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Terrestrial productivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822891/comparative-toxicity-of-the-plasticizer-dibutyl-phthalate-to-two-freshwater-algae
#1
Shurui Gu, Hao Zheng, Qingqing Xu, Cuizhu Sun, Mei Shi, Zhenyu Wang, Fengmin Li
Phthalate esters (PAEs), a family of emerging environmental contaminants, have been frequently detected in soils and water. However, intensive studies on the toxicity of PAEs have focused on growth response of terrestrial and aquatic animals, while only limited attention has been paid to aquatic plants, especially phytoplankton, the primary producer in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the acute toxic effects and underlying mechanisms of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at different concentrations (0-20mgL(-1)) on two typical freshwater algae (Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were investigated...
August 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821807/sulfate-reduction-in-sediments-produces-high-levels-of-chromophoric-dissolved-organic-matter
#2
Jenna L Luek, Kaitlyn E Thompson, Randolph K Larsen, Andrew Heyes, Michael Gonsior
Sulfate reduction plays an important role in altering dissolved organic matter (DOM) in estuarine and coastal sediments, although its role in the production of optically active chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and a subset of fluorescent DOM (FDOM) has not been previously investigated in detail. Freshwater sediment slurries were incubated anaerobically with added sulfate and acetate to promote sulfate-reducing bacteria. Ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) absorbance and 3-dimensional excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra were measured over a five weeks anaerobic dark incubation period...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821550/crystal-structure-of-the-tetr-family-repressor-alkx-from-dietzia-sp-dq12-45-1b-implicated-in-biodegradation-of-n-alkanes
#3
Jie-Liang Liang, Yuan Gao, Zheng He, Yong Nie, Meng Wang, Jing-Hong JiangYang, Xuejun C Zhang, Wen-Sheng Shu, Xiao-Lei Wu
n-Alkanes are ubiquitous in nature and are widely used by microorganisms as carbon sources. Alkane hydroxylation by alkane monooxygenases is a critical step in the aerobic biodegradation of n-alkanes, which plays important roles in natural alkane attenuation and is used in industrial and environmental applications. The alkane oxidation operon, alkW1-alkX, in an alkane-degrading strain Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b, is negatively auto-regulated by the TetR family repressor, AlkX, via a product positive feedback mechanism...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819498/why-regulatory-indifference-towards-pharmaceutical-pollution-of-the-environment-could-be-a-missed-opportunity-in-public-health-protection-a-holistic-view
#4
Pakoyo Fadhiru Kamba, Bruhan Kaggwa, Edson Ireeta Munanura, Tom Okurut, Freddy Eric Kitutu
The last generation has witnessed bludgeoning of the world's population, a spike in disease burden, and unprecedented levels of pharmaceutical consumption and production. Unfortunately, pharmaceuticals have left their industrial and household confines and leaked into the environment. Pharmaceuticals are now major environmental pollutants, and are ubiquitous in waters and soils. Unlike other environmental contaminants, pharmaceutical pollutants are not yet regulated globally, simply because acute risk assessments show insignificant human health hazard...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819173/disentangling-the-coupling-between-sea-ice-and-tundra-productivity-in-svalbard
#5
Marc Macias-Fauria, Stein Rune Karlsen, Bruce C Forbes
The rapid decline in Arctic sea ice poses urgent questions concerning its ecological effects, such as on tundra terrestrial productivity. However, reported sea ice/terrestrial productivity linkages have seldom been constrained, and the mechanism governing them remains elusive, with a diversity of spatial scales and metrics proposed, at times in contradiction to each other. In this study, we use spatially explicit remotely sensed sea ice concentration and high-resolution terrestrial productivity estimates (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) across the Svalbard Archipelago to describe local/sub-regional and large-scale components of sea ice/terrestrial productivity coupling...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819099/the-genetic-basis-of-natural-variation-in-a-phoretic-behavior
#6
Daehan Lee, Heeseung Yang, Jun Kim, Shannon Brady, Stefan Zdraljevic, Mostafa Zamanian, Heekyeong Kim, Young-Ki Paik, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C Andersen, Junho Lee
Phoresy is a widespread form of commensalism that facilitates dispersal of one species through an association with a more mobile second species. Dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a phoretic behavior called nictation, which could enable interactions with animals such as isopods or snails. Here, we show that natural C. elegans isolates differ in nictation. We use quantitative behavioral assays and linkage mapping to identify a genetic locus (nict-1) that mediates the phoretic interaction with terrestrial isopods...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814651/n2-fixing-tropical-legume-evolution-a-contributor-to-enhanced-weathering-through-the-cenozoic
#7
REVIEW
Dimitar Z Epihov, Sarah A Batterman, Lars O Hedin, Jonathan R Leake, Lisa M Smith, David J Beerling
Fossil and phylogenetic evidence indicates legume-rich modern tropical forests replaced Late Cretaceous palm-dominated tropical forests across four continents during the early Cenozoic (58-42 Ma). Tropical legume trees can transform ecosystems via their ability to fix dinitrogen (N2) and higher leaf N compared with non-legumes (35-65%), but it is unclear how their evolutionary rise contributed to silicate weathering, the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Here we hypothesize that the increasing abundance of N2-fixing legumes in tropical forests amplified silicate weathering rates by increased input of fixed nitrogen (N) to terrestrial ecosystems via interrelated mechanisms including increasing microbial respiration and soil acidification, and stimulating forest net primary productivity...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811477/deep-carbon-storage-potential-of-buried-floodplain-soils
#8
Amanda H D'Elia, Garrett C Liles, Joshua H Viers, David R Smart
Soils account for the largest terrestrial pool of carbon and have the potential for even greater quantities of carbon sequestration. Typical soil carbon (C) stocks used in global carbon models only account for the upper 1 meter of soil. Previously unaccounted for deep carbon pools (>1 m) were generally considered to provide a negligible input to total C contents and represent less dynamic C pools. Here we assess deep soil C pools associated with an alluvial floodplain ecosystem transitioning from agricultural production to restoration of native vegetation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809452/neurotoxin-synthesis-is-positively-regulated-by-the-sporulation-transcription-factor-spo0a-in-clostridium-botulinum-type-e
#9
Gerald Mascher, Anna Mertaoja, Hannu Korkeala, Miia Lindström
Clostridium botulinum produces the most potent natural toxin, the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), probably to create anaerobiosis and nutrients by killing the host, and forms endospores that facilitate survival in harsh conditions and transmission. Peak BoNT production coincides with initiation of sporulation in C. botulinum cultures, which suggests common regulation. Here we show that Spo0A, the master regulator of sporulation, positively regulates BoNT production. Insertional inactivation of spo0A in C. botulinum type E strain Beluga resulted in significantly reduced BoNT production and in abolished or highly reduced sporulation in relation to wild-type controls...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806580/the-eco-toxic-effects-of-pesticide-and-heavy-metal-mixtures-towards-earthworms-in-soil
#10
REVIEW
Herman Uwizeyimana, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Kifayatullah Khan
Earthworms are the key soil organisms, contribute to many positive ecological services that could be degraded by pesticides and other soil pollutants such as heavy metals. Chemicals usually occur as mixtures in the environmental systems which can lead synergistic effects. The assessment and characterization of soil pollutants that effects risks are very difficult due to the complexity of soil matrix, poor understanding about the fate and effects of chemical combinations like pesticide and metal mixtures in terrestrial systems, and scarcity of toxicological data on mixtures of pollutants...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806547/environmental-life-cycle-assessment-of-seafood-production-a-case-study-of-trawler-catches-in-tunisia
#11
Khaled Abdou, Didier Gascuel, Joël Aubin, Mohamed Salah Romdhane, Frida Ben Rais Lasram, François Le Loc'h
The Gulf of Gabes is one of the most productive fishery areas in the southern Mediterranean Sea. It is archetypal of an ecosystem in which the effects of fisheries are most pronounced. Demersal trawling is the main fishing activity in the Gulf of Gabes. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental performance landing 1t of seafood with wooden demersal trawlers in the Gulf of Gabes. Impact categories included in the study were abiotic depletion potential (ADP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), photochemical oxidant formation potential (POFP), human toxicity potential (HTP), marine eco-toxicity potential (METP), terrestrial eco-toxicity potential (TETP), land occupation potential (LOP), and total cumulative energy demand (TCED)...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805714/does-osmotic-stress-affect-natural-product-expression-in-fungi
#12
David Overy, Hebelin Correa, Catherine Roullier, Wei-Chiung Chi, Ka-Lai Pang, Mostafa Rateb, Rainer Ebel, Zhuo Shang, Rob Capon, Gerald Bills, Russell Kerr
The discovery of new natural products from fungi isolated from the marine environment has increased dramatically over the last few decades, leading to the identification of over 1000 new metabolites. However, most of the reported marine-derived species appear to be terrestrial in origin yet at the same time, facultatively halo- or osmotolerant. An unanswered question regarding the apparent chemical productivity of marine-derived fungi is whether the common practice of fermenting strains in seawater contributes to enhanced secondary metabolism? To answer this question, a terrestrial isolate of Aspergillus aculeatus was fermented in osmotic and saline stress conditions in parallel across multiple sites...
August 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804804/life-cycle-environmental-impacts-of-bioethanol-production-from-sugarcane-molasses-in-iran
#13
Saeid Shahvarooghi Farahani, Mohammad Amin Asoodar
In recent years, bioethanol from sugarcane molasses has been produced on an industrial scale in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate molasses-based bioethanol production from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from Debel Khazai agro-industry situated in southern region of Iran by using face-to-face interviews and annual statistics of 2010 to 2016 (6-year life cycle of sugarcane cultivation). Ten impact categories including abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone layer depletion (OLD), human toxicity (HT), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), and photochemical oxidation (PO) were selected based on CML methodology...
August 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798731/mechanisms-and-regulation-of-extracellular-dna-release-and-its-biological-roles-in-microbial-communities
#14
REVIEW
Alejandra L Ibáñez de Aldecoa, Olga Zafra, José E González-Pastor
The capacity to release genetic material into the extracellular medium has been reported in cultures of numerous species of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, and also in the context of multicellular microbial communities such as biofilms. Moreover, extracellular DNA (eDNA) of microbial origin is widespread in natural aquatic and terrestrial environments. Different specific mechanisms are involved in eDNA release, such as autolysis and active secretion, as well as through its association with membrane vesicles. It is noteworthy that in microorganisms, in which DNA release has been studied in detail, the production of eDNA is coordinated by the population when it reaches a certain cell density, and is induced in a subpopulation in response to the accumulation of quorum sensing signals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798386/centennial-scale-reductions-in-nitrogen-availability-in-temperate-forests-of-the-united-states
#15
K K McLauchlan, L M Gerhart, J J Battles, J M Craine, A J Elmore, P E Higuera, M C Mack, B E McNeil, D M Nelson, N Pederson, S S Perakis
Forests cover 30% of the terrestrial Earth surface and are a major component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Humans have doubled the amount of global reactive nitrogen (N), increasing deposition of N onto forests worldwide. However, other global changes-especially climate change and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations-are increasing demand for N, the element limiting primary productivity in temperate forests, which could be reducing N availability. To determine the long-term, integrated effects of global changes on forest N cycling, we measured stable N isotopes in wood, a proxy for N supply relative to demand, on large spatial and temporal scales across the continental U...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796829/new-data-on-weddell-seal-leptonychotes-weddellii-colonies-a-genetic-analysis-of-a-top-predator-from-the-ross-sea-antarctica
#16
Ighor Antunes Zappes, Anna Fabiani, Valerio Sbordoni, Arnold Rakaj, Roberto Palozzi, Giuliana Allegrucci
In this paper, we studied the genetic variability in Weddell seal from colonies in Terra Nova Bay and Wood Bay, both sites located in the Ross Sea area, Antarctica. Two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene, with different mutation rates, were sequenced to investigate the haplotype diversity of the colonies and to test for a possible recent expansion. Fifteen microsatellites were used to analyze their genetic structure. Sequenced genes and microsatellites were also used to estimate the effective population size of the studied colonies and the Ross Sea seal population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793406/uptake-and-transformations-of-engineered-nanomaterials-critical-responses-observed-in-terrestrial-plants-and-the-model-plant-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
REVIEW
Angelina Montes, Mary A Bisson, Joseph A Gardella, Diana S Aga
With the applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continually expanding and production quickly growing, residues of ENMs will end up in the environment at levels that may be harmful to non-target organisms. Many of the tunable properties that have made them desirable, such as type, size, charge, or coating, also contribute to the current difficulties in understanding the fate of ENMs in the environment. This review article focuses on studies that investigate plant-ENM interactions, including techniques used to study these interactions and documented plant responses due to the phytotoxic effects of ENMs...
August 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792049/a-synthetic-dodecanolide-library-for-the-identification-of-putative-semiochemicals-emitted-by-mantellid-frogs
#18
Pardha Saradhi Peram, Miguel Vences, Stefan Schulz
Aliphatic macrolides are used by various organisms as semiochemicals or pheromones, e.g. by the endemic Madagascan frog family Mantellinae. Volatile, methyl-branched aliphatic macrolides occur in various species, but their identification by MS is difficult, while isolation is not possible due to the low amounts produced. Therefore, we synthesized a library of methyl-branched 11-dodecanolides to identify unknown macrolides secreted by Gephyromantis moseri, a mantelline frog restricted to the rainforest and characterized by largely terrestrial habitats...
August 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777811/a-machine-learning-approach-to-estimation-of-downward-solar-radiation-from-satellite-derived-data-products-an-application-over-a-semi-arid-ecosystem-in-the-u-s
#19
Qingtao Zhou, Alejandro Flores, Nancy F Glenn, Reggie Walters, Bangshuai Han
Shortwave solar radiation is an important component of the surface energy balance and provides the principal source of energy for terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a machine learning approach in the form of a random forest (RF) model for estimating daily downward solar radiation flux at the land surface over complex terrain using MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) remote sensing data. The model-building technique makes use of a unique network of 16 solar flux measurements in the semi-arid Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory, in southwest Idaho, USA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774354/nematodes-that-associate-with-terrestrial-molluscs-as-definitive-hosts-including-phasmarhabditis-hermaphrodita-rhabditida-rhabditidae-and-its-development-as-a-biological-molluscicide
#20
A Pieterse, A P Malan, J L Ross
Terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are important economic pests worldwide, causing extensive damage to a variety of crop types, and posing a health risk to both humans and wildlife. Current knowledge indicates that there are eight nematode families that associate with molluscs as definitive hosts, including Agfidae, Alaninematidae, Alloionematidae, Angiostomatidae, Cosmocercidae, Diplogastridae, Mermithidae and Rhabditidae. To date, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider, 1859) Andrássy, 1983 (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) is the only nematode that has been developed as a biological molluscicide...
September 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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