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Theresa Currier Thomas, Ellen Magee Stockhausen, L Matthew Law, Aida Khodadad, Jonathan Lifshitz
BACKGROUND: As rehabilitation strategies advance as therapeutic interventions, the modality and onset of rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are critical to optimize treatment. Our laboratory has detected and characterized a late-onset, long-lasting sensory hypersensitivity to whisker stimulation in diffuse brain-injured rats; a deficit that is comparable to visual or auditory sensory hypersensitivity in humans with an acquired brain injury. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the modality and onset of rehabilitation therapies will differentially influence sensory hypersensitivity in response to the Whisker Nuisance Task (WNT) as well as WNT-induced corticosterone (CORT) stress response in diffuse brain-injured rats and shams...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Christoph Klein
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child not only grants comprehensive rights to children via international law, it also constitutes a legally binding framework under German federal law. With respect to health care, the convention establishes the "right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health" and the principle that "the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration" in all actions undertaken by public or private institutions. Here, some fundamental aspects of the convention and the monitoring of its implementation are summarized and current challenges in paediatric medicine in Germany are discussed in light of the convention...
October 16, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
Ulrike Beilenhoff, Holger Biering, Reinhard Blum, Jadranka Brljak, Monica Cimbro, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Cesare Hassan, Michael Jung, Christiane Neumann, Michael Pietsch, Lionel Pineau, Thierry Ponchon, Stanislav Rejchrt, Jean-François Rey, Verona Schmidt, Jayne Tillett, Jeanin van Hooft
Patients should be informed about the benefits and risks of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)Only specially trained and competent personnel should carry out endoscope reprocessing.Manufacturers of duodenoscopes should provide detailed instructions on how to use and reprocess their equipment.In the case of modifications to their equipment, manufacturers should provide updated instructions for use.Detailed reprocessing protocols based on the manufacturer's instructions for use should clearly lay out the different reprocessing steps necessary for each endoscope model...
October 16, 2017: Endoscopy
Dominique Barchiesi, Thomas Grosges
Some inputs of computational models are commonly retrieved from external sources (handbooks, articles, dedicated measurements), and therefore are subject to uncertainties. The known experimental dispersion of the inputs can be propagated through the numerical models to produce samples of outputs. The stemming propagation of uncertainties is already significant in metrology but also has applications in optimization and inverse problem resolution of the modeled physical system. Moreover, the information on uncertainties can be used to characterize and compare models, and to deduce behavior laws...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Xinyu Peng, Dong Ye, Munchun Zhou, Yu Xin, Minmin Song
The far-zone spectral isotropy of light radiated from a secondary planar quasi-homogeneous (QH) source scattering on a QH medium has been discussed. Without assuming the specified function of incident light, a sufficient condition for the far-zone spectral isotropy has been expressed as a new scaling law, which is analogous with the scaling law for weak scattering in previous works. Special examples are discussed to validate the obtained scaling law.
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Cristian E Gutiérrez, Luca Pallucchini, Eric Stachura
This paper provides a mathematical approach to study metasurfaces in nonflat geometries. Analytical conditions between the curvature of the surface and the set of refracted directions are introduced to guarantee the existence of phase discontinuities. The approach contains both the near and far field cases. A starting point is the formulation of a vector Snell's law in the presence of abrupt discontinuities on the interfaces.
July 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Jeremy P Bos, V S Rao Gudimetla, Jason D Schmidt
We derive a generalized expression for the differential piston phase variance in non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Specifically, our result applies in the case where index of refraction is described by a power-law medium with an exponent between 0 and 1. Kolmogorov assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy are maintained. After some development, our expression is derived using the Mellin-transform techniques and may be generalized to other forms for the three-dimensional index of refraction turbulence power spectrum...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Jue Wang, Lin Wang, Yu Xin, Minmin Song
We use analytical and numerical techniques to study the superposition of two vector Laguerre-Guassian (LG) beams. Vector LG beams contain rich polarization information and have many interesting intensity and polarization features. The composited electric field shows an inhomogeneous polarization distribution. We focus on looking for the distribution laws for the singularities obtained. The number and positions of singularity points are calculated and confirmed by numerical methods. We also study the fundamental cases for nonconcentric superposed vector LG beams and discover the difference distribution laws of several types of singular points in all the possible combinations...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Sarah L Silverberg, Vanessa E Zannella, Drew Countryman, Ana Patricia Ayala, Erica Lenton, Farah Friesen, Marcus Law
Objectives: We reviewed the published literature on antimicrobial stewardship training in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education to determine which interventions have been implemented, the extent to which they have been evaluated, and to understand which are most effective. Methods: We searched Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to December 2016. Four thousand three hundred eighty-five (4385) articles were identified and underwent title and abstract review...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
Guihua Xu, Fengjun Yin, Yuanjian Xu, Han-Qing Yu
Sludge settling as the last step in the biological wastewater treatment process substantially affects the system performance, and thus the design and control optimization of the sludge settling process has been frequently investigated with mathematical modeling tools. So far, these models are developed on the basis of the solid flux theory with numerous parameters and complicated boundary conditions, and their prediction results are often unsatisfactory. In this work, a new force-based mechanical model with five parameters was developed, in which five forces were adopted and Newton's law, rather than the flux theory, was used to describe the sludge settling process...
October 10, 2017: Water Research
Hung-Ling Chen, Chalermchai Himwas, Andrea Scaccabarozzi, Pierre Rale, Fabrice Oehler, Aristide Lemaitre, Laurent Lombez, Jean-Francois Guillemoles, Maria Tchernycheva, Jean-Christophe Harmand, Andrea Cattoni, Stéphane Collin
We present an effective method to determine the doping level in n-type III-V semiconductors at the nanoscale. Low-temperature and room-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements are carried out on single Si-doped GaAs nanowires. The spectral shift to higher energy (Burstein-Moss shift) and the broadening of luminescence spectra are signatures of increased electron densities. They are compared to the CL spectra of calibrated Si-doped GaAs layers whose doping levels are determined by Hall measurements...
October 16, 2017: Nano Letters
Kristen A Ogilvie
Since 1981, Alaskans have had the ability to enact by referendum local restrictions in alcohol sales, importation, and possession, known as "local options." Intended to empower rural communities to reduce alcohol abuse and associated violence and trauma, the "local option" laws have led to unintended consequences as individuals in alcohol-restricted communities seek intoxication from both legal and illegal sources of alcohol. Based on 68 interviews with 72 community members in eight rural sites in Alaska, this article examines these unintended consequences of local options restrictions and provides context to the challenges rural communities face in implementing alcohol policies...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
Marc W Howard, Karthik H Shankar
Autonomous neural systems must efficiently process information in a wide range of novel environments which may have very different statistical properties. We consider the problem of how to optimally distribute receptors along a 1-dimensional continuum consistent with the following design principles. First, neural representations of the world should obey a neural uncertainty principle-making as few assumptions as possible about the statistical structure of the world. Second, neural representations should convey, as much as possible, equivalent information about environments with different statistics...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
Amit A Patel, Ravish J Patel, Shachi R Patel
Intranasal drug delivery system provide distinct advantage over conventional drug delivery system for a drug that is pharmacokenetically or biologically unstable. Major concern for treatment of central nervous system diseases are law concentration of therapeutically active molecule within brain as blood brain barrier is creating obstacle, where intranasal drug delivery provides direct transport of therapeutically active moiety into brain via olfactory or trigeminal pathway. Nasal mucosa provides distinct advantage like improved bioavailability, law dose and quick onset of action and high patient compliance, major disadvantage is residence time of drug and irreversible entrapment of drug...
October 13, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
Rocco Palumbo
Scholars and practitioners share a significant concern about rising healthcare costs. Health literacy is widely presented as a solution to this momentous issue, paving the way for a more appropriate access to care and therefore, for cost savings. However, to date little is still known about the ultimate effects of better health literacy on healthcare costs. Drawing from the findings of a systematic literature review which ultimately involved 29 papers retrieved from Scopus-Elsevier and PubMed. This manuscript is aimed at shedding light on the relationship between health literacy and healthcare costs...
January 1, 2017: Health Services Management Research
Richard Griffith
Richard Griffith, Senior Lecturer in Health Law at Swansea University, discusses the elements of effective evidence giving when appearing before a court or fitness to practise panel.
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Emmanuel Allory, Agnès Banâtre, Eléonore Bourbonnois, Gaëlle Le Cavil, Bertille Leborgne, Françoise Tattevin, Sidonie Chhor, Laure Fiquet
INTRODUCTION: French law of 4 March 2002 instituted health democracy, making health system users a real partner and active stakeholder in the healthcare system. This role of health system users must be taken into account particularly in health priority areas in order to reduce social inequalities in health. In the context of primary care, multidisciplinary clinics would appear to be ideal places to develop the expression of health democracy. OBJECTIVE: Identify the health expectations of the users of the Villejean clinic (Brittany, France) situated in a health priority area...
October 2, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Dan Abreu, Travis W Parker, Chanson D Noether, Henry J Steadman, Brian Case
A conceptual model for community-based strategic planning to address the criminalization of adults with mental and substance use disorders, the Sequential Intercept Model has provided jurisdictions with a framework that overcomes traditional boundaries between the agencies within the criminal justice and behavioral health systems. This article presents a new paradigm, Intercept 0, for expanding the utility of the Sequential Intercept Model at the front end of the criminal justice system. Intercept 0 encompasses the early intervention points for people with mental and substance use disorders before they are placed under arrest by law enforcement...
October 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Inbal Blau, Liran Levin
With the plethora of medical malpractice claims, health care providers are forced to deal not only with medical matters but also with legal issues. Thus, unfortunately, every time health care providers give a medical treatment, they should be aware of the legal implications of their act. Most medical malpractice cases will be resolved in civil law and will have financial implications, but in extreme cases (such as causing death by negligence) criminal procedure may also be conducted, meaning criminal sanctions (imprisonment or fine)...
2017: Quintessence International
Suprawee Khongthanachayopit, Wongsa Laohasiriwong
Background. There is an increasing trend of trans-border migration from neighboring countries to Thailand. According to human rights laws, everyone must have access to health services, even if they are from other nationalities.  However, a small minority of health personnel in Thailand discriminate against immigrant workers, as they are from a lower financial bracket. Methods. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of accessibility to health services and factors associated with access to health services among migrant workers who work along the Northeast border of Thailand...
2017: F1000Research
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