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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651146/the-effects-of-drinking-and-driving-laws-on-car-crashes-injuries-and-deaths-evidence-from-chile
#1
Sebastián Otero, Tomás Rau
This paper analyzes the effects of lowering the legal blood alcohol content limit for drivers from 0.05 to 0.03 grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood (g/dL) and increasing license suspension periods for offenders. We take advantage of a rich data set of administrative records that allow us to identify direct measures of accidents involving alcohol including fatalities and injuries. Results show a significant decrease of 32% in alcohol-related car accidents right after the law was approved but the effects moderate over time (15% after three years)...
June 23, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651140/comparison-of-kinetic-analysis-methods-in-thermal-decomposition-of-cattle-manure-by-themogravimetric-analysis
#2
Guanyi Chen, Sirong He, Zhanjun Cheng, Yanan Guan, Beibei Yan, Wenchao Ma, Dennis Y C Leung
The thermogravimetric (TG) experiments of cattle manure were carried out from room temperature to 900°C at five different heating rates (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50°C/min) and the kinetics of the main decomposition process were analyzed with different methods. TG curves indicate that the major decomposition process of cattle manure could be roughly divided into three stages. The average activation energy of each stage calculated by Coats-Redfern method are 68.95, 2.63 and 55.32kJ/mol respectively. The kinetic parameters given by Distributed Activation Energy Model method, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method and Vyazovkin method are all show that the activation energies keep stable (at around 122...
June 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651112/secondary-harm-mitigation-a-more-humanitarian-framework-for-international-drug-law-enforcement
#3
Jarrett Blaustein, Miki McLay, Jude McCulloch
This article introduces the concept of 'secondary harm mitigation' as a framework for improving the humanitarian credentials of international drug law enforcement agencies. The concept is rooted in a critical analysis of the compatibility of the harm reduction philosophy with Australia's international drug law enforcement practices. On a utilitarian level, the net benefits of international drug law enforcement are determined to be, at best inconclusive, arguably counterproductive and in most cases, incalculable...
June 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650502/zipf-s-law-for-pore-ranking-and-pore-anisotropy
#4
Philippos Pomonis, Antigoni Margellou
In this work it is shown that the range of Zipf's law for the ranking of random pores in solids upholds for ∼10 orders of magnitude, from nm pore sizes in laboratory-made materials, to cm pore sizes occurring in solidified volcanic magmas. Also it is demonstrated that for MCM-type materials with organized mesopores, the out-of-trend data in the Zipf plots, corresponding to the sudden pore filling during N2 adsorption, can be used for the convenient estimation of local pore anisotropy.
June 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650497/extreme-ultraviolet-resist-materials-for-sub-7-nm-patterning
#5
Li Li, Xuan Liu, Shyam Pal, Shulan Wang, Christopher K Ober, Emmanuel P Giannelis
Continuous ongoing development of dense integrated circuits requires significant advancements in nanoscale patterning technology. As a key process in semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM), high resolution lithography is crucial in keeping with Moore's law. Currently, lithography technology for the sub-7 nm node and beyond has been actively investigated approaching atomic level patterning. EUV technology is now considered to be a potential alternative to HVM for replacing in some cases ArF immersion technology combined with multi-patterning...
June 26, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650185/sexual-misconduct-in-prison-what-factors-affect-whether-incarcerated-women-will-report-abuses-committed-by-prison-staff
#6
Sheryl P Kubiak, Hannah J Brenner, Deborah Bybee, Rebecca Campbell, Cristy E Cummings, Kathleen M Darcy, Gina Fedock, Rachael Goodman-Williams
More than 80,000 prisoners each year are sexually victimized during incarceration, but only about 8% report victimization to correctional authorities. Complicating reporting is the fact that half of the perpetrators are staff members. Given the restrictive and highly regulated prison environment, studies that examine reporting behaviors are difficult to conduct and to date information available relied on those who have reported or hypothetical victimization studies. This study uses an ecological framework and archival data from a class action lawsuit of sexual misconduct to determine predictors of reporting...
June 26, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649802/punctal-occlusion-for-dry-eye-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Ann-Margret Ervin, Andrew Law, Andrew D Pucker
BACKGROUND: Dry eye syndrome is a disorder of the tear film that is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. Punctal occlusion is a mechanical treatment that blocks the tear drainage system in order to aid in the preservation of natural tears on the ocular surface. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of punctal plugs versus no punctal plugs, different types of punctal plugs, and other interventions for managing dry eye. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 8 December 2016), Embase...
June 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649473/focus-expansion-and-stability-of-the-spread-parameter-estimate-of-the-power-law-model-for-dispersal-gradients
#8
Peter S Ojiambo, David H Gent, Lucky K Mehra, David Christie, Roger Magarey
Empirical and mechanistic modeling indicate that pathogens transmitted via aerially dispersed inoculum follow a power law, resulting in dispersive epidemic waves. The spread parameter (b) of the power law model, which is an indicator of the distance of the epidemic wave front from an initial focus per unit time, has been found to be approximately 2 for several animal and plant diseases over a wide range of spatial scales under conditions favorable for disease spread. Although disease spread and epidemic expansion can be influenced by several factors, the stability of the parameter b over multiple epidemic years has not been determined...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649029/determination-of-chemical-oxygen-demand-cod-using-an-alternative-wet-chemical-method-free-of-mercury-and-dichromate
#9
Marit Kolb, Müfit Bahadir, Burkhard Teichgräber
Worldwide, the standard methods for the determination of the important wastewater parameter chemical oxygen demand (COD) are still based on the use of the hazardous chemicals, mercury sulfate and chromium(VI). However, due to their properties they are meanwhile classified as "priority pollutants" and shall be phased out or banned in the frame of REACH (current European Chemical Law: Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals) by the European Union. Hence, a new wet-chemical method free of mercury and chromium(VI) was developed...
June 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648564/optimal-management-of-nutrient-reserves-in-microorganisms-under-time-varying-environmental-conditions
#10
Olga A Nev, Oleg A Nev, Hugo A van den Berg
Intracellular reserves are a conspicuous feature of many bacteria; such internal stores are often present in the form of inclusions in which polymeric storage compounds are accumulated. Such reserves tend to increase in times of plenty and be used up in times of scarcity. Mathematical models that describe the dynamical nature of reserve build-up and use are known as "cell quota," "dynamic energy/nutrient budget," or "variable-internal-stores" models. Here we present a stoichiometrically consistent macro-chemical model that accounts for variable stores as well as adaptive allocation of building blocks to various types of catalytic machinery...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648490/interface-between-physics-and-biology-training-a-new-generation-of-creative-bilingual-scientists
#11
Daniel Riveline, Karsten Kruse
Whereas physics seeks for universal laws underlying natural phenomena, biology accounts for complexity and specificity of molecular details. Contemporary biological physics requires people capable of working at this interface. New programs prepare scientists who transform respective disciplinary views into innovative approaches for solving outstanding problems in the life sciences.
June 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648467/differentiating-could-from-should-developmental-changes-in-modal-cognition
#12
Andrew Shtulman, Jonathan Phillips
Young children have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate physical laws (impossible events) from those that violate mere physical regularities (improbable events). They judge both as "impossible." Young children also have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate moral laws (immoral events) from events that violate mere social regularities (unconventional events). They judge both as "wrong." In this set of studies, we explored the possibility that both difficulties arise from a more general deficit in modal cognition, or the way in which children represent and reason about possibilities...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648075/synergistic-effects-of-gold-palladium-nanoalloys-and-reducible-supports-on-the-catalytic-reduction-of-4-nitrophenol
#13
Ndzondelelo Bingwa, Rapelang Patala, Jihyang Noh, Matumuene Joe Ndolomingo, Siyamthanda Tetyana, Semakaleng Bewana, Reinout Meijboom
Herein we report on the catalytic activity of mesoporous nickel, iron, cerium, cobalt and manganese oxides prepared using KIT-6 as a hard-template via evaporation assisted precipitation. The mesoporous metal oxides (MMOs) were characterized and used as heterogeneous catalysts in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-Nip) by sodium borohydride (〖BH〗_4^-). Furthermore, polyamidoamide (PAMAM) dendrimers were used to synthesize Gold-Palladium nanoalloy particles. The size of AuPd/PAMAM was found to be 3.5 ± 0...
June 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647725/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-patients-and-cardiologists-experiences-of-the-informed-consent-process-in-northern-england-a-qualitative-study
#14
Joy Probyn, Joanne Greenhalgh, Janet Holt, Dwayne Conway, Felicity Astin
OBJECTIVE: Informed consent is central to ethical medical practice, but little is known about how the process takes place in clinical practice. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common revascularisation procedure. Studies report that patients overestimate benefits, forget the risks and are unaware of alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to describe PCI patients' and cardiologists' experiences of the informed consent process in acute care settings. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A qualitative study with a maximum variation sample of elective and acute PCI patients and cardiologists taking their consent, recruited from a district general hospital and tertiary centre...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647703/selling-a-gun-to-a-stranger-without-a-background-check-acceptable-behaviour
#15
David Hemenway, Deborah Azrael, Matthew Miller
OBJECTIVE: One way that guns get into the wrong hands is via gun sales without a background check. While the large majority of Americans support laws requiring universal background checks, no prior study has assessed whether Americans think it is acceptable behaviour to sell a gun to a stranger without a background check, whether or not there is a law against it. METHODS: We sponsored a nationally representative survey of over 3900 American adults, oversampling gun owners, using an online panel provided by the survey firm Growth for Knowledge...
June 24, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647692/female-genital-mutilation-the-law-as-it-relates-to-children
#16
REVIEW
Jeremy Weston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 24, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647002/natural-killers-the-bad-guys-in%C3%A2-fibrosis
#17
Jan-Eric Turner
Immune cells infiltrating the tubulointerstitium critically contribute to the progression of chronic kidney disease. In this issue of Kidney international, Law et al. provide first evidence for a role of natural killer cells in the perpetuation of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in human renal disease. By detailed flow cytometric characterization of leukocytes isolated from kidney biopsies of chronic kidney disease patients, they define accumulation of natural killer cells as a feature of fibrotic kidney tissue and provide insight into potential mechanisms of how these cells might promote chronic kidney inflammation...
July 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646733/walls-and-laws-structural-barriers-to-forensic-psychiatric-research
#18
EDITORIAL
G Meynen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645977/vitamin-d-status-and-associated-factors-among-portuguese-older-adults-results-from-the-nutrition-up-65-cross-sectional-study
#19
Alejandro Santos, Teresa F Amaral, Rita S Guerra, Ana S Sousa, Luisa Álvares, Pedro Moreira, Patrícia Padrão, Cláudia Afonso, Nuno Borges
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vitamin D status and its associated factors in Portuguese older adults from the Nutrition UP 65 study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Nationwide cluster sample of 1500 Portuguese subjects ≥65 years old. Participants were classified, according to US Institute of Medicine cut-offs, as presenting normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels (≥50.0 nmol/L), at risk of inadequacy (30...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645036/influence-of-surface-states-on-blinking-characteristics-of-single-colloidal-cdse-cds-zns-core-multishell-quantum-dot
#20
Hao Xu, Hjalmar Brismar, Ying Fu
We carefully characterized the fluorescence blinking of single colloidal CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots (QDs) with different surface modifications, including octadecylamine (ODA) coated QDs dispersed in chloroform, aqueous 3-mercaptopropionic acids (3MPA) coated QDs in HEPES solution treated by Ca(2+) ions and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Ca(2+) chelator), and aqueous 3MPA-QDs treated by glycerol. It was found that the on- and off-state probability density distributions displayed different rules...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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