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Terrestrial productivity

K J Fernie, S C Marteinson, C Soos, D Chen, L Cruz-Martinez, J E G Smits
Mining in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) has contributed extensively to increased exposure of wildlife to naturally occurring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), yet little is known about the toxicity of PACs to wildlife in this region. We identified reproductive and developmental changes in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding in close proximity to mining-related activities in the AOSR, and determined these changes in relation to the birds' exposure and accumulation of 41 PACs (parent-, alkylated-PAHs), dibenzothiophenes (DBTs; previously published), diet (carbon (δ13 C), nitrogen (δ15 N)), volatile organic compounds, and weather variables...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Meng-Yue Wang, Zhi-Bin Zhan, Ying Xiong, Xiao-Bo Li
The liposoluble constituents in Momordicae Semen were investigated in the present study. By silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC, 22 compounds were isolated and purified from dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fraction. Based on NMR and MS spectra analyses, these compounds were identified as lupeol (1), 5-(1'-hydroxypentyl)-5H-furan-2-one (2), palmitic acid (3), viscumamide (4), clavatustide C (5), laxanol (6), threo-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-{4-[2-formyl-(E)-vinyl]-2-methoxyphenoxyl}-propane-1, 3-diol (7), α-spinasterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (8), chushizisin F (9), ehletianol C (10), tanegool (11), (7R, 8R, 8'R)-4'-guaiacylglyceryl-evofolin B (12), ligballinone (13), (7R, 8S, 8'R)- 4, 4', 9-trihydroxy- 7, 9'-epoxy- 8, 8'-lignan (14), chushizisin I (15), chushizisin A (16), chushizisin G (17), p-coumaraldehyde (18), α-spinasterol (19), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (20), chushizisin E (21), and 3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxyphenyl-2, 3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-5-yl] propane-1-ol (22), respectively...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley
Ammonia oxidation is a fundamental core process in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2 -) is the first and rate-limiting step in nitrification and is carried out by distinct groups of microorganisms. Ammonia oxidation is essential for nutrient turnover in most terrestrial, aquatic and engineered ecosystems and plays a major role, both directly and indirectly, in greenhouse gas production and environmental damage. Although ammonia oxidation has been studied for over a century, this research field has been galvanised in the past decade by the surprising discoveries of novel ammonia oxidising microorganisms...
May 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Zhiyao Tang, Wenting Xu, Guoyi Zhou, Yongfei Bai, Jiaxiang Li, Xuli Tang, Dima Chen, Qing Liu, Wenhong Ma, Gaoming Xiong, Honglin He, Nianpeng He, Yanpei Guo, Qiang Guo, Jiangling Zhu, Wenxuan Han, Huifeng Hu, Jingyun Fang, Zongqiang Xie
Plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content regulate productivity and carbon (C) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of the allocation of N and P content in plant tissues and the relationship between nutrient content and photosynthetic capacity are critical to predicting future ecosystem C sequestration under global change. In this study, by investigating the nutrient concentrations of plant leaves, stems, and roots across China's terrestrial biomes, we document large-scale patterns of community-level concentrations of C, N, and P...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhongmin Hu, Hao Shi, Kaili Cheng, Ying-Ping Wang, Shilong Piao, Yue Li, Li Zhang, Jianyang Xia, Lei Zhou, Wenping Yuan, Steve Running, Longhui Li, Yanbin Hao, Nianpeng He, Qiang Yu, Guirui Yu
Given the important contributions of semi-arid region to global land carbon cycle, accurate modeling of the inter-annual variability (IAV) of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) is important but remains challenging. By decomposing GPP into leaf area index (LAI) and photosynthesis per leaf area (i.e., GPP_leaf), we investigated the IAV of GPP and the mechanisms responsible in a temperate grassland of northwestern China. We further assessed six ecosystem models for their capabilities in reproducing the observed IAV of GPP in a temperate grassland from 2004 to 2011 in China...
April 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
Xuanze Zhang, Ying-Ping Wang, Shushi Peng, Peter J Rayner, Philippe Ciais, Jeremy D Silver, Shilong Piao, Zaichun Zhu, Xingjie Lu, Xiaogu Zheng
Net biome productivity (NBP) dominates the observed large variation of atmospheric CO2 annual increase over the last five decades. However, the dominant regions controlling inter-annual to multi-decadal variability of global NBP are still controversial (semi-arid regions vs. temperate or tropical forests). By developing a theory for partitioning the variance of NBP into the contributions of net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh ) at different timescales, and using both observation-based atmospheric CO2 inversion product and the outputs of 10 process-based terrestrial ecosystem models forced by 110-year observational climate, we tried to reconcile the controversy by showing that semi-arid lands dominate the variability of global NBP at inter-annual (<10 years) and tropical forests dominate at multi-decadal scales (>30 years)...
April 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
Sarah B Gewurtz, Pamela A Martin, Robert J Letcher, Neil M Burgess, Louise Champoux, John E Elliott, Abde Idrissi
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined in European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) eggs collected between 2009 and 2014 from industrial, rural/agricultural, and landfill locations within five urban centers across Canada. Within each urban center, perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid (PFSA) concentrations were generally greater in starling eggs collected from urban/industrial locations and PFSAs and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were generally greater at landfills compared to rural and remote locations. However, the relative importance of urban/industrial versus landfill locations as potential sources was chemical- and location-specific...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hui Hong, Bimol C Roy, Meram Chalamaiah, Heather L Bruce, Jianping Wu
Small collagen peptides are associated with various benefits, such as bone and skin health. However, preparation of small collagen peptides from terrestrial vertebrate origins remains a challenge. Here, we show that pretreatment with formic acid enhanced the production of small collagen peptides from spent hen skin. After pretreatment with formic acid, the percentage of small peptides below 2 kDa increased to 48.92% and 43.34% from 33.79% and 36.32% for heat-soluble collagen (HSC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC), respectively...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Abhishek Chaudhary, Thomas M Brooks
The UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative recently recommended use of the countryside species-area relationship (SAR) model to calculate the characterization factors (CFs; potential species loss per m2 ) for projecting the biodiversity impact of land use associated with a products' life cycle. However, CFs based on this approach are to date available for only six broad land use types without differentiating between their management intensities and have large uncertainties that limit their practical applicability...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Wei Ge, Yanan Mou, Chao Chai, Yan Zhang, Jinye Wang, Ting Ju, Tao Jiang, Bin Xia
The levels and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dissolved phase (DP) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in seawater of Sanggou Bay (SGB) in four seasons were determined. The distribution and potential sources of these compounds were analyzed, and the ecological risk was assessed. The total concentrations of 14 PBDEs (∑14 PBDE) in DP and SPM in the surface water ranged from 0.10 ng L-1 to 2.20 ng L-1 and from 0.51 ng L-1 to 6.15 ng L-1 , respectively. The highest value was obtained in August...
March 28, 2018: Chemosphere
Haishan Liu, Guoliang Zhu, Yaqin Fan, Yuqi Du, Mengmeng Lan, Yibo Xu, Weiming Zhu
This review covers the literature published by chemists from China during the 2015-2016 on natural products (NPs), with 1,985 citations referring to 6,944 new compounds isolated from marine or terrestrial microorganisms, plants, and animals. The emphasis is on 730 new compounds with a novel skeleton or/and significant bioactivity, together with their source organism and country of origin.
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Jesse T Trushenski, Matthew P Aardsma, Kelli J Barry, James D Bowker, Christopher J Jackson, Michelle Jakaitis, Rebecca L McClure, Artur N Rombenso
Until recently, use of antibiotics to enhance terrestrial animal growth performance was a common, U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved, but controversial practice. There are no FDA-approved production claims for antibiotic drug use in fish, but it is a common misconception that antibiotics are widely used for this purpose in U.S. aquaculture. Antibiotics are not thought to be effective growth promoters in fish, but there is little quantitative data available to address whether there are growth-promoting effects that might incentivize use of antibiotics in this way, despite legal prohibitions...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Yiming V Wang, Alex H L Wan, Erik-Jan Lock, Nils Andersen, Christine Winter-Schuh, Thomas Larsen
The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry with carnivorous fish such as salmon has been accompanied by an equally rapid development in alternative feed ingredients. This has outpaced the ability of prevailing authentication method to trace the diet and origins of salmon products at the retail end. To close this gap, we developed a new profiling tool based on amino acid δ13 C fingerprints. With this tool, we discriminated with high-accuracy among wild-caught, organically, and conventionally farmed salmon groups, as well as salmon fed alternative diets such as insects and macroalgae...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Benjamin D Stocker, Jakob Zscheischler, Trevor F Keenan, I Colin Prentice, Josep Peñuelas, Sonia I Seneviratne
Terrestrial primary productivity and carbon cycle impacts of droughts are commonly quantified using vapour pressure deficit (VPD) data and remotely sensed greenness, without accounting for soil moisture. However, soil moisture limitation is known to strongly affect plant physiology. Here, we investigate light use efficiency, the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) to absorbed light. We derive its fractional reduction due to soil moisture (fLUE), separated from VPD and greenness changes, using artificial neural networks trained on eddy covariance data, multiple soil moisture datasets and remotely sensed greenness...
March 31, 2018: New Phytologist
Gabrielle Vieira, Jelena Purić, Luana Galvão Morão, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Fábio José Inforsato, Lara Durães Sette, Henrique Ferreira, Daiane Cristina Sass
This study aims to obtain secondary metabolites extracts from filamentous fungi isolated from soil and marine sediments from Antarctica and assess its potential antibacterial activity on Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, the agent of citrus canker. Metabolites production was conducted in Malt 2% broth at 15 °C for 20 d after which intracellular and extracellular extracts were obtained. The extracts were evaluated by cell viability assays through Resazurin Microtiter Assay. From 158 fungal extracts, 33 hampered bacterial growth in vitro...
March 31, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Kristina J Anderson-Teixeira, Maria M H Wang, Jennifer C McGarvey, Valentine Herrmann, Alan J Tepley, Ben Bond-Lamberty, David S LeBauer
Forests play an influential role in the global carbon (C) cycle, storing roughly half of terrestrial C and annually exchanging with the atmosphere more than ten times the carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emitted by anthropogenic activities. Yet, scaling up from field-based measurements of forest C stocks and fluxes to understand global scale C cycling and its climate sensitivity remains an important challenge. Tens of thousands of forest C measurements have been made, but these data have yet to be integrated into a single database that makes them accessible for integrated analyses...
March 30, 2018: Ecology
Lydia Zeibich, Oliver Schmidt, Harold L Drake
Earthworms are a dominant macro-fauna in soil ecosystems and have determinative effects on soil fertility and plant growth. These invertebrates feed on ingested material, and gizzard-linked disruption of ingested fungal and bacterial cells is conceived to provide diverse biopolymers in the anoxic alimentary canal of earthworms. Fermentation in the gut is likely important to the utilization of ingested biopolymer-derived compounds by the earthworm. This study therefore examined the fermentative response of gut content-associated microbes of the model earthworm Lumbricus terrestris to (a) microbial cell-lysate (to simulate gizzard-disrupted cells) and (b) dominate biopolymers of such biomass, protein and RNA...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Byron C Crump, John M Wojahn, Fiona Tomas, Ryan S Mueller
Terrestrial plants benefit from many well-understood mutualistic relationships with root- and leaf-associated microbiomes, but relatively little is known about these relationships for seagrass and other aquatic plants. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metatranscriptomics to assess potential mutualisms between microorganisms and the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera japonica collected from mixed beds in Netarts Bay, OR, United States. The phylogenetic composition of leaf-, root-, and water column-associated bacterial communities were strikingly different, but these communities were not significantly different between plant species...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Grace M Cott, Joshua S Caplan, Thomas J Mozdzer
Coastal wetlands are important carbon sinks globally, but their ability to store carbon hinges on their nitrogen (N) supply and N uptake dynamics of dominant plant species. In terrestrial ecosystems, uptake of nitrate (NO3 - ) and ammonium (NH4 + ) through roots can strongly influence N acquisition rates and their responses to environmental factors such as rising atmospheric CO2 and eutrophication. We examined the15 N uptake kinetics of three dominant plant species in North American coastal wetlands (Spartina patens, C4 grass; Phragmites australis, C3 grass; Schoenoplectus americanus, C3 sedge) under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laís Gomes Fregolente, Thaiz Batista Azevedo Rangel Miguel, Emilio de Castro Miguel, Camila de Almeida Melo, Altair Benedito Moreira, Odair Pastor Ferreira, Márcia Cristina Bisinoti
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process carried out in an aqueous medium. It is capable of converting biomass into a solid, carbon-rich material (hydrochar), and producing a liquid phase (process water) which contains the unreactive feedstock and/or chemical intermediates from the carbonization reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of process water generated by HTC from vinasse and sugarcane bagasse produced by sugarcane industry and to evaluate its toxicity to both marine (using Artemia salina as a model organism) and the terrestrial environment (through seed germination studies of maize, lettuce, and tomato)...
March 29, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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