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Terrestrial productivity

Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe, Christian Messier, Steven W Kembel
Tree leaf-associated microbiota have been studied in natural ecosystems but less so in urban settings, where anthropogenic pressures on trees could impact microbial communities and modify their interaction with their hosts. Additionally, trees act as vectors spreading bacterial cells in the air in urban environments due to the density of microbial cells on aerial plant surfaces. Characterizing tree leaf bacterial communities along an urban gradient is thus key to understand the impact of anthropogenic pressures on urban tree-bacterium interactions and on the overall urban microbiome...
November 2017: MSystems
Daan Blok, Samuel Faucherre, Imre Banyasz, Riikka Rinnan, Anders Michelsen, Bo Elberling
Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates...
December 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
Qingdong Ke, Preston Fulmer, Atsushi Mizutani
β-Galactosidase (EC is a glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the release of sugar monomers from β-galactoside oligosaccharides via hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, and has potential uses in the food industry. The safety of this enzyme and its production organism, Papiliotrema terrestris (P. terrestris), are described herein. P. terrestris was non-pathogenic upon intravenous (IV) administration of 2.4 × 108 cfu and oral administration of 1.3 × 109 cfu. Genotoxic results for the enzyme concentrate were negative in a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) and chromosome aberration test in cultured Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (CHL/IU) cells...
December 9, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Yoshiaki Maeda, Tomoko Yoshino, Tadashi Matsunaga, Mitsufumi Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Marine microalgae are recognized as promising feedstocks for biofuels and chemicals owing to their higher growth rates than those of terrestrial crop plants. We aimed to summarize the production of biofuels and chemicals by marine microalgae and to discuss their advantages and potential from the aspect of bioprocess. The present circumstances of the microalgae industry were briefly described and large-scale industrial plants for microalgae production, where some marine microalgae are cultivated, were introduced...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Kaori Inoue-Sakamoto, Yasunori Tanji, Minami Yamaba, Takumi Natsume, Takuya Masaura, Tomoya Asano, Takumi Nishiuchi, Toshio Sakamoto
The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune forms macroscopic colonies in its natural habitats, and these colonies consist of both cellular filaments and massive extracellular matrixes. In this study, the biochemical features of the extracellular matrix components were investigated. Naturally growing N. commune was tolerant to desiccation, and produced massive extracellular polysaccharides that contained both neutral sugars and glucuronic acid as constituent monosaccharides. The extracellular polysaccharide contents and desiccation tolerance were compared in laboratory culture strains of Nostoc species...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yoshiki Horikawa, Michiko Shimizu, Tsuguyuki Saito, Akira Isogai, Tomoya Imai, Junji Sugiyama
Chara is a genus of freshwater alga that is evolutionarily observed at the aquatic-terrestrial boundary, whose cellulose microfibrils are similar to those of terrestrial plants regarding the crystallinity and biosynthesis of cellulose. Oven-dried and never-dried celluloses samples were prepared from chara. Terrestrial plant cellulose samples were used as references. The lengths and length distributions of oven-dried and never-dried chara cellulose microfibrils after acid hydrolysis with or without pretreatment by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, which was used for efficient fibrillation of acid-hydrolyzed products, were observed by transmission electron microscopy...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Peter J Smith, Hsin-Tzu Wang, William S York, Maria J Peña, Breeanna R Urbanowicz
Xylans are the most abundant noncellulosic polysaccharides in lignified secondary cell walls of woody dicots and in both primary and secondary cell walls of grasses. These polysaccharides, which comprise 20-35% of terrestrial biomass, present major challenges for the efficient microbial bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fuels and other value-added products. Xylans play a significant role in the recalcitrance of biomass to degradation, and their bioconversion requires metabolic pathways that are distinct from those used to metabolize cellulose...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Mukan Ji, Chris Greening, Inka Vanwonterghem, Carlo R Carere, Sean K Bay, Jason A Steen, Kate Montgomery, Thomas Lines, John Beardall, Josie van Dorst, Ian Snape, Matthew B Stott, Philip Hugenholtz, Belinda C Ferrari
Cultivation-independent surveys have shown that the desert soils of Antarctica harbour surprisingly rich microbial communities. Given that phototroph abundance varies across these Antarctic soils, an enduring question is what supports life in those communities with low photosynthetic capacity. Here we provide evidence that atmospheric trace gases are the primary energy sources of two Antarctic surface soil communities. We reconstructed 23 draft genomes from metagenomic reads, including genomes from the candidate bacterial phyla WPS-2 and AD3...
December 6, 2017: Nature
Colin Dale
Weevils, which represent one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial insects in nature, obtain a tough exoskeleton through the activity of an ancient bacterial symbiont with a tiny genome that serves as a factory for the production of tyrosine.
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Lei Wang, Xulei Huang, Anna Karen Carrasco Laserna, Sam Fong Yau Li
Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is widely used in various industrial processes and has been detected in all environmental matrices. So far, little work has been done regarding the metabolism of TBP on terrestrial invertebrates. We investigated the metabolism of TBP in the earthworm, Perionyx excavatus, after acute exposure to TBP for one and two days in filter paper contact test, as well as after chronic exposure for 28 days in soil experiment. Biotransformation products were identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and by exploiting the information dependent acquisition in tandem mass spectrometry...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Daniel G Boyce, Brian Petrie, Kenneth T Frank, Boris Worm, William C Leggett
Seasonal cycles of primary production (phenology) critically influence biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem structure and climate. In the oceans, primary production is dominated by microbial phytoplankton that drift with currents, and show rapid turnover and chaotic dynamics, factors that have hindered understanding of their phenology. We used all available observations of upper-ocean phytoplankton concentration (1995-2015) to describe global patterns of phytoplankton phenology, the environmental factors that structure them, and their relationships to terrestrial patterns...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Daniel L Gall, Wayne S Kontur, Wu Lan, Hoon Kim, Yanding Li, John Ralph, Timothy J Donohue, Daniel R Noguera
New environmentally sound technologies are needed to derive valuable compounds from renewable resources. Lignin, an abundant polymer in terrestrial plants comprised predominantly of guaiacyl and syringyl monoaromatic phenylpropanoid units, is a potential natural source of aromatic compounds. In addition, the plant secondary metabolite, tricin, is a recently discovered and moderately abundant flavonoid in grasses. The most prevalent inter-unit linkage between guaiacyl, syringyl, and tricin units is the β-ether linkage...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hyung Sik Kim, Jin Woo Lee, Hari Jang, Thi Phuong Linh Le, Jun Gu Kim, Moon Soon Lee, Jin Tae Hong, Mi Kyeong Lee, Bang Yeon Hwang
A new phenolic amide, named cis-terrestriamide (7), together with ten known compounds (1-6, 8-11), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. The structure of 7 was elucidated on the basis of extensive analyses of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and high resolution mass spectrometry data. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 11 exhibited inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 values of 18...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Christian Galasso, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Clementina Sansone
As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene) that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein), which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen...
November 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Katherine A Dynarski, Benjamin Z Houlton
Nitrogen (N) fixation by free-living bacteria is a primary N input pathway in many ecosystems and sustains global plant productivity. Uncertainty exists over the importance of N, phosphorus (P) and molybdenum (Mo) availability in controlling free-living N fixation rates. Here, we investigate the geographic occurrence and variability of nutrient constraints to free-living N fixation in the terrestrial biosphere. We compiled data from studies measuring free-living N fixation in response to N, P and Mo fertilizers...
November 22, 2017: New Phytologist
Tzu-Hsuan Tu, Li-Wei Wu, Yu-Shih Lin, Hiroyuki Imachi, Li-Hung Lin, Pei-Ling Wang
Terrestrial mud volcanoes (MVs) are an important natural source of methane emission. The role of microbial processes in methane cycling and organic transformation in such environments remains largely unexplored. In this study, we aim to uncover functional potentials and community assemblages across geochemical transitions in a ferruginous, sulfate-depleted MV of eastern Taiwan. Geochemical profiles combined with 16S rRNA gene abundances indicated that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) mediated by ANME-2a group coincided with iron/manganese reduction by Desulfuromonadales at shallow depths deprived of sulfate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ewa M Furmanczyk, Michal A Kaminski, Grzegorz Spolnik, Maciej Sojka, Witold Danikiewicz, Andrzej Dziembowski, Leszek Lipinski, Adam Sobczak
Due to their particular properties, detergents are widely used in household cleaning products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in agriculture as adjuvants tailoring the features of pesticides or other crop protection agents. The continuously growing use of these various products means that water soluble detergents have become one of the most problematic groups of pollutants for the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Thus it is important to identify bacteria having the ability to survive in the presence of large quantities of detergent and efficiently decompose it to non-surface active compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jin-Soo Kim, Jong-Seong Kug, Su-Jong Jeong
The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives interannual variation in the global carbon cycle. However, the relationship between ENSO and the carbon cycle can be modulated by climate change due to anthropogenic forcing. We show herein that the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon flux to ENSO will be enhanced under greenhouse warming by 44% ( ± 15%), indicating a future amplification of carbon-climate interactions. Separating the contributions of the changes in carbon sensitivity reveals that the response of land surface temperature to ENSO and the sensitivity of gross primary production to local temperature are significantly enhanced under greenhouse warming, thereby amplifying the ENSO-carbon-cycle coupling...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Brian W Strehlow, Mari-Carmen Pineda, Alan Duckworth, Gary A Kendrick, Michael Renton, Muhammad Azmi Abdul Wahab, Nicole S Webster, Peta L Clode
Terrestrial runoff, resuspension events and dredging can affect filter-feeding sponges by elevating the concentration of suspended sediments, reducing light intensity, and smothering sponges with sediments. To investigate how sponges respond to pressures associated with increased sediment loads, the abundant and widely distributed Indo-Pacific species Ianthella basta was exposed to elevated suspended sediment concentrations, sediment deposition, and light attenuation for 48 h (acute exposure) and 4 weeks (chronic exposure)...
2017: PeerJ
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