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R Verley, P Gaillard
Evoked potentials (laminar analysis and latencies) and unit discharges upon electrical stimulation of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve are studied in mice between postnatal days (PN) 8 and 20. Evoked potentials are negative at the surface of the cortex until PN 16. Latencies reach adult values by the end of the third postnatal week. Comparison with rats shows that mice are relatively less mature than rats at same postnatal ages. A comparison of electrophysiological events and anatomical data shows that between PN 8 and 10 electrical activity is limited to the marginal layer and the outer part of the cortical plate...
November 1978: Neuroscience Letters
H van der Loos, J Dörfl
When the muzzle of a mouse bears an occasional extra whisker, the corresponding barrelfield (in the contralateral somatosensory cortex) contains an extra barrel in a topologically equivalent place and vice versa. Since the pattern of vibrissal follicles is laid down 7 days before birth and that of the barrels 3 days after birth, the former pattern appears to be responsible for the establishment of the latter. We propose that the answer to the title's question is yes.
January 1978: Neuroscience Letters
Patrizia Muzzi, Paola Camera, Ferdinando Di Cunto, Alessandro Vercelli
Citron kinase (CIT-K), a ser/thr kinase, is required during neurogenesis for cytokinesis of neuronal precursors. Deletion of the cit-k gene in mice (cit-k(-/-) mice) leads to a severe malformative central nervous system syndrome characterized by microencephaly, ataxia, and epileptic seizures; affected mice die by the third week of postnatal life. We have used NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, immunostaining for calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), and histological staining to undertake qualitative and quantitative analyses of the morphology and distribution of interneurons in the barrelfield cortex of cit-k(-/-) mice...
March 20, 2009: Journal of Comparative Neurology
C Alvarez, T Vitalis, E A Fon, N Hanoun, M Hamon, I Seif, R Edwards, P Gaspar, O Cases
Raised levels of serotonin cause alterations in the development of the barrelfield of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in rodents. We examined the development of S1 in genetic mouse models in which the levels of serotonin and/or dopamine and noradrenaline are drastically reduced. Mice lacking the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2 KO) are hypomorphic with rare pups surviving until postnatal day (P) 6. Serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline are almost undetectable in the brain. In S1 we find that the segregation of thalamocortical axons into whisker patterns is delayed by 1 day and that layer IV granular neurons fail to form normal barrels...
2002: Neuroscience
Richard D Lane, Tallat Rizk, Nicolas L Chiaia, Richard D Mooney, Robert W Rhoades
Previous studies have shown that intracortical projections in layer IV of the vibrissae representation of primary somatosensory cortex (S-I) are arrayed in a pattern complementary to that of thalamocortical axons (TCAs). Elevation of cortical serotonin (5-HT) in rats during the first postnatal week results in a transient disruption of the vibrissae-related pattern of TCAs and layer IV neurons in S-I. The present study examines the influence of elevated cortical 5-HT levels and the attendant loss of vibrissae-related TCA clusters on the organization of S-I intracortical connections...
2002: Somatosensory & Motor Research
E Ausó, O Cases, C Fouquet, M Camacho, J V García-Velasco, P Gaspar, P Berbel
In humans, thyroid hormone deficiency during development causes severe neurological diseases but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We have examined the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of somatosensory thalamocortical projections, by inducing hypothyroidism in rats by methimazole treatment at embryonic day 13 and subsequent thyroidectomy at postnatal day 6 (P6). Initial development of the thalamocortical projections and their tangential and laminar patterning were similar in normal and hypothyroid rats from birth to P4...
December 2001: European Journal of Neuroscience
R M Abdel-Majid, W L Leong, L C Schalkwyk, D S Smallman, S T Wong, D R Storm, A Fine, M J Dobson, D L Guernsey, P E Neumann
The somatosensory (SI) cortex of mice displays a patterned, nonuniform distribution of neurons in layer IV called the 'barrelfield' (ref. 1). Thalamocortical afferents (TCAs) that terminate in layer IV are segregated such that each barrel, a readily visible cylindrical array of neurons surrounding a cell-sparse center, represents a distinct receptive field. TCA arbors are confined to the barrel hollow and synapse on barrel-wall neurons whose dendrites are oriented toward the center of the barrel. Mice homozygous for the barrelless (brl) mutation, which occurred spontaneously in ICR stock at Université de Lausanne (Switzerland), fail to develop this patterned distribution of neurons, but still display normal topological organization of the SI cortex...
July 1998: Nature Genetics
C Lebrand, O Cases, C Adelbrecht, A Doye, C Alvarez, S El Mestikawy, I Seif, P Gaspar
Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to affect the development and patterning of the mouse barrelfield. We show that the dense transient 5-HT innervation of the somatosensory, visual, and auditory cortices originates in the thalamus rather than in the raphe: 5-HT is detected in thalamocortical fibers and most 5-HT cortical labeling disappears after thalamic lesions. Thalamic neurons do not synthesize 5-HT but take up exogenous 5-HT through 5-HT high affinity uptake sites located on thalamocortical axons and terminals...
November 1996: Neuron
M C Osterheld-Haas, J P Hornung
The rodent somatosensory cortex is characterized by a unique cellular organization in the field of representation of the whiskers, called the barrelfield, which develops in layer IV during the 1st postnatal week in parallel with the establishment of the thalamo-cortical connections. This area is transiently densely innervated by serotonergic afferents during this period. Serotonin depletion delays the formation of barrels in the rat somatosensory cortex. However, no information is available to date on the time-course of the laminar differentiation of the cortex after monoaminergic depletion and the relative contribution of different monoaminergic inputs to this process...
July 1996: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
C Beaulieu
The disector method was used to estimate the numerical density of neurons (number per unit volume) and their actual number per column (number under a given area of pial surface), in the occipital (monocular segment of the primary visual area, Oc1M), the parietal (somatosensory barrelfield area, Par1) and the frontal cortex (primary motor area, Fr1) of adult rat. Values were first obtained for all neurons in each layer, and then for GABA neurons as identified with postembedding immunocytochemistry on semithin sections...
April 23, 1993: Brain Research
W L Weller
This study reports on the cerebral cortex of an Australian marsupial, Trichosurus vulpecula (brush-tailed possum). It consists of an analysis of layer IV of somatosensory cortex in tangential sections of flattened specimens and in oblique radial sections stained to show Nissl substance or myelin, or tested for succinic dehydrogenase. It includes results of electrophysiological mapping experiments that ascertained the somatotopic significance of the cytoarchitecture of this cortical region. Layer IV has two interlocking cytoarchitectural fields: one granular (the barrelfield, comprising cell-dense barrels 150 to 500 microns in diameter) and one dysgranular...
November 15, 1993: Journal of Comparative Neurology
M C Osterheld-Haas, H Van der Loos, J P Hornung
Electrolytic lesions of the follicles of a set of mystacial vibrissae, and their innervation, of the mouse placed during the early postnatal period result in a modification in appearance of the corresponding and of adjacent barrels in the somatosensory cortex of the adult animal. These changes can be evoked during the first 6 days of postnatal life--the so-called critical period. The pattern of these modifications varies with the age of the animal at which the lesion was placed. In order to evaluate the contribution of the monoaminergic cortical input to this type of plasticity, the noradrenergic and/or serotonergic afferents to the cerebral cortex of newborn mice were destroyed by systemic administration of various selective neurotoxic drugs (6-hydroxydopamine, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine)...
February 18, 1994: Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research
M Ito
The effect of prenatal X-irradiation on the vibrissal cortical barrelfield of the brain of rats exposed to 200 R on the embryonic day 17 was studied morphologically and electrophysiologically. Cytoarchitectural barrels fail to appear in adult rats that have been subjected to this in utero treatment. However, sections cut in a plane tangential to the vibrissal cortex and examined for cytochrome oxidase (CO), a mitochondrial enzyme, contained a matrix of patterned CO activity which, albeit smaller and weaker in intensity, is similar to CO barrels in normal controls...
February 6, 1995: Journal of Comparative Neurology
A J Pazos, S L Orezzoli, P M McCabe, W D Dietrich, E J Green
Previous work has demonstrated that damage to the primary somatosensory cortex produces substantial deficits in a vibrissal cue-dependent discrimination task which recover gradually over the course of post-injury testing. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible site(s) and mechanisms underlying behavioral recovery in this task. Wistar rats were trained under red light in a T-maze to produce ipsilateral turns depending upon the presence of a vibrissal cue. Animals were then subjected to photothrombotic infarctions of either the ipsilateral medial parietal cortex, the ipsilateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (SI/SII), the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices of both hemispheres (bilateral SI/SII) or sham surgical procedures...
August 21, 1995: Brain Research
H Steffen, H Van der Loos
There is a statistically significant order in the tangential orientation of stellate cell dendrites, both spiny and smooth, in layer IV of the barrelfield of the mouse parietal cortex. Neurones situated in a barrel side have most of their dendrites oriented towards the barrel hollow; those situated in the hollow preferentially orient their dendrites parallel to the long axis of the barrel. A quantitative measure of the orientation of individual dendrites in barrelfields of 60-day old mice was obtained using a semi-automatic computer-microscope and a minicomputer...
1980: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
D Jeanmonod, F L Rice, H Van der Loos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1981: Neuroscience
H P Lipp, H Schwegler
Addition of the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P-40 (NP-40) to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injected in small quantities into barrelfields of mouse somatosensory cortex results in a significant increase of labeled neurons in the contralateral barrelfield cortex as compared to normal HRP. Comparisons with lysolethicin as an additive to HRP show that with NP-40 neurons are labeled more reliably and spread of label is less extensive at the injection site. Using NP-40, the region of dense label spread at the injection site as revealed by the diaminobenzidine/cobalt procedure coincides rather precisely with the contralateral cortical region containing labeled neurons as visualized by tetramethylbenzidine...
October 20, 1980: Neuroscience Letters
J C Nussbaumer, P D Wall
A possible role fore peripheral unmyelinated fibres on the establishment and maintenance of stable receptive fields mediated by myelinated afferents has been studied in the mouse cortical barrelfield. The barrels are cytoarchitectonic units consituting a visible and particularly precise somatotopic map of the facial vibrissae. Barrelfields were mapped electrophysiologically in adults using two experimental setups: (i) after destruction of unmyelinated peripheral fibres by systemic administration of capsaicin neonatally; and (ii) after inactivation of these fibres by local application of capsaicin to the nerve subserving the vibrissae in the adult...
December 23, 1985: Brain Research
P Melzer, H Van der Loos, J Dörfl, E Welker, P Robert, D Emery, J C Berrini
After receiving an intraperitoneal injection of [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a total of 28 mice which had pieces of metal wire glued to certain whiskers (all others were clipped) were exposed to magnetic field bursts. The stimulated whiskers were B1 (freely moving mice, set I) or whiskers C1-3 and E1 (restrained mice, set II) on the left side. In set I, stimulated mice were compared with animals of various control groups. Autoradiography demonstrated an activation of columnar shape overlying the presumed corresponding barrel contralateral to stimulation; in a part of the ipsilateral barrelfield, 2-DG uptake was depressed significantly...
December 2, 1985: Brain Research
F L Andrés, H Van der Loos
The barrelfield is the cortical "map" of the ensemble of vibrissal follicles on the mouse whiskerpad. Earlier, we had shown that the skin of the embryonic whiskerpad, when put in culture before having received its innervation, is capable of producing vibrissal follicles arranged in a pattern similar to that formed in vivo; we had also demonstrated that the destruction of vibrissal follicles, and of the terminals that innervate them, leads to important modifications in the architecture of the barrelfield. Here we report on the architecture of barrelfields made to differ from normal as a consequence of radical modifications produced in the corresponding whiskerpad during gestation and at birth: transplantation of additional whiskerpads; rotations (of 90 degrees and 180 degrees) of one whiskerpad; removal and reimplantation of one whiskerpad; removal of one whiskerpad; and division of the infraorbital nerve...
1985: Anatomy and Embryology
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