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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340513/mendelian-randomisation-implicates-hyperlipidaemia-as-a-risk-factor-for-colorectal-cancer
#1
Henry Rodriguez-Broadbent, Philip J Law, Amit Sud, Kimmo Palin, Sari Tuupanen, Alexandra Gylfe, Ulrika A Hänninen, Tatiana Cajuso, Tomas Tanskanen, Johanna Kondelin, Eevi Kaasinen, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Samuli Ripatti, Johan G Eriksson, Harri Rissanen, Paul Knekt, Eero Pukkala, Pekka Jousilahti, Veikko Salomaa, Aarno Palotie, Laura Renkonen-Sinisalo, Anna Lepistö, Jan Böhm, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Nada A Al-Tassan, Claire Palles, Lynn Martin, Ella Barclay, Susan M Farrington, Maria N Timofeeva, Brian F Meyer, Salma M Wakil, Harry Campbell, Christopher G Smith, Shelley Idziaszczyk, Timothy S Maughan, Richard Kaplan, Rachel Kerr, David Kerr, Michael N Passarelli, Jane C Figueiredo, Daniel D Buchanan, Aung K Win, John L Hopper, Mark A Jenkins, Noralane M Lindor, Polly A Newcomb, Steven Gallinger, David Conti, Fred Schumacher, Graham Casey, Lauri A Aaltonen, Jeremy P Cheadle, Ian P Tomlinson, Malcolm G Dunlop, Richard S Houlston
While elevated blood cholesterol has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in observational studies, causality is uncertain. Here we apply a Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis to examine the potential causal relationship between lipid traits and CRC risk. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with blood levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as instrumental variables (IV). We calculated MR estimates for each risk factor with CRC using SNP-CRC associations from 9,254 cases and 18,386 controls...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340241/pragmatic-trial-informatics-a-perspective-from-the-nih-health-care-systems-research-collaboratory
#2
Rachel L Richesson, Beverly B Green, Reesa Laws, Jon Puro, Michael G Kahn, Alan Bauck, Michelle Smerek, Erik G Van Eaton, Meredith Zozus, W Ed Hammond, Kari A Stephens, Greg E Simon
Pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) are research investigations embedded in health care settings designed to increase the efficiency of research and its relevance to clinical practice. The Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory, initiated by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund in 2010, is a pioneering cooperative aimed at identifying and overcoming operational challenges to pragmatic research. Drawing from our experience, we present 4 broad categories of informatics-related challenges: (1) using clinical data for research, (2) integrating data from heterogeneous systems, (3) using electronic health records to support intervention delivery or health system change, and (4) assessing and improving data capture to define study populations and outcomes...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340195/nicotine-sales-to-minors-store-level-comparison-of-e-cigarette-vs-cigarette-violation-rates
#3
Arnold H Levinson
Introduction.: In recent years, e-cigarettes overtook cigarettes as the leading tobacco product used by U.S. adolescents. Most states, as well as federal regulations, have added e-cigarettes to laws prohibiting tobacco products sales to minors. We tested compliance with the newer regulation among Colorado urban retail businesses, speculating that violations might be more common for e-cigarettes than smokable cigarettes. Methods.: Supervised minors visited a random sample of urban businesses and sequentially attempted to purchase an e-cigarette product and cigarettes...
March 15, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340036/value-of-multiple-proficiency-test-schema-to-identify-issues-in-amino-acid-quantitation
#4
Yachana Kataria, Terence Law, Roy Peake, Patti Jones, Mark Kellogg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339661/the-effectiveness-of-current-french-health-warnings-displayed-on-alcohol-advertisements-and-alcoholic-beverages
#5
Gloria Dossou, Karine Gallopel-Morvan, Jacques-François Diouf
Many countries use health warnings in an attempt to regulate alcohol consumption. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence in the research on alcohol warnings to support decision-making on effective health policies. This study explores the effectiveness of two mandatory warnings introduced in France in 1991 and 2007: the first (Alcohol abuse is harmful) is displayed on alcohol advertisements; the second (a pictogram) on bottles. Given that advertising content regulations have been implemented in some countries to reduce the attractiveness of alcohol marketing (e...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339426/evolution-of-us-health-care-reform
#6
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Standiford Helm Ii, Ramsin M Benyamin, Joshua A Hirsch
Major health policy creation or changes, including governmental and private policies affecting health care delivery are based on health care reform(s). Health care reform has been a global issue over the years and the United States has seen proposals for multiple reforms over the years. A successful, health care proposal in the United States with involvement of the federal government was the short-lived establishment of the first system of national medical care in the South. In the 20th century, the United States was influenced by progressivism leading to the initiation of efforts to achieve universal coverage, supported by a Republican presidential candidate, Theodore Roosevelt...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339248/anderson-transition-of-cold-atoms-with-synthetic-spin-orbit-coupling-in-two-dimensional-speckle-potentials
#7
Giuliano Orso
We investigate the metal-insulator transition occurring in two-dimensional (2D) systems of noninteracting atoms in the presence of artificial spin-orbit interactions and a spatially correlated disorder generated by laser speckles. Based on a high order discretization scheme, we calculate the precise position of the mobility edge and verify that the transition belongs to the symplectic universality class. We show that the mobility edge depends strongly on the mixing angle between Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335392/conscientious-objection-to-animal-experimentation-in-italian-universities
#8
Ilaria Baldelli, Alma Massaro, Susanna Penco, Anna Maria Bassi, Sara Patuzzo, Rosagemma Ciliberti
In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies...
March 13, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335359/temperature-and-angle-dependent-magnetic-properties-of-ni-nanotube-arrays-fabricated-by-electrodeposition-in-polycarbonate-templates
#9
Yonghui Chen, Chen Xu, Yibo Zhou, Khan Maaz, Huijun Yao, Dan Mo, Shuangbao Lyu, Jinglai Duan, Jie Liu
Parallel arrays of Ni nanotubes with an external diameter of 150 nm, a wall thickness of 15 nm, and a length of 1.2 ± 0.3 µm were successfully fabricated in ion-track etched polycarbonate (PC) templates by electrochemical deposition. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Structural analyses indicate that Ni nanotubes have a polycrystalline structure with no preferred orientation...
December 1, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335337/effect-of-crystal-orientation-on-self-assembly-nanocones-formed-on-tungsten-surface-induced-by-helium-ion-irradiation-and-annealing
#10
Shilin Huang, Guang Ran, Penghui Lei, Shenghua Wu, Nanjun Chen, Ning Li
The self-assembly nanocone structures on the surface of polycrystalline tungsten were created by He⁺ ion irradiation and then annealing, and the resulting topography and morphology were characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The cross-sectional samples of the self-assembly nanocones were prepared using an in situ-focused ion beam and then observed using transmission electron microscopy. The self-assembly nanocones were induced by the combined effect of He⁺ ion irradiation, the annealing process and the chromium impurity...
November 12, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335306/ionic-adsorption-and-desorption-of-cnt-nanoropes
#11
Jun-Jun Shang, Qing-Sheng Yang, Xiao-Hui Yan, Xiao-Qiao He, Kim-Meow Liew
A nanorope is comprised of several carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different chiralities. A molecular dynamic model is built to investigate the ionic adsorption and desorption of the CNT nanoropes. The charge distribution on the nanorope is obtained by using a modified gradient method based on classical electrostatic theory. The electrostatic interactions among charged carbon atoms are calculated by using the Coulomb law. It was found here that the charged nanorope can adsorb heavy metal ions, and the adsorption and desorption can be realized by controlling the strength of applied electric field...
September 28, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335000/better-than-sham-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-neurofeedback-study-in-primary-insomnia
#12
Manuel Schabus, Hermann Griessenberger, Maria-Teresa Gnjezda, Dominik P J Heib, Malgorzata Wislowska, Kerstin Hoedlmoser
Neurofeedback training builds upon the simple concept of instrumental conditioning, i.e. behaviour that is rewarded is more likely to reoccur, an effect Thorndike referred to as the 'law of effect'. In the case of neurofeedback, information about specific electroencephalographic activity is fed back to the participant who is rewarded whenever the desired electroencephalography pattern is generated. If some kind of hyperarousal needs to be addressed, the neurofeedback community considers sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback as the gold standard...
February 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334839/heather-conway-the-law-and-the-dead
#13
Thomas L Muinzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334772/transparency-policies-of-the-european-medicines-agency-has-the-paradigm-shifted
#14
Daria Kim
This article reflects on the state of play as regards access to non-summary clinical trial data in the European Union (EU). In particular, it examines the scope of access under the recent transparency policies of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) that attempt to break away from the presumptively confidential treatment of clinical trial data. In light of the emerging case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union on clinical trial data disclosure, it remains highly uncertain what data, and under what conditions, can be lawfully released by the EMA...
February 23, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334747/the-family-planning-conundrum-in-afghanistan
#15
Hemat Shafiqullah, Ayako Morita, Keiko Nakamura, Kaoruko Seino
In Afghanistan, despite the high awareness levels of contraceptive methods, the contraceptive prevalence is low and short birth spacing is common. The aim of this study was to understand the perception about family planning and contraceptive utilization among reproductive-aged married women, their husbands, their mothers-in-law, religious leaders and healthcare providers. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among married women of reproductive age ( n =  482), their husbands ( n =  133), their mothers-in-law ( n =  194), their religious leaders ( n =  16), and healthcare providers ( n =  36) in rural and urban areas in five provinces...
October 20, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334680/assessing-driving-forces-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-by-a-mixed-method-approach-in-north-eastern-ghana-west-africa
#16
Janina Kleemann, Gülendam Baysal, Henry N N Bulley, Christine Fürst
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334531/nanoscale-vacuum-channel-transistor
#17
Jin-Woo Han, Dong-Il Moon, M Meyyappan
Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm...
March 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334438/insurance-denials-for-cancer-clinical-trial-participation-after-the-affordable-care-act-mandate
#18
Christine B Mackay, Kaitlyn R Antonelli, Suanna S Bruinooge, Jarron M Saint Onge, Shellie D Ellis
BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes a mandate requiring most private health insurers to cover routine patient care costs for cancer clinical trial participation; however, the impact of this provision on cancer centers' efforts to accrue patients to clinical trials has not been well described. METHODS: First, members of cancer research centers and community-based institutions (n = 252) were surveyed to assess the status of insurance denials, and then, a focused survey (n = 77) collected denial details...
March 23, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334367/modeling-of-stiffness-and-strength-of-bone-at-nanoscale
#19
Diab W Abueidda, Fereshteh A Sabet, Iwona M Jasiuk
Two distinct geometrical models of bone at nanoscale (collagen fibril and mineral platelets) are analyzed computationally. In the first model (Model I) minerals are periodically distributed in a staggered manner in a collagen matrix while in the second model (Model II) minerals form continuous layers outside the collagen fibril. Elastic modulus and strength of bone at the nanoscale, represented by these two models, are studied using a finite element software Abaqus. The analysis employs a traction-separation law (cohesive surface modeling) at various interfaces in the models to account for interfacial delaminations...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334264/spatial-patterns-and-sequential-sampling-plans-for-predators-of-aphis-glycines-hemiptera-aphididae-in-minnesota-soybean
#20
Anh K Tran, Robert L Koch
The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an economically important soybean pest. Many studies have demonstrated that predatory insects are important in suppressing A. glycines population growth. However, to improve the utilization of predators in A. glycines management, sampling plans need to be developed and validated for predators. Aphid predators were sampled in soybean fields near Rosemount, Minnesota, from 2006-2007 and 2013-2015 with sample sizes of 20-80 plants. Sampling plans were developed for Orius insidiosus (Say), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), and all aphidophagous Coccinellidae species combined...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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