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Terrestrial productivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533562/accelerating-tropicalization-and-the-transformation-of-temperate-seagrass-meadows
#1
Glenn A Hyndes, Kenneth L Heck, Adriana Vergés, Euan S Harvey, Gary A Kendrick, Paul S Lavery, Kathryn McMahon, Robert J Orth, Alan Pearce, Mathew Vanderklift, Thomas Wernberg, Scott Whiting, Shaun Wilson
Climate-driven changes are altering production and functioning of biotic assemblages in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In temperate coastal waters, rising sea temperatures, warm water anomalies and poleward shifts in the distribution of tropical herbivores have had a detrimental effect on algal forests. We develop generalized scenarios of this form of tropicalization and its potential effects on the structure and functioning of globally significant and threatened seagrass ecosystems, through poleward shifts in tropical seagrasses and herbivores...
November 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531966/how-do-disturbances-and-climate-effects-on-carbon-and-water-fluxes-differ-between-multi-aged-and-even-aged-coniferous-forests
#2
Xuguang Tang, Hengpeng Li, Mingguo Ma, Li Yao, Matthias Peichl, Altaf Arain, Xibao Xu, Michael Goulden
Disturbances and climatic changes significantly affect forest ecosystem productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon (C) flux dynamics. A deep understanding of terrestrial feedbacks to such effects and recovery mechanisms in forests across contrasting climatic regimes is essential to predict future regional/global C and water budgets, which are also closely related to the potential forest management decisions. However, the resilience of multi-aged and even-aged forests to disturbances has been debated for >60years because of technical measurement constraints...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531851/comparative-life-cycle-assessment-study-on-environmental-impact-of-oil-production-from-micro-algae-and-terrestrial-oilseed-crops
#3
S Jez, D Spinelli, A Fierro, A Dibenedetto, M Aresta, E Busi, R Basosi
In this study the LCA methodology is applied in order to satisfy two goals: i) to evaluate the hot spots in site-specific production chain of biodiesel from terrestrial and micro-algae feedstock; ii) to compare quantitatively, utilizing primary data, the impacts of the first generation in respect to the third generation bio-fuels. Results show that micro-algae are neither competitive yet with traditional oil crops nor with fossil fuel. The use of renewable technologies as photovoltaics and biogas self production might increase the competitiveness of micro-algae oil...
May 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528907/widespread-biological-response-to-rapid-warming-on-the-antarctic-peninsula
#4
Matthew J Amesbury, Thomas P Roland, Jessica Royles, Dominic A Hodgson, Peter Convey, Howard Griffiths, Dan J Charman
Recent climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula is well documented [1-5], with warming, alongside increases in precipitation, wind strength, and melt season length [1, 6, 7], driving environmental change [8, 9]. However, meteorological records mostly began in the 1950s, and paleoenvironmental datasets that provide a longer-term context to recent climate change are limited in number and often from single sites [7] and/or discontinuous in time [10, 11]. Here we use moss bank cores from a 600-km transect from Green Island (65...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520785/prospective-evidence-for-independent-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-limitation-of-grasshopper-chorthippus-curtipennis-growth-in-a-tallgrass-prairie
#5
Madison Rode, Nathan P Lemoine, Melinda D Smith
Insect herbivores play a pivotal role in regulating plant production and community composition, and their role in terrestrial ecosystems is partly determined by their feeding behavior and performance among plants of differing nutritional quality. Historically, nitrogen (N) has been considered the primary limiting nutrient of herbivorous insects, but N is only one of many potential nutrients important to insect performance. Of these nutrients, phosphorus (P) is perhaps the most important because somatic growth depends upon P-rich ribosomal RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515785/recombinant-expression-of-thermostable-processive-mteg5-endoglucanase-and-its-synergism-with-mtlpmo-from-myceliophthora-thermophila-during-the-hydrolysis-of-lignocellulosic-substrates
#6
Anthi Karnaouri, Madhu Nair Muraleedharan, Maria Dimarogona, Evangelos Topakas, Ulrika Rova, Mats Sandgren, Paul Christakopoulos
BACKGROUND: Filamentous fungi are among the most powerful cellulolytic organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. To perform the degradation of lignocellulosic substrates, these microorganisms employ both hydrolytic and oxidative mechanisms that involve the secretion and synergism of a wide variety of enzymes. Interactions between these enzymes occur on the level of saccharification, i.e., the release of neutral and oxidized products, but sometimes also reflected in the substrate liquefaction...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512003/towards-a-sustainable-biobased-industry-highlighting-the-impact-of-extremophiles
#7
REVIEW
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507306/long-term-increases-in-soil-carbon-due-to-ecosystem-fertilization-by-atmospheric-nitrogen-deposition-demonstrated-by-regional-scale-modelling-and-observations
#8
E Tipping, J A C Davies, P A Henrys, G J D Kirk, A Lilly, U Dragosits, E J Carnell, A J Dore, M A Sutton, S J Tomlinson
Fertilization of nitrogen (N)-limited ecosystems by anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep) may promote CO2 removal from the atmosphere, thereby buffering human effects on global radiative forcing. We used the biogeochemical ecosystem model N14CP, which considers interactions among C (carbon), N and P (phosphorus), driven by a new reconstruction of historical Ndep, to assess the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in British semi-natural landscapes to anthropogenic change. We calculate that increased net primary production due to Ndep has enhanced detrital inputs of C to soils, causing an average increase of 1...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507128/exceptional-and-rapid-accumulation-of-anthropogenic-debris-on-one-of-the-world-s-most-remote-and-pristine-islands
#9
Jennifer L Lavers, Alexander L Bond
In just over half a century plastic products have revolutionized human society and have infiltrated terrestrial and marine environments in every corner of the globe. The hazard plastic debris poses to biodiversity is well established, but mitigation and planning are often hampered by a lack of quantitative data on accumulation patterns. Here we document the amount of debris and rate of accumulation on Henderson Island, a remote, uninhabited island in the South Pacific. The density of debris was the highest reported anywhere in the world, up to 671...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503179/molecular-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-cuticular-wax-for-plant-drought-tolerance
#10
REVIEW
Dawei Xue, Xiaoqin Zhang, Xueli Lu, Guang Chen, Zhong-Hua Chen
Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499262/fate-and-o-methylating-detoxification-of-tetrabromobisphenol-a-tbbpa-in-two-earthworms-metaphire-guillelmi-and-eisenia-fetida
#11
Xian Chen, Jianqiang Gu, Yongfeng Wang, Xueyuan Gu, Xiaopeng Zhao, Xiaorong Wang, Rong Ji
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the world's most widely used brominated flame retardant but there is growing concern about its fate and toxicity in terrestrial organisms. In this study, two ecologically different earthworms, Metaphire guillelmi and Eisenia fetida, were exposed to soil spiked with (14)C-labeled TBBPA for 21 days. M. guillelmi accumulated more TBBPA than E. fetida, evidenced by a 2.7-fold higher (14)C-uptake rate and a 1.3-fold higher biota-soil accumulation factor. Considerable amounts of bound residues (up to 40% for M...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494761/production-of-fuels-and-chemicals-from-xylose-by-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-a-review-and-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Suryang Kwak, Yong-Su Jin
Efficient xylose utilization is one of the most important pre-requisites for developing an economic microbial conversion process of terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and biochemicals. A robust ethanol producing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered with heterologous xylose assimilation pathways. A two-step oxidoreductase pathway consisting of NAD(P)H-linked xylose reductase and NAD(+)-linked xylitol dehydrogenase, and one-step isomerase pathway using xylose isomerase have been employed to enable xylose assimilation in engineered S...
May 11, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493995/influence-of-site-index-on-the-relationship-between-forest-net-primary-productivity-and-stand-age
#13
Ying Yu, Jing M Chen, Xiguang Yang, Wenyi Fan, Mingze Li, Liming He
Previous studies show that forest net primary productivity (NPP) varies pronouncedly with stand age, and these variations play a crucial role in determining forest carbon sinks or sources at regional scales. Some forest carbon cycling models, eg. InTEC (The integrated terrestrial ecosystem C-budget model), calculates annual forest NPP in the long term according to normalized NPP-age relationships and the reference forest NPP at a given age. Therefore, the accurate NPP-age relationship is important for forest NPP estimation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493368/microbial-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-dryland-ecosystems-mechanisms-microbiome-and-mitigation
#14
Hang-Wei Hu, Pankaj Trivedi, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Globally, drylands represent the largest terrestrial biome and are projected to expand by 23% by the end of this century. Drylands are characterized by extremely low levels of water and nutrients and exhibit highly heterogeneous distribution in plants and biocrusts which make microbial processes shaping the dryland functioning rather unique compared with other terrestrial ecosystems. Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas with ozone depletion potential. Despite of the pivotal influences of microbial communities on the production and consumption of N2 O, we have limited knowledge of the biological pathways and mechanisms underpinning N2 O emissions from drylands, which are estimated to account for 30% of total gaseous nitrogen emissions on Earth...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487707/functional-balancing-of-the-hypoxia-regulators-rap2-12-and-hra1-takes-place-in-vivo-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-plants
#15
Beatrice Giuntoli, Francesco Licausi, Hans van Veen, Pierdomenico Perata
Plants are known to respond to variations in cellular oxygen availability and distribution by quickly adapting the transcription rate of a number of genes, generally associated to improved energy usage pathways, oxygen homeostasis and protection from harmful products of anaerobic metabolism. In terrestrial plants, such coordinated gene expression program is promoted by a conserved subfamily of ethylene responsive transcription factors called ERF-VII, which act as master activators of hypoxic gene transcription...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482307/fate-of-antibiotics-in-soil-and-their-uptake-by-edible-crops
#16
REVIEW
Min Pan, L M Chu
Antibiotics are bioactive substances, and their use as human and animal medicines for illness prevention, disease treatment and growth promotion has increased in recent decades. They are excreted, either unchanged or metabolized, and are discharged to the environment through animal manure, municipal wastewater or biosolids. Consequently, these chemicals reach cropland, which is advocated as a means of recycling. As these drugs are used in escalating quantities, there is growing concern over their presence, toxicity and fate in the soil, which may pose adverse effects on plant growth and productivity, as well as result in their uptake and accumulation in crops...
May 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480145/insights-of-the-dental-calculi-microbiome-of-pre-columbian-inhabitants-from-puerto-rico
#17
Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Yvonne Narganes-Storde, Luis Chanlatte-Baik, Gary A Toranzos, Raul J Cano
BACKGROUND: The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474331/relevance-of-carbon-stocks-of-marine-sediments-for-national-greenhouse-gas-inventories-of-maritime-nations
#18
Silvania Avelar, Tessa S van der Voort, Timothy I Eglinton
BACKGROUND: Determining national carbon stocks is essential in the framework of ongoing climate change mitigation actions. Presently, assessment of carbon stocks in the context of greenhouse gas (GHG)-reporting on a nation-by-nation basis focuses on the terrestrial realm, i.e., carbon held in living plant biomass and soils, and on potential changes in these stocks in response to anthropogenic activities. However, while the ocean and underlying sediments store substantial quantities of carbon, this pool is presently not considered in the context of national inventories...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469615/discovery-of-antimycin-type-depsipeptides-from-a-wbl-gene-mutant-strain-of-deepsea-derived-streptomyces-somaliensis-scsio-zh66-and-their-effects-on-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production
#19
Huayue Li, Huiming Huang, Lukuan Hou, Jianhua Ju, Wenli Li
Deepsea microbes are a rich source of novel bioactive compounds, which have developed unique genetic systems as well as biosynthetic pathways compared with those of terrestrial microbes in order to survive in extreme living environment. However, a large variety of deepsea-microbial secondary metabolic pathways remain "cryptic" under the normal laboratory conditions. Manipulation of global regulators is one of the effective approaches for triggering the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. In this study, by combination of various chromatographic purification process, we obtained somalimycin (1), a new antimycin-type depsipeptide, with an unusual substitution of 3-aminosalicylate instead of conserved 3-formamidosalicylate moiety, along with two known (2 and 3) analogs from the ΔwblAso mutant strain of deepsea-derived Streptomyces somaliensis SCSIO ZH66...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467479/mechanistic-modeling-of-insecticide-risks-to-breeding-birds-in-north-american-agroecosystems
#20
Matthew Etterson, Kristina Garber, Edward Odenkirchen
Insecticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments. There is accumulating evidence that insecticides adversely affect non-target wildlife species, including birds, causing mortality, reproductive impairment, and indirect effects through loss of prey base, and the type and magnitude of such effects differs by chemical class, or mode of action. In evaluating data for an insecticide registration application and for registration review, scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) assess the fate of the insecticide and the risk the insecticide poses to the environment and non-target wildlife...
2017: PloS One
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