Read by QxMD icon Read

Terrestrial productivity

Mirco Bundschuh, Juliane Filser, Simon Lüderwald, Moira S McKee, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Ralf Schulz, Stephan Wagner
Nanoparticles serve various industrial and domestic purposes which is reflected in their steadily increasing production volume. This economic success comes along with their presence in the environment and the risk of potentially adverse effects in natural systems. Over the last decade, substantial progress regarding the understanding of sources, fate, and effects of nanoparticles has been made. Predictions of environmental concentrations based on modelling approaches could recently be confirmed by measured concentrations in the field...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Sandra Bibiana Correa, Kirk Winemiller
Despite low in situ primary productivity, tropical oligotrophic rivers support highly diverse fish assemblages and productive fisheries. This raises the question, what energy sources support fish production in these ecosystems? We sampled fish and food resources in the floodplain of a nearly pristine, large, oligotrophic river in western Amazonia. We combined data from stomach contents and stable isotopes to test the hypothesis that floodplain forests sustain fisheries in tropical oligotrophic rivers. Analysis of stomach contents from > 800 specimens of 12 omnivorous fish species demonstrated that during the annual flood, forest plant matter dominated diets...
February 17, 2018: Oecologia
Sandra Hille, Dagmar Kappel Andersen, Brian Kronvang, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen
Vegetated buffer strips constitute a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and provide several ecosystem services. Buffer strips are often applied as a mitigation measure against diffuse pollution in agricultural areas, primarily because they may retain nutrients and in this way help protect the aquatic environment. Additionally, they can improve biodiversity in an otherwise homogenous landscape and may therefore have a value in their own right. In the present study, we characterized the structural and functional features of the vegetation in Danish buffer strips using a nationwide dataset to explore: i) their floristic quality in terms of species diversity and conservation value and ii) based on their functional characteristics, their potential to retain nutrients...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michael Scheurer, Moritz Bigalke
Microplastics (MPs) are small (<5 mm diameter) but have clear implications for the environment. These artificial particles are found in and pose threats to aquatic systems worldwide. MPs have terrestrial sources, but their concentrations and fates in the terrestrial environment are poorly understood. Whilst global plastic production continues to increase, so do the environmental concentrations and impacts of MPs. In this first study of MPs in floodplain soils, we developed a method for identifying, quantifying, and measuring the sizes of most commonly produced MPs in soil by FT-IR microscopy...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jianlong Wang, Yanan Yin
Microalgae are simple chlorophyll containing organisms, they have high photosynthetic efficiency and can synthesize and accumulate large quantities of carbohydrate biomass. They can be cultivated in fresh water, seawater and wastewater. They have been used as feedstock for producing biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. The production of these biofuels can be integrated with CO 2 mitigation, wastewater treatment, and the production of high-value chemicals. Biohydrogen from microalgae is renewable. Microalgae have several advantages compared to terrestrial plants, such as higher growth rate with superior CO 2 fixation capacity; they do not need arable land to grow; they do not contain lignin...
February 14, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Felipe Penagos-Tabares, Malin K Lange, Anika Seipp, Ulrich Gärtner, Helena Mejer, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla
The anthropozoonotic metastrongyloid nematodes Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis, as well as Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are currently considered as emerging gastropod-borne parasites and have gained growing scientific attention in the last years. However, the knowledge on invertebrate immune responses and on how metastrongyloid larvae are attacked by gastropod immune cells is still limited. This work aims to describe an in vitro system to investigate haemocyte-derived innate immune responses of terrestrial gastropods induced by vital axenic metastrongyloid larvae...
February 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Jeffrey P Benca, Ivo A P Duijnstee, Cindy V Looy
Although Siberian Trap volcanism is considered a primary driver of the largest extinction in Earth history, the end-Permian crisis, the relationship between these events remains unclear. However, malformations in fossilized gymnosperm pollen from the extinction interval suggest biological stress coinciding with pulsed forest decline. These grains are hypothesized to have been caused by enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation from volcanism-induced ozone shield deterioration. We tested this proposed mechanism by observing the effects of inferred end-Permian UV-B regimes on pollen development and reproductive success in living conifers...
February 2018: Science Advances
Rafat Afifi Khattab, Mohamed Elbandy, Andrew Lawrence, Tim Paget, Jung Rae-Rho, Yaser S Binnaser, Imran Ali
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produced a diversity of biological important natural compounds which are unpresented in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (anti-bacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt...
February 12, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Hasbagan Ganjurjav, Guozheng Hu, Yunfan Wan, Yue Li, Luobu Danjiu, Qingzhu Gao
Climate is a driver of terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange, which is an important product of ecosystem function. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has recently been subjected to a marked increase in temperature as a consequence of global warming. To explore the effects of warming on carbon exchange in grassland ecosystems, we conducted a whole-year warming experiment between 2012 and 2014 using open-top chambers placed in an alpine meadow, an alpine steppe, and a cultivated grassland on the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
María F Sánchez Goñi, Stéphanie Desprat, William J Fletcher, César Morales-Molino, Filipa Naughton, Dulce Oliveira, Dunia H Urrego, Coralie Zorzi
Pollen from deep-sea sedimentary sequences provides an integrated regional reconstruction of vegetation and climate (temperature, precipitation, and seasonality) on the adjacent continent. More importantly, the direct correlation of pollen, marine and ice indicators allows comparison of the atmospheric climatic changes that have affected the continent with the response of the Earth's other reservoirs, i.e., the oceans and cryosphere, without any chronological uncertainty. The study of long continuous pollen records from the European margin has revealed a changing and complex interplay between European climate, North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), ice growth and decay, and high- and low-latitude forcing at orbital and millennial timescales...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Miranda J Meents, Yoichiro Watanabe, A Lacey Samuels
Background: Secondary cell walls (SCWs) form the architecture of terrestrial plant biomass. They reinforce tracheary elements and strengthen fibres to permit upright growth and the formation of forest canopies. The cells that synthesize a strong, thick SCW around their protoplast must undergo a dramatic commitment to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin production. Scope: This review puts SCW biosynthesis in a cellular context, with the aim of integrating molecular biology and biochemistry with plant cell biology...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Songbai Hong, Shilong Piao, Anping Chen, Yongwen Liu, Lingli Liu, Shushi Peng, Jordi Sardans, Yan Sun, Josep Peñuelas, Hui Zeng
Soil pH regulates soil biogeochemical processes and has cascading effects on terrestrial ecosystem structure and functions. Afforestation has been widely adopted to increase terrestrial carbon sequestration and enhance water and soil preservation. However, the effect of afforestation on soil pH is still poorly understood and inconclusive. Here we investigate the afforestation-caused soil pH changes with pairwise samplings from 549 afforested and 148 control plots in northern China. We find significant soil pH neutralization by afforestation-afforestation lowers pH in relatively alkaline soil but raises pH in relatively acid soil...
February 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Eirini Sidiropoulou, Konstantinos Feidantsis, Stavros Kalogiannis, George P Gallios, Georgia Kastrinaki, Eleni Papaioannou, Miroslava Václavíková, Martha Kaloyianni
The use of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) is spreading rapidly across technology and medicine fields, posing concerns about their consequence on ecosystems and human health. The present study aims to assess the biological responses triggered by iron oxide NPs (IONPs) and iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite (IONPZ) in relation to oxidative stress on the land snail Helix aspersa in order to investigate its use as a biomarker for terrestrial environments. Morphology and structure of both NPs were characterized...
February 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Taotao Ling, Walter Lang, Xiang Feng, Sourav Das, Julie Maier, Cynthia Jeffries, Anang Shelat, Fatima Rivas
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukemia in children. Up to a quarter of ALL patients relapse and face poor prognosis. To identify new compound leads, we conducted a phenotypic screen using terrestrial natural product (NP) fractions against immortalized ALL cellular models. We identified vitexin, a flavonoid, as a promising hit with biological activity (EC50 = 30 μM) in pre-B cell ALL models with no toxicity against normal human tissue (BJ cells) at the tested concentrations...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sinja Rist, Bethanie Carney Almroth, Nanna B Hartmann, Therese M Karlsson
Microplastic research in recent years has shown that small plastic particles are found almost everywhere we look. Besides aquatic and terrestrial environments, this also includes aquatic species intended for human consumption and several studies have reported their prevalence in other food products and beverages. The scientific as well as public debate has therefore increasingly focused on human health implications of microplastic exposure. However, there is a big discrepancy between the magnitude of this debate and actual scientific findings, which have merely shown the presence of microplastics in certain products...
January 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nabarun Chakraborty, Amrita Cheema, Aarti Gautam, Duncan Donohue, Allison Hoke, Carolynn Conley, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
Spaceflight presents a spectrum of stresses very different from those associated with terrestrial conditions. Our previous study (BMC Genom. 15: 659, 2014) integrated the expressions of mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins and results indicated that microgravity induces an immunosuppressive state that can facilitate opportunistic pathogenic attack. However, the existing data are not sufficient for elucidating the molecular drivers of the given immunosuppressed state. To meet this knowledge gap, we focused on the metabolite profile of spaceflown human cells...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
Natasha MacBean, Fabienne Maignan, Cédric Bacour, Philip Lewis, Philippe Peylin, Luis Guanter, Philipp Köhler, Jose Gómez-Dans, Mathias Disney
Accurate terrestrial biosphere model (TBM) simulations of gross carbon uptake (gross primary productivity - GPP) are essential for reliable future terrestrial carbon sink projections. However, uncertainties in TBM GPP estimates remain. Newly-available satellite-derived sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data offer a promising direction for addressing this issue by constraining regional-to-global scale modelled GPP. Here, we use monthly 0.5° GOME-2 SIF data from 2007 to 2011 to optimise GPP parameters of the ORCHIDEE TBM...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mónica J B Amorim, Sijie Lin, Karsten Schlich, José M Navas, Andrea Brunelli, Nicole Neubauer, Klaus Vilsmeier, Anna L Costa, Andreas Gondikas, Tian Xia, Liliana Galbis, Elena Badetti, Antonio Marcomini, Danail Hristozov, Frank von der Kammer, Kerstin Hund-Rinke, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, André Nel, Wendel Wohlleben
Nanoenabled products (NEPs) have numerous outdoor uses in construction, transportation or consumer scenarios, and there is evidence that their fragments are released in the environment at low rates. We hypothesized that the lower surface availability of NEPs fragment reduced their environmental effects with respect to pristine nanomaterials. This hypothesis was explored by testing fragments generated by intentional micronisation ("the SUN approach"; Nowack et al. Meeting the Needs for Released Nanomaterials Required for Further Testing: The SUN Approach...
January 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mojtaba Fakhraee, Sean A Crowe, Sergei Katsev
Abrupt disappearance of mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) from the geologic record and an apparent ingrowth in seawater sulfate around 2.45 billion years ago (Ga) signal the first large-scale oxygenation of the atmosphere [the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE)]. Pre-GOE O2 production is evident from multiple other terrestrial and marine proxies, but oceanic O2 concentrations remain poorly constrained. Furthermore, current interpretations of S isotope records do not explain a concurrent expansion in the range of both MIF-S-diagnostic for low atmospheric O2-and δ34S beginning at 2...
January 2018: Science Advances
Juliana Lebeau, Mekala Venkatachalam, Mireille Fouillaud, Thomas Petit, Francesco Vinale, Laurent Dufossé, Yanis Caro
The use of ascomycetous fungi as pigment producers opens the way to an alternative to synthetic dyes, especially in the red-dye industries, which have very few natural pigment alternatives. The present paper aimed to bio-prospect and screen out 15 selected ascomycetous fungal strains, originating from terrestrial and marine habitats belonging to seven different genera (Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Dreschlera, and Paecilomyces). We identified four strains, Penicillium purpurogenum rubisclerotium, Fusarium oxysporum, marine strains identified as Talaromyces spp...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"