins and the well characterized integrin-activator talin bind membrane phospholipids. The ubiquitin-like F1 sub-domain of the FERM domain of talin contains a short loop that binds to the lipid membrane. By contrast, the F1 sub-domain of kindlins contains a long loop demonstrated binding to the membrane. Here, we report structural characterization and lipid interactions of the 83-residue F1 loop of kindlin-3 using NMR and optical spectroscopy methods...
2016: PloS One
Nathalie A Vikulova, Leonid B Katsnelson, Alexander G Kursanov, Olga Solovyova, Vladimir S Markhasin
We utilized our earlier developed 1D mathematical model of the heart muscle strand to study contribution of the bilateral interactions between excitation and contraction on the cellular and tissue levels to the local and global myocardium function. Numerical experiments on the model showed that an initially uniform strand, formed on the inherently identical cells, became functionally heterogeneous due to the asynchronous excitation via the electrical wave spread. Mechanical interactions between the cells and the mechano-electric feedback beat-to-beat affect the functional characteristics of coupled cardiomyocytes further, adjusting their electrical and mechanical heterogeneity to the activation timing...
August 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Luca Cavaggioni, Lucio Ongaro, Emanuela Zannin, F Marcello Iaia, Giampietro Alberti
[Purpose] This study determined the effects a new modality of core stabilization exercises based on diaphragmatic breathing on pulmonary function, abdominal fitness, and movement efficiency. [Subjects] Thirty-two physically active, healthy males were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 16) and a control group (n = 16). [Methods] The experimental group combined diaphragmatic breathing exercises with global stretching postures, and the control group performed common abdominal exercises (e.g., crunch, plank, sit-up), both for 15 minutes twice weekly for 6 weeks...
October 2015: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Andrew F Cooper, Asif B Farooq
The importance of the regional dimension of health diplomacy is only gaining slow and uneven recognition. This is in many ways surprising. As demonstrated in the work of Deacon on the 'globalization of social policy', global social policy has been animated and debated not only at the multilateral level but at the regional level as well. But at least in the diplomatic literature, the importance of this regional dynamic (with a focus on diverse sites and actors and the pursuit of democratic control) has been missed...
December 2015: Global Social Policy
Sarita Limbu, Tuan M Hoang-Trong, Benjamin L Prosser, W Jonathan Lederer, M Saleet Jafri
Stretching single ventricular cardiac myocytes has been shown experimentally to activate transmembrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase type 2 to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase the Ca2+ spark rate in a process called X-ROS signaling. The increase in Ca2+ spark rate is thought to be due to an increase in ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) open probability by direct oxidation of the RyR2 protein complex. In this article, a computational model is used to examine the regulation of ROS and calcium homeostasis by local, subcellular X-ROS signaling and its role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling...
November 17, 2015: Biophysical Journal
Yuan Yan Sin, Garrett Baron, Andreas Schulze, Colin D Funk
Arginase-1 (ARG1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the liver-based urea cycle, leading to impaired ureagenesis. This genetic disorder is caused by 40+ mutations found fairly uniformly spread throughout the ARG1 gene, resulting in partial or complete loss of enzyme function, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. ARG1-deficient patients exhibit hyperargininemia with spastic paraparesis, progressive neurological and intellectual impairment, persistent growth retardation, and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, a clinical pattern that differs strikingly from other urea cycle disorders...
December 2015: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Joon-Chul Kim, Sun-Hee Woo
Atrial myocytes are exposed to shear stress during the cardiac cycle and haemodynamic disturbance. In response, they generate a longitudinally propagating global Ca(2+) wave. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the shear stress-mediated Ca(2+) wave, using two-dimensional confocal Ca(2+) imaging combined with a pressurized microflow system in single rat atrial myocytes. Shear stress of ∼16 dyn cm(-2) for 8 s induced ∼1.2 aperiodic longitudinal Ca(2+) waves (∼79 μm s(-1)) with a delay of 0...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Physiology
Susan L Keays, Marjon Mason, Peter A Newcombe
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether improvements after a 1-month patellofemoral pain (PFP) program addressing local and global deficits were maintained for 3 years. DESIGN: This prospective cohort study comprised 4 treatment phases including a randomized trial during week 1. SETTING: The study was conducted in a private physiotherapy practice. PATIENTS: Thirty-seven patients (55 knees) from an original cohort of 41 patients (60 knees) with PFP were followed for 3 years after referral by doctors to participate in this study...
May 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Kaycee M Sink, Mark A Espeland, Cynthia M Castro, Timothy Church, Ron Cohen, John A Dodson, Jack Guralnik, Hugh C Hendrie, Janine Jennings, Jeffery Katula, Oscar L Lopez, Mary M McDermott, Marco Pahor, Kieran F Reid, Julia Rushing, Joe Verghese, Stephen Rapp, Jeff D Williamson
IMPORTANCE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that physical activity benefits cognition, but results from randomized trials are limited and mixed. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a 24-month physical activity program results in better cognitive function, lower risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, or both, compared with a health education program. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized clinical trial, the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, enrolled 1635 community-living participants at 8 US centers from February 2010 until December 2011...
August 25, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Samhita S Rhodes, Amadou K S Camara, Mohammed Aldakkak, James S Heisner, David F Stowe
Stretching the cardiac left ventricle (LV) enhances contractility but its effect on myoplasmic [Ca(2+)] is controversial. We measured LV pressure (LVP) and [Ca(2+)] as a function of intra-LV stretch in guinea pig intact hearts before and after 15 min global stunning ± perfusion with streptomycin (STM), a stretch-activated channel blocker. LV wall [Ca(2+)] was measured by indo-1 fluorescence and LVP by a saline-filled latex balloon inflated in 50 μL steps to stretch the LV. We implemented a mathematical model to interpret cross-bridge dynamics and myofilament Ca(2+) responsiveness from the instantaneous relationship between [Ca(2+)] and LVP ± stretching...
August 2015: Physiological Reports
Sarah L Bell, Cassandra Phoenix, Rebecca Lovell, Benedict W Wheeler
Recent research suggests coastal environments may promote human health and wellbeing. This article explores the diverse coastal experiences sought out by residents of two towns in south west England to promote and preserve their personal wellbeing in the context of their everyday lives. It draws on the findings of an in-depth interpretive study conducted from May to November 2013 that examined the relative contribution of varied green and blue space experiences to individual wellbeing through the life course...
October 2015: Social Science & Medicine
Pasquale Bianco, Zsolt Mártonfalvi, Katalin Naftz, Dorina Kőszegi, Miklós Kellermayer
Titin is a giant filamentous protein of the muscle sarcomere in which stretch induces the unfolding of its globular domains. However, the mechanisms of how domains are progressively selected for unfolding and which domains eventually unfold have for long been elusive. Based on force-clamp optical tweezers experiments we report here that, in a paradoxical violation of mechanically driven activation kinetics, neither the global domain unfolding rate, nor the folded-state lifetime distributions of full-length titin are sensitive to force...
July 21, 2015: Biophysical Journal
Katherine Mills, Angela Payne
OBJECTIVE: Occupation, or meaningful activity, can contribute to the well-being and quality of life of all individuals. It is thus a logical tautology that occupation should be enabled for those at the end of life. Our present review examines current provision of these processes by Occupational Therapist, who can be much-valued members of multidisciplinary palliative care teams. METHOD: Following a literature search and critical selection, 10 global papers were identified examining occupation and occupational therapy at the end of life in the acute, hospice, and community environments...
December 2015: Palliative & Supportive Care
Gianluigi Pironti, Ryan T Strachan, Dennis Abraham, Samuel Mon-Wei Yu, Minyong Chen, Wei Chen, Kenji Hanada, Lan Mao, Lewis J Watson, Howard A Rockman
BACKGROUND: Whether biomechanical force on the heart can induce exosome secretion to modulate cardiovascular function is not known. We investigated the secretion and activity of exosomes containing a key receptor in cardiovascular function, the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R). METHODS AND RESULTS: Exosomes containing AT1Rs were isolated from the media overlying AT1R-overexpressing cells exposed to osmotic stretch and from sera of mice undergoing cardiac pressure overload...
June 16, 2015: Circulation
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