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Terrestrial productivity

Lena Schulte-Uebbing, Wim de Vries
Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may increase net primary productivity in N-limited terrestrial ecosystems and thus enhance the terrestrial carbon (C) sink. To assess the magnitude of this N-induced C sink, we performed a meta-analysis on data from forest fertilization experiments to estimate N-induced C sequestration in aboveground tree woody biomass, a stable C pool with long turnover times. Our results show that boreal and temperate forests responded strongly to N addition and sequestered on average an additional 14 and 13 kg C per kg N in aboveground woody biomass, respectively...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
Jingyi Ru, Yaqiong Zhou, Dafeng Hui, Mengmei Zheng, Shiqiang Wan
Changing precipitation regimes could have profound influences on carbon (C) cycle in the biosphere. However, how soil C release from terrestrial ecosystems responds to changing seasonal distribution of precipitation remains unclear. A field experiment was conducted for 4 years (2013-2016) to examine effects of altered precipitation distributions in the growing season on soil respiration in a temperate steppe in the Mongolian Plateau. Over the 4 years, both advanced and delayed precipitation peaks suppressed soil respiration, and the reductions mainly occurred in August...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
Chikae Iwaoka, Shogo Imada, Takeshi Taniguchi, Sheng Du, Norikazu Yamanaka, Ryunosuke Tateno
Nitrogen (N) is one of the most common limiting nutrients for primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbes transform organic N into inorganic N, which is available to plants, but soil microbe activity in drylands is sometimes critically suppressed by environmental factors, such as low soil substrate availability or high salinity. Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) is a halophytic shrub species that is widely distributed in the drylands of China; it produces litter enriched in nutrients and salts that are thought to increase soil fertility and salinity under its crown...
October 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Mao-Chang Liang, Sasadhar Mahata, Amzad H Laskar, Mark H Thiemens, Sally Newman
The abundance variations of near surface atmospheric CO2 isotopologues (primarily (16)O(12)C(16)O, (16)O(13)C(16)O, (17)O(12)C(16)O, and (18)O(12)C(16)O) represent an integrated signal from anthropogenic/biogeochemical processes, including fossil fuel burning, biospheric photosynthesis and respiration, hydrospheric isotope exchange with water, and stratospheric photochemistry. Oxygen isotopes, in particular, are affected by the carbon and water cycles. Being a useful tracer that directly probes governing processes in CO2 biogeochemical cycles, Δ(17)O (=ln(1 + δ(17)O) - 0...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Y Sun, C Frankenberg, J D Wood, D S Schimel, M Jung, L Guanter, D T Drewry, M Verma, A Porcar-Castell, T J Griffis, L Gu, T S Magney, P Köhler, B Evans, K Yuen
Quantifying gross primary production (GPP) remains a major challenge in global carbon cycle research. Spaceborne monitoring of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), an integrative photosynthetic signal of molecular origin, can assist in terrestrial GPP monitoring. However, the extent to which SIF tracks spatiotemporal variations in GPP remains unresolved. Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)'s SIF data acquisition and fine spatial resolution permit direct validation against ground and airborne observations...
October 13, 2017: Science
A Eldering, P O Wennberg, D Crisp, D S Schimel, M R Gunson, A Chatterjee, J Liu, F M Schwandner, Y Sun, C W O'Dell, C Frankenberg, T Taylor, B Fisher, G B Osterman, D Wunch, J Hakkarainen, J Tamminen, B Weir
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission was motivated by the need to diagnose how the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is altering the productivity of the biosphere and the uptake of CO2 by the oceans. Launched on 2 July 2014, OCO-2 provides retrievals of the column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction ([Formula: see text]) as well as the fluorescence from chlorophyll in terrestrial plants. The seasonal pattern of uptake by the terrestrial biosphere is recorded in fluorescence and the drawdown of [Formula: see text] during summer...
October 13, 2017: Science
Esra Aleisa, Waleed Al-Zubari
Reuse of treated wastewater is not only environmentally and financially sound, it is becoming indispensable for meeting the staggering water demand in certain regions, especially under conditions of alarming water scarcity. Reusing treated wastewater will help in reducing the pressure on expensive desalinated water production and depleting groundwater withdrawal, thereby reducing associated harmful environmental impacts. Reuse of wastewater in general and in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in particular has been a priority research area and has been in the media spotlight for some time, especially the use of tertiary quality water resources for agricultural purposes...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xiaoyi Wang, Tao Wang, Hui Guo, Dan Liu, Yutong Zhao, Taotao Zhang, Qiang Liu, Shilong Piao
While seasonal snow is recognized as an important component in the global climate system, the ability of snow to affect plant production remains an important unknown for assessing climate-change impacts on vegetation dynamics at high-latitude ecosystems. Here we compile data on satellite observation of vegetation greenness and spring onset date, satellite-based soil moisture, passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) and climate data to show that winter SWE can significantly influence vegetation greenness during the early growing season (the period between spring onset date and peak photosynthesis timing) over nearly one-fifth of the land surface in the region north of 30 degrees, but the magnitude and sign of correlation exhibits large spatial heterogeneity...
October 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
José A Heredia-Guerrero, Antonio Heredia, Eva Domínguez, Roberto Cingolani, Ilker S Bayer, Athanassia Athanassiou, José J Benítez
Cutin is the main component of plant cuticles constituting the framework that supports the rest of the cuticle components. This biopolymer is composed of esterified bi- and trifunctional fatty acids. Despite its ubiquity in terrestrial plants, it has been underutilized as raw material due to its insolubility and lack of melting point. However, in recent years, a few technologies have been developed to obtain cutin monomers from several agro-wastes at an industrial scale. This review is focused on the description of cutin properties, biodegradability, chemical composition, processability, abundance, and the state of art of the fabrication of cutin-based materials in order to evaluate whether this biopolymer can be considered a source for the production of renewable materials...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Justin B Richardson, Chelsea L Petrenko, Andrew J Friedland
Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed pollutant trace metal that has been increasing in terrestrial environments due to rising anthropogenic emissions. Vegetation plays an important role in Hg sequestration in forested environments, but increasing tree removal for biofuels and wood products may affect this process. The long-term effect of clear-cutting on forest soil Hg remains uncertain, since most studies are limited to measuring changes for < 10 years following a single harvest event. The chronosequence approach, which substitutes space for time using forest stands of different ages since clear-cutting, allows for investigation of processes occurring over decades to centuries...
October 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yan Sun, Shushi Peng, Daniel S Goll, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, Matthieu Guimberteau, Philippe Hinsinger, Ivan A Janssens, Josep Peñuelas, Shilong Piao, Benjamin Poulter, Aurélie Violette, Xiaojuan Yang, Yi Yin, Hui Zeng
Most of the Earth System Models (ESMs) project increases in net primary productivity (NPP) and terrestrial carbon (C) storage during the 21st century. Despite empirical evidence that limited availability of phosphorus (P) may limit the response of NPP to increasing atmospheric CO2, none of the ESMs used in the previous Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment accounted for P limitation. We diagnosed from ESM simulations the amount of P need to support increases in carbon uptake by natural ecosystems using two approaches: the demand derived from (1) changes in C stocks and (2) changes in NPP...
July 2017: Earth's Future
Alexander Broberg Skeltved, Nikolai Østgaard, Andrew Mezentsev, Nikolai Lehtinen, Brant Carlson
Several computer models exist to explain the observation of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). Some of these models estimate the electric field ahead of lightning leaders and its effects on electron acceleration and multiplication. In this paper, we derive a new set of constraints to do more realistic modeling. We determine initial conditions based on in situ measurements of electric field and vertical separation between the main charge layers of thunderclouds. A maximum electric field strength of 50 kV/cm at sea level is introduced as the upper constraint for the leader electric field...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Vidya Suseela, Nishanth Tharayil
Decomposition of plant litter is a fundamental ecosystem process that can act as a feedback to climate change by simultaneously influencing both the productivity of ecosystems and the flux of carbon dioxide from the soil. The influence of climate on decomposition from a post-senescence perspective is relatively well known; in particular, climate is known to regulate the rate of litter decomposition via its direct influence on the reaction kinetics and microbial physiology on processes downstream of tissue senescence...
October 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
Shaokang Zhang, Jian-Guo Huang, Sergio Rossi, Qianqian Ma, Biyun Yu, Lihong Zhai, Dawei Luo, Xiali Guo, Shenglei Fu, Wei Zhang, Roberto Tognetti
In recent decades, anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) deposition in terrestrial ecosystems. This higher availability of N is expected to impact plant growth. However, the effects of N deposition on tree growth remain inconclusive due to the wide variability of experimental methods used. This study aimed to test the effect of short-term N addition on the intra-annual wood formation of Chinese red pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) in a warm-temperate forest of Central China. From 2013, solution containing 25 kg N ha-1 year-1 was applied monthly to the understory of experimental plots from April to December to double the current natural N deposition...
June 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
Jennifer W Harden, Gustaf Hugelius, Anders Ahlström, Joseph C Blankinship, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Corey R Lawrence, Julie Loisel, Avni Malhotra, Robert B Jackson, Stephen Ogle, Claire Phillips, Rebecca Ryals, Katherine Todd-Brown, Rodrigo Vargas, Sintana E Vergara, M Francesca Cotrufo, Marco Keiluweit, Katherine A Heckman, Susan E Crow, Whendee L Silver, Marcia DeLonge, Lucas E Nave
Soil organic matter (SOM) supports the Earth's ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retains the largest pool of actively cycling carbon. Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance...
October 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
Ricky W Lewis, Jason Unrine, Paul M Bertsch, David H McNear
Metal containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications. Many of these materials can be transformed during waste water treatment and ultimately enter terrestrial ecosystems via agriculturally applied biosolids. It is unclear how agriculturally important soil microbes will be affected by exposure to environmentally relevant, sublethal concentrations of ENMs and their transformation products (i.e., ions, aggregates, etc.). A method was developed, which puts O2 consumption responses in terms of viability, and tested by examining the toxic effects of Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+) ions on the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03...
October 4, 2017: Biointerphases
Yunhe Yin, Haoyu Deng, Shaohong Wu
Vegetation growth and phenology are largely regulated by base temperature (T b) and thermal accumulation. Hence, the growing degree-days (GDD) and growing season (GS) calculated based on T b have primary effects on terrestrial ecosystems, and could be changed by the significant warming during the last century. By choosing 0, 5, and 10 °C, three key T b for vegetation growth, the GDD and GS in China during 1960-2011 were developed based on 536 meteorological stations with homogenized daily mean temperatures...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Stefan Fox, Henry Strasdeit
The "Rare Earth" hypothesis-put forward by Ward and Brownlee in their 2000 book of the same title-states that prokaryote-type organisms may be common in the universe but animals and higher plants are exceedingly rare. If this idea is correct, the search for extraterrestrial life is essentially the search for microorganisms. Various indicators may be used to detect extant or extinct microbial life beyond Earth. Among them are chemical biosignatures, such as biomolecules and stable isotope ratios. The present minireview focuses on the major problems associated with the identification of chemical biosignatures...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhaoliang Song, Hongyan Liu, Caroline A E Strömberg, Hailong Wang, Peter James Strong, Xiaomin Yang, Yuntao Wu
During silicate weathering, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is consumed and base cations are released from silicate minerals to form carbonate and bicarbonate ions, which are finally deposited as carbonate complexes. Continental silicate weathering constitutes a stable carbon sink that is an important influence on long-term climate change, as it sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide at a million-year time scale. Traditionally, CO2 sequestered through silicate weathering is estimated by measuring the flux of the base cations to watersheds...
September 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Roberto G S Berlinck, Ariane F Bertonha, Mirelle Takaki, Julie P G Rodriguez
Covering: 2015 and 2016The chemistry and biology of natural guanidines isolated from microbial culture media, from marine invertebrates, as well as from terrestrial plants and animals, are reviewed. Emphasis is directed to the biosynthesis, total synthesis, ecological roles as well as on the evolution of guanidines isolated from natural sources.
October 2, 2017: Natural Product Reports
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